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   Previous research has documented widespread postponing in  South Africa and lengthening of birth intervals elsewhere in  Southern Africa Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Birth intervals in Africa  Here we present the results of ongoing work that seeks to  provide a more nuanced narrative of fertility decline in sub‐ Saharan Africa   We look at the changing hazards of women closing birth intervals over  time and associate these with changes in the proximate determinants  of birth interval length  We also demonstrate how additional insights into the future pace of  the African fertility decline can be derived from the dynamics of child  spacing and family formation. Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Proximate determinants of birth interval length While the proximate determinants of birth interval length are  mostly the same as those governing fertility, neither  termination of pregnancy nor extended periods of  breastfeeding and/or postpartum abstinence can plausibly  account for a significant lengthening of birth intervals  The principal determinants underlying a substantial  lengthening of birth intervals must be  1. increased use of (modern) contraception and/or  2. changes in marriage patterns We examine the relative effects of marriage and  contraceptive use on trends in birth intervals across sub‐ Saharan Africa Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Data and methods  Data from 66 DHS s from 25 countries  Single event‐exposure file constructed for each country,  analytical time defined in terms of segments of time since last  birth  Piecewise log‐rate hazard models fitted to the data,  examination of gross and net effects  Hazards converted into life tables, and median birth intervals  used as a summary measure  Results compared with those produced applying the Brass‐Juárez  technique  Full description of the model fitted, as well as the controlling for selection effects, in Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus (2009) Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Covariates  To remove selectivity, we control for  Birth order of index child  Mother’s age at start of each interval segment (time‐varying)  Secular time at start of each interval segment  Proximate determinants  Ever married at birth of index child  Ever used modern contraception at birth of index child • DHS question asks women about living children at first use, which  may not equal parity if the mother has dead children  To capture possible postponing effects, we allow interaction  between contraceptive use and secular time, and duration  and duration‐squared since last birth Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Results : Gross effects  Period median birth intervals correspond extremely well with  results from Aoun’s extension of the Brass‐Juárez method to  projected (cohort) median birth intervals  Strong validation of the results from the earlier method  Birth intervals in Southern Africa have increased dramatically  over time, especially in South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho and  Zimbabwe.  (...) Senegal, Benin, Nigeria • Spacing – Mali, Niger, Burkina, Cote  d’Ivoire, Rwanda, Burundi,  Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi,  Mozambique, Zimbabwe • Postponing – Chad, Cameroon, C.A.R,  Uganda, Namibia, Lesotho,  South Africa Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting An African fertility transition  In countries where birth intervals have lengthened  substantially, use of contraception has been the principal  contributor  In the overwhelming majority of countries studied, hazards of  closing a birth interval suggests that family size limitation is not the principal reason for using contraception  Instead, as Caldwell suggested, women use contraception as a means  to implement desired child spacing preferences, or to postpone births  Moreover, in almost every country, both cohort and parity  are very poor predictors of birth interval length  Unlike that observed in moderate‐high fertility countries in South‐East  Asia Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Birth intervals by cohort and parity Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Namibia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Uganda 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Ghana 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Niger Birth intervals by cohort and parity • By contrast, the fertility  decline in the Philippines  has been characterised by  clear fertility limitation, and  parity‐specific birth  intervals • This pattern is repeated  across many countries in  South‐East Asia Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Philippines Conclusions – Substantive  Fertility decline in Africa is following a very different path  compared with other parts of the world  Birth intervals are lengthening at all ages and parities  The lengthening of birth intervals is being achieved largely by  use of contraception  Marriage is not a good predictor of the trend in birth intervals  Very little evidence of parity‐specific family size limitation  except possibly in Ghana, Togo, Kenya and Ethiopia  Still uncertain whether the South African‐Namibian pattern is  sui generis, or they are in the vanguard of an African pattern  of transition that is emerging elsewhere in the region Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Implications for fertility decline in Africa  Confirmation of the Caldwell hypothesis  Contraception is being used  principally to space rather than to limit  births  Fertility decline is happening at all ages and parities simultaneously,  unlike in other parts of the developing world  Postponement of births, as distinct from spacing, matters in some  settings – especially in Southern Africa  Sustained and rapid fertility decline in sub‐Saharan Africa is  most likely to come about through increased contraceptive  use, specifically to limit fertility  On present indications, this appears possible in only a handful of  African countries.
