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. • The architecture selected for convergence must satisfy the business requirements before it meets the technical requirements • The architecture for collaboration must address the IT infrastructure, both what is already in place and what can be implemented in the future 3 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE Many drivers but perhaps the most significant is a vision of the future • Lower Cost • Simplified Provisioning • Easier Management • Less Maintenance • Fewer User Interfaces DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE • More Rapid Provisioning • Improved Service • New Services • Simplification of user’s Life 4 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE A brief review of each driver LOWER COST • If a new technology is to gain any recognition and market share, it must promise some savings- the more the better. DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE SIMPLIFIED PROVISIONING • Transport/Physical level - Allows a reduction in the number of cables to be laid • Switching level - Reduces the number of cable plants needed within a building • Application level - Only one medium e.g. the Internet is required to deliver content 5 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE EASIER MANAGEMENT • Separate networks means that managers have to coordinate data from multiple sources to determine service quality • Combination of multiple systems and Networks simplifies management of telecommunications services DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE LESS MAINTENANCE • Reduction in the number of cable plants required means a reduction in the maintenance required • Easier upgrades as demand grows and as the need to provision new services arise 6 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE FEWER USER INTERFACES • Use of a single cable plant with appropriate switching results into fewer separate user interfaces • Single type of of plug in the wall, which supplies raw bandwidth on demand • Reduction in costs for eqpmt manufacturers and savings passed on to consumers DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE MORE RAPID PROVISIONING • When existing cabling can carry new signals, provisioning is much faster • When existing cabling and switching can allow new services to be engineered and deployed without the need to add either cable or switching equipment, provisioning can be extremely fast 7 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE IMPROVED SERVICE • Service quality improves when fewer components are involved in provisioning and maintenance DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE NEW SERVICES • Design, implementation and provisioning of new services is faster • Use of IP as the common switching technology allows new telephone services to be deployed easily in VoIP networks • As more switching intelligence resides in user eqpmt, need for fixed services reduces in favour of guarantees on packet delivery 8 DRIVERS FOR CONVERGENCE SIMPLIFICATION OF USER’S LIFE • New technologies are hard to sell unless users can perceive tangible benefits • Users do not respond to “Technological elegance”, but to concrete improvements and documentable savings. • Converged solutions have foundered in the past because telcom executives did not view things through from the user’s standpoint TYPES OF CONVERGENCE • TRANSPORT • SWITCHING • APPLICATION • TELECOMMUNICATION/IT 9 TYPES OF CONVERGENCE TYPES OF CONVERGENCE CONVERGENCE PYRAMID- Four levels: • :Network convergence(transport) - LAN, WAN, Wired and Wireless transmission • IT infrastructure-Servers,workstations, etc. • Applications - Web servers and other forms of Input/output devices • User Interface. Offer the end user access to converged applications 10 TYPES OF CONVERGENCE TRANSPORT • Same physical pipes and transport technology carry multiple services, usually of different customers • Convergence at this level is primarily used by carriers to provision their infrastructure • Used for local access as well as reducing the customer’s overall telecommunication bill TYPES OF CONVERGENCE SWITCHING • Same cable plant carries different types of traffic, and does appropriate switching • Distinction between services becomes less distinct or disappears entirely • Users see a bit pipe, and services are defined by end-user equipment 11 TYPES OF CONVERGENCE APPLICATION (Content) • The same end- user device or type of device and network handles and delivers all content • User does not have separate network interface devices TYPES OF CONVERGENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS/IT • Blurring of the distinction between telecommunications and information processing (use of Applications service Providers and network computing) • Separate functions historically provided by different manufacturers are now available through one source. 12 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR IT&COMMS • CENTRALIZED • HORIZONTAL • HIERARCHICAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR IT&COMMS CENTRALIZED ARCHITECTURE • Places all the applications,management and network connections in a single point • Worked well when networks and computers were expensive • Initially used by large organizations 13 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE CENTRALIZED NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR IT&COMMS HORIZONTAL ARCHITECTURE • More flexible: allows sites to be added easily • Loss of one site does not bring down the operation of other sites • Modular approach can produce a longer lasting solution 14 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE HORIZONTAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR IT&COMMS HIERARCHICAL ARCHITECTURE • Resembles an organizational chart • Large enterprises like banks and schools with off-campus facilities fit this model • The architecture design is flexible and can last a long time. 15 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE HIERARCHICAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE TABLE: COMPARISON 16 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR IT&COMMS The architecture choice should increase productivity with the following goals for the user interface: • Consistent - Dependable and performs the same for every use • Obvious- Similar to other experiences, limiting training expenses and reducing errors • Intuitive- Should be easy to learn IMPEDIMENTS TO CONVERGENCE • No technology is perfect!
