VISIT TO LEBANON - REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTREME POVERTY AND HUMAN RIGHTS, OLIVIER DE SCHUTTER
They include devising an economic recovery plan centred on social justice by
acknowledging and distributing the Banque du Liban losses fairly and transparently;
increasing and improving spending on social protection and public services as key
investments in the country’s future; addressing wealth inequality by reforming the tax system
for a better redistributive impact and less fraud and avoidance; and reforming the electricity
sector to ingrain transparency and fair pricing systems.
(...) Despite the obvious pilfering of national wealth, no assessment was ever made of the
impact on different groups in society of BDL decisions regarding interest and exchange rates,
a key precondition for ensuring the compliance of monetary policy with international human
rights. (...) (July 2020), p. 2.
67 Ibid., pp. 2–3.
68 Jad Chaaban, “I’ve got the power: mapping connections between Lebanon’s banking sector and the
ruling class” (2016), p. 3.
69 Ibid., p. 4.
70 ESCWA, “Wealth distribution and poverty impact of COVID-19 in Lebanon” (July 2020), p. 13.
71 Lydia Assouad, “Lebanon’s political economy: from predatory to self-devouring”, Carnegie Middle
East Center (2021).
72 Lydia Assouad, “Rethinking the Lebanese economic miracle: the extreme concentration of income
and wealth in Lebanon, 2005–2014” (2021), p. 12.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTREME POVERTY AND HUMAN RIGHTS ON HIS MISSION TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The United States has one of the highest poverty and inequality levels
among the OECD countries, and the Stanford Center on Inequality and Poverty ranks it
18th out of 21 wealthy countries in terms of labour markets, poverty rates, safety nets,
wealth inequality and economic mobility. But in 2018 the United States had over 25 per
cent of the world’s 2,208 billionaires.6 There is thus a dramatic contrast between the
immense wealth of the few and the squalor and deprivation in which vast numbers of
Americans exist. (...) In 2016 they owned 38.6 per cent of total wealth. In relation to both
wealth and income the share of the bottom 90 per cent has fallen in most of the past 25
years.9 The tax reform will worsen this situation and ensure that the United States remains
the most unequal society in the developed world. (...) Many of the wealthiest
citizens do not pay taxes at the rates that others do, hoard much of their wealth offshore and
often make their profits purely from speculation rather than contributing to the overall
wealth of the American community.
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DEBT AND OTHER RELATED INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS OF STATES ON THE FULL ENJOYMENT OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, PARTICULARLY ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS ON HIS MISSION TO PANAMA : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
According to 2015 estimates, there are between US$ 24 trillion and US$ 36 trillion in
unrecorded private wealth invested offshore.15 It has been estimated that the relative amount
of wealth from developing countries held abroad is much greater than that held from
developed countries, ranging from 20 to 30 per cent in many African and Latin American
countries. In terms of the greatly unequal ownership of offshore wealth, it has been estimated
that 85 to 90 per cent of wealth belongs to fewer than 10 million people, just 0.014 per cent of
the world’s population.16 Another study has concluded that the probability that assets will be
hidden rises very sharply with wealth, including within the very top groups. As a result,
offshore wealth turns out to be extremely concentrated. By the authors’ estimate, the
wealthiest 0.01 per cent of the population owns about 50 per cent of wealth.17
LETTER DATED 8 FEBRUARY 2005 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SUDAN TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Power Sharing ............................................................................
Wealth Sharing ..........................................................................
(...) Jan Pronk
Special the Secretary General in the Sudan
THE MACHAKOS PROTOCOL
SIGNED AT MACHAKOS, KENYA ON 20TH JULY, 2002
THE PREAMBLE, PRINCIPLES, AND THE TRANSITION PROCESS
WHEREAS the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People’s
Liberation MovemendSudan People’s Liberation Army (hereafter referred to as the
Parties) having met in Machakos, Kenya, from 18th June, 2002 through 20th July, 2002;
WHEREAS the Parties are desirous of resolving the Sudan Conflict in a just and
sustainable manner by addressing the root causes of the canflict and by establishing a
framework for governance through which power and wealth shall be equitably shared
and human rights guaranteed; and
MINDFUL that the conflict in the Sudan is the longest running conflict in Africa, that it
has caused horrendous loss of life and destroyed the infrastructure of the country, wasted
economic resources, and has caused untold suffering, particularly with regard to the
people of South Sudan; and
SENSITIVE to historical injustices and inequalities in development between the
different regions of the Sudan that need to be redressed; and
RECOGNIZING that the present moment offers a window of opportunity to reach a
just peace agreement to end the war; and
CONVINCED that the rejuvenated IGAD peace process under the chairmanship of the
Kenyan President, H.E. (...) This
Constitution shall regulate the relations and allocate the powers and
functions between the different levels of government as well as prescribe
the wealth sharing arrangements between the same. The National
Constitution shall guarantee freedom of belief, worship and religious
practice in fidl to all Sudanese citizens.