Language:English
Score: 1130099.4 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...s/pdf/expert/15.5/Moultrie.pdf
Data Source: un
If the quantity of the contents is large, is it ok to lengthen the format of those pages? A: Yes, according to the quantity of the contents, you could lengthen the form of project performance and main project details to make it more understandable if necessary.
Language:English
Score: 1109151.8 - https://en.unesco.org/creative...lt/files/5_2020hcda_faq_en.pdf
Data Source: un
This lengthening can be seen in vessels of classes IV and Va. (...) Vessel owners who have lengthened their ships will have done so taking into account a specific trade or to support their decision to lengthen their vessel and cannot only rely on the classification itself but need to ensure locks (and the entire waterways) will accommodate their length. 1. (...) The analysis found a significant number of vessels in these classes have been lengthened (“significant” in this context indicates that more than 1% of the total fleet have been lengthened).
Language:English
Score: 1034215.2 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...E-TRANS-SC.3-WP.3-2022-04e.pdf
Data Source: un
   Previous research has documented widespread postponing in  South Africa and lengthening of birth intervals elsewhere in  Southern Africa Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Birth intervals in Africa  Here we present the results of ongoing work that seeks to  provide a more nuanced narrative of fertility decline in sub‐ Saharan Africa   We look at the changing hazards of women closing birth intervals over  time and associate these with changes in the proximate determinants  of birth interval length  We also demonstrate how additional insights into the future pace of  the African fertility decline can be derived from the dynamics of child  spacing and family formation. Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Proximate determinants of birth interval length While the proximate determinants of birth interval length are  mostly the same as those governing fertility, neither  termination of pregnancy nor extended periods of  breastfeeding and/or postpartum abstinence can plausibly  account for a significant lengthening of birth intervals  The principal determinants underlying a substantial  lengthening of birth intervals must be  1. increased use of (modern) contraception and/or  2. changes in marriage patterns We examine the relative effects of marriage and  contraceptive use on trends in birth intervals across sub‐ Saharan Africa Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Data and methods  Data from 66 DHS s from 25 countries  Single event‐exposure file constructed for each country,  analytical time defined in terms of segments of time since last  birth  Piecewise log‐rate hazard models fitted to the data,  examination of gross and net effects  Hazards converted into life tables, and median birth intervals  used as a summary measure  Results compared with those produced applying the Brass‐Juárez  technique  Full description of the model fitted, as well as the controlling for selection effects, in Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus (2009) Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Covariates  To remove selectivity, we control for  Birth order of index child  Mother’s age at start of each interval segment (time‐varying)  Secular time at start of each interval segment  Proximate determinants  Ever married at birth of index child  Ever used modern contraception at birth of index child • DHS question asks women about living children at first use, which  may not equal parity if the mother has dead children  To capture possible postponing effects, we allow interaction  between contraceptive use and secular time, and duration  and duration‐squared since last birth Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Results : Gross effects  Period median birth intervals correspond extremely well with  results from Aoun’s extension of the Brass‐Juárez method to  projected (cohort) median birth intervals  Strong validation of the results from the earlier method  Birth intervals in Southern Africa have increased dramatically  over time, especially in South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho and  Zimbabwe.  (...) Senegal, Benin, Nigeria • Spacing – Mali, Niger, Burkina, Cote  d’Ivoire, Rwanda, Burundi,  Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi,  Mozambique, Zimbabwe • Postponing – Chad, Cameroon, C.A.R,  Uganda, Namibia, Lesotho,  South Africa Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting An African fertility transition  In countries where birth intervals have lengthened  substantially, use of contraception has been the principal  contributor  In the overwhelming majority of countries studied, hazards of  closing a birth interval suggests that family size limitation is not the principal reason for using contraception  Instead, as Caldwell suggested, women use contraception as a means  to implement desired child spacing preferences, or to postpone births  Moreover, in almost every country, both cohort and parity  are very poor predictors of birth interval length  Unlike that observed in moderate‐high fertility countries in South‐East  Asia Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Birth intervals by cohort and parity Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Namibia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Uganda 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Ghana 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Niger Birth intervals by cohort and parity • By contrast, the fertility  decline in the Philippines  has been characterised by  clear fertility limitation, and  parity‐specific birth  intervals • This pattern is repeated  across many countries in  South‐East Asia Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Philippines Conclusions – Substantive  Fertility decline in Africa is following a very different path  compared with other parts of the world  Birth intervals are lengthening at all ages and parities  The lengthening of birth intervals is being achieved largely by  use of contraception  Marriage is not a good predictor of the trend in birth intervals  Very little evidence of parity‐specific family size limitation  except possibly in Ghana, Togo, Kenya and Ethiopia  Still uncertain whether the South African‐Namibian pattern is  sui generis, or they are in the vanguard of an African pattern  of transition that is emerging elsewhere in the region Moultrie, Sayi and Timæus ‐ UN Expert Group Meeting Implications for fertility decline in Africa  Confirmation of the Caldwell hypothesis  Contraception is being used  principally to space rather than to limit  births  Fertility decline is happening at all ages and parities simultaneously,  unlike in other parts of the developing world  Postponement of births, as distinct from spacing, matters in some  settings – especially in Southern Africa  Sustained and rapid fertility decline in sub‐Saharan Africa is  most likely to come about through increased contraceptive  use, specifically to limit fertility  On present indications, this appears possible in only a handful of  African countries.
Language:English
Score: 1031663.7 - https://www.un.org/development...s/200912_unpd_egm_moultrie.pdf
Data Source: un
Start code prefixes for the picture level and above should be lengthened by one byte to become four bytes long (four bytes for picture level and above, three for slice level and for partitions of slices), and 2. (...) So our basic proposal is to lengthen some start codes and not others. Specifically, we lengthen the start codes at the picture level and above by one byte, so that the longer codes are the ones sent less frequently while still ensuring a sufficient frequency of long code transmission to enable synchronization recovery at the picture level and for other important data (such as parameter set data). (...) Encoders are also allowed to lengthen lower-level start codes if they wish, by simply adding a stuffing byte, which can enable even faster recovery.
Language:English
Score: 1031179.2 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...e/2002_05_Fairfax/JVT-C064.doc
Data Source: un
Without direct access to a sea or ocean and isolated from the world’s largest markets, LLDCs face specific trade bottlenecks, which increase trading costs, lengthen the time to process goods at the border and restrict the movement of goods across borders.
Language:English
Score: 1000583.3 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...cations_e/landlocked2021_e.htm
Data Source: un
Primary weed control practices include crop rotations (including lengthening typical rotations to include a fallow year), land levelling, seedbed preparation, water management, and rotary hoeing.
Language:English
Score: 982697.9 - https://www.fao.org/organicag/...s/orca-topics-rice-systems/en/
Data Source: un
While this may sometimes lengthen the procurement process, UNDP Bangladesh applies more flexible methods for low-value/low-risk purchasing, and approves purchase orders electronically, all of which save time and money for the organisation and its vendors.