3.1.2 A representative National Constitutional Review Commission (NCRC)
shall be established during the Pre-Transition Period which shall have as
its first task the drafting of a Legal and Constitutional Framework to
govern the Interim Period and which incorporates the Peace Agreement.
3.1.3 The Framework mentioned above shall be adopted as shall be agreed
upon by the Parties.
3.1.4 During the Interim Period an inclusive Constitutional Review Process
shall be undertaken.
3.1.5 The Constitution shall not be amended or repealed except by way of
special procedures and qualified majorities in order that the provisions of
the Peace Agreement are protected.
3.2 National Government
3.2.1 There shall be .a National Government which shall exercise such
functions and pass such laws as must necessarily be exercised by a
sovereign state at national level.
NOTE VERBALE DATED 2006/09/26 FROM THE PERMANENT MISSION OF THE SUDAN TO THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT GENEVA ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARIAT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
The strategic objective is the effective and full implementation of the Darfur
Peace Agreement, which provides for sharing of power and wealth, a comprehensive
ceasefire, final security arrangements and Darfur-Darfur dialogue, aimed at creating
stability and security, fully normalizing life in Darfur by the second half of this year,
and continuing efforts to strengthen and maintain peace.
(...) A meeting of government representatives from the CCG was held to discuss
aspects of the wealth-sharing arrangement envisaged in the Agreement, together with
a plan of action for the Wealth-Sharing Committee. (...) Implementation timetable on wealth-sharing (six-month relief plan)
Subject area Plan/activity Executing agency Time frame
(a) Identify Darfur’s
needs in terms of
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES' PERMANENT SOVEREIGNTY OVER NATURAL RESOURCES : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR, ERICA-IRENE A. DAES, SUBMITTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUB-COMMISSION RESOLUTION 2002/15
Every State has and shall freely exercise full permanent sovereignty, including
possession, use and disposal, over all its wealth, natural resources, and economic activities.
“1. (...) All peoples shall freely dispose of their wealth and natural resources. This right
shall be exercised in the exclusive interest of the people. (...) States parties to the present Charter shall individually and collectively exercise
the right to free disposal of their wealth and natural resources with a view to strengthening
African unity and solidarity
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT TO FOOD, JEAN ZIEGLER : ADDENDUM
Although Bolivia has vast natural wealth from mineral and energy resources, the majority
of the population is still extremely poor. (...) Much of the
Spanish empire’s wealth was financed by Bolivia’s rich deposits of silver and tin, mined by
indigenous people forced to work as slaves. (...) Bolivia’s wealth of mineral resources includes silver, tin, zinc, tungsten, antimony, iron
and gold, as well as oil and natural gas.
VISIT TO THE PLURINATIONAL STATE OF BOLIVIA : REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE EFFECTS OF FOREIGN DEBT AND OTHER RELATED INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS OF STATES ON THE FULL ENJOYMENT OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, PARTICULARLY ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS
There is effectively no wealth or personal income tax in the
State, apart from limited taxes on real estates and cars at a municipal level. A lack of
personal income or wealth taxes is surprising, given the philosophical and economic
rationale of the 2009 Constitution. (...) If tax policy is to promote the
redistribution of wealth and reduce inequality, a variety of tax reform measures should be
considered, including: taxing higher-income categories and wealth more strongly; taxing
certain financial transactions; shoring up the tax base; and enhancing tax collection, the
efficiency of the tax administration and the fight against tax evasion and avoidance (ibid.,
49 Figures provided by the National Tax Service (on file).
VISIT TO NEPAL - REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTREME POVERTY AND HUMAN RIGHTS, OLIVIER DE SCHUTTER
Among women in the lowest wealth quintile, 90.1 per cent report
facing at least one obstacle when accessing health care. (...) Child labour is the result of poverty. When household wealth increases, the probability
of child labour decreases. In the lowest quintile of the wealth distribution, one quarter of
children work compared to 5 per cent in the top quintile.
EXTREME POVERTY AND HUMAN RIGHTS :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
73 François Bourguignon, “Spreading the wealth”，《金融与发展》，第 55卷，第 1期(2018年 3月)；
另见经合组织，“同舟共济”，第 69 页(见脚注 44)。 (...) 100 Laura Feiveson和 John Sabelhaus，“How does intergenerational wealth transmission affect wealth
concentration”，联邦储备系统管理委员会(2018年 6月 1日)。
(...) 102 Brian Nolan等人，“The Wealth of Families: The Intergenerational Transmission of Wealth in Britain
in Comparative Perspective”，《纳菲尔德基金会报告》(2020年)，第 51页。