Language:English
Score: 973992.7 - https://www.undp.org/bangladesh/procurement
Data Source: un
EURO-ASIAN TRANSPORT CORRIDORS / TRANSMITTED BY THE COMMITTEE OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN RAILWAYS (OSJD)
Bridge crossings will be built and station arrival and departure tracks will be lengthened to accommodate heavy-tonnage trains. Port-approach stations will be developed and built, routes electrified, automatic blocking systems introduced and the dispatching system for the corridor’s sections will be fitted with interlocking controls. 7. (...) Construction of second tracks (17.2 km), construction and renovation of passing loops Vladivostok 2007-2009 Development and modernization of stations serving the port of Vladivostok Nakhodka 2006 Development and modernization of stations serving the port of Nakhodka Komsomolsk marshalling yard-Vanino 2009-2010 Lengthening of tracks at Toki station ECE/TRANS/SC.2/2006/2/Add.1 page 4 Section (station) Period Action Branch 1a: Riga/Ventspils/Liepaja-Krustpils-Zilupe-Posin-Moskva Latvia Riga-Krustpils 2007-2009 Construction of second tracks (54 km) Tukums-Jelgava 2008-2009 Construction of passing loops at bottlenecks Krustpils-Rēzekne 2007 Construction of passing loops at bottlenecks Jelgava-Ventspils 2006-2007 Equip sections with automatic blocking systems Krustpils-Rēzekne 2008-2010 Equip segments with automatic blocking systems Rēzekne II 2006 Construction of a receiving yard (with electric interlocking) All sections 2006-2010* Track renovation Russian Federation Volokolamsk-Shakhovskaya 2010 Opening of the Bukholovo passing loop Branch 1b: Sankt-Peterburg/Tapa-Vologda-Kotelnich Russian Federation All sections 2006-2008 Measures to accommodate freight trains of 6,000-6,300 tonnes, 71 wagons long Luzhskaya 2006-2010* Construction of a new port approach station Sankt-Peterburg 2006-2010* Development of Sankt-Peterburg junction Gatchina-Veimarn-Ivangorod 2006-2010* Comprehensive upgrade Vologda junction 2006-2010 Upgrade Paprikha-Bui 2006-2010 Construction of second tracks Estonia Narva station 2006 Completion of renovation Junction stations 2006-2010 Lengthening of arrival-departure lines to 1,500 metres.
Language:English
Score: 960366.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...TRANS/SC.2/2006/2/ADD.1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
New insights on SDG 10.7.1: A Methodology for Measuring Recruitment Costs SDG 10.c.1: Reducing Remittance Costs Sixteenth Coordination Meeting on International Migration, Feb 15-16th 2018 Sonia Plaza, KNOMAD, World Bank Sustainable Development Goal 10.7 • SDG 10.7: By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent • SDG indicator 10.c.1: Remittance costs as a proportion of the amount remitted Exorbitant costs 7 % 9% 90% Global average Africa Venezuela 20 % Within Africa Remittance costs remain high in Sub-Saharan Africa 5.3 5.8 6.6 7.4 7.4 9.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 Percent Source: Remittance Prices Worldwide Q3 2017, the World Bank Global average 7.2% SDG target 3% by 2030 Remittance Cost indicator • Remittance Prices Worldwide monitors remittance prices across all regions • RPW started monitoring costs since 2008 • RPW covers 48 remittance sending countries and 105 receiving countries • 365 country corridors worldwide • Main RSPs: Banks, MTOs and Postal Offices 5 Sustainable Development Goal 17.3 • SDG 17.3: Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources • SDG indicator 17.3.2: Volume of remittances (in United States dollars) as a proportion of total GDP Remittances to low and middle income countries projected to reach $450 billion in 2017 Source: World Bank, October 2017 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 FDI ODA Private debt & portfoli o equity Remittances $ billion Top recipients of remittances $ billion, 2017p as % of GDP, 2017p Source: World Bank, October 2017 65.462.9 32.830.5 22.319.818.213.812.9 8.7 37.1 31.228.027.225.9 21.121.020.419.918.4 Remittances can be leveraged for accessing international capital markets • Remittances can improve country risk rating • As part of debt sustainability analysis • Future remittance inflows and diversified payment rights can be used as collateral to reduce borrowing costs and lengthen debt maturity Benefits and Risks Benefits • Remittance goes direct to the people • Can be mobilized for investments • Access to capital markets Risks • Reduction on ODA and other financial flows • Remittances are not substitute for aid or other financial flows 10 THANK YOU Dilip Ratha (Head of KNOMAD/WB), Sonia Plaza (co-chair diaspora, KNOMAD, WB) www.knomad.org http://www.ilo.org/ SDG 10.c.1: Reducing Remittance Costs Sustainable Development Goal 10.7 Exorbitant costs Remittance costs remain high in Sub-Saharan Africa Remittance Cost indicator Sustainable Development Goal 17.3 Slide Number 7 Top recipients of remittances Remittances can be leveraged for accessing international capital markets Benefits and Risks Slide Number 11
Language:English
Score: 940661.8 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...0-%20WB_Remittance%20Costs.pdf
Data Source: un