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Score: 936908.7 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/tech.../Damascus_AddContrib_Kakai.PDF
Data Source: un
However, the degree of this support as well as societal attitudes regarding life-long learning vary considerably across countries. (...) Also, by using the standards, it’s easier to compare prices for products from different sources. (...) Participation of men and women in life-long learning in selected UNECE countries, 2006 (per cent) Participation of men and women in life-long learning Facts and Figures continued http://www.unece.org www.unece.org/trade/agr/meetings www.unece.org/trade/agr/meetings
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Score: 930751.8 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...2007/UNECE_weekly_2007-238.pdf
Data Source: un
The report finds that five leading risk fac- tors (childhood underweight, unsafe sex, alcohol use, unsafe water and sanitation, and high blood pressure) are responsible for one-quarter of all deaths in the world and one-fifth of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Success in reducing exposure to these five risk factors alone would increase global life expectancy by nearly 5 years. (...) Some risk factors are easier to as- sess than others. Exposure to biological risks such as high body mass index (BMI) or vitamin deficiencies can be measured with relatively little error, and can be linked to disease outcomes on an individual basis. (...) When included, their burden may be estimated with more uncertainty than for risks that are easier to measure. This inevitably pro- duces a set of estimates for risk factors that are not perfectly comparable and must be interpreted carefully.
Language:English
Score: 929222.95 - https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/87/9/09-070565.pdf
Data Source: un
TDR | New and improved TDR Global Discovery Platform makes finding experts and collaborators easier Skip to main content Access Home Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Search Search the WHO .int site Submit Advanced search Navigation Home News About us Research for implementation Strengthening Research Capacity Grants Publications & resources Global Engagement and Partnerships Diseases & topics Research on neglected priority needs, including product R&D, evaluation in real life settings, and increasing access to new tools Developing research leadership through education, training, networks and quality management Assessing global research needs and priorities, providing knowledge management and support for partner coordination All the calls for research and training grants, career development fellowships and how to apply Read, download or order TDR's publications and multimedia resources For the latest news, press releases and TDR events For more on TDR's strategy, governance, history and to find our staff For more on TDR partnerships and networks Menu News Latest news New and improved TDR Global Discovery Platform makes finding experts and collaborators easier TDR news item 7 December 2020 TDR has recently launched its new and improved TDR Global Discovery Platform , which allows TDR Global members and others to more easily identify and contact potential research collaborators. (...) The new Discovery Platform makes the process of searching for, and communicating with, such individuals within the TDR Global community so much easier. The scientist goes to the Platform’s homepage: https://profiles.tdr-global.net/ . (...) (Clicking the “only” option makes it easy to select this option only). For example, she could choose the “WHO South-East Asia Region” only.
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Score: 929012.3 - https://www.who.int/tdr/news/2...-global-discovery-platform/en/
Data Source: un
Search Close Search UNICEF Fulltext search Max Article Support for an easier beginning for Roma children After two years in Germany, the Ristic family is back in their home village of Izvor, Serbia. (...) Misel recalls what their life was like before they left.  We had a hard time. (...) While Anja, Zoran, Jana and little Ognjen play in their warm home, Misel and Kristina are convinced that, despite all the problems, they have a better life now and that one day their children will become healthy, educated, and most importantly, good people.
Language:English
Score: 928417.4 - https://www.unicef.org/eca/sto...easier-beginning-roma-children
Data Source: un
Their poverty in old age reflects gender disadvantages during their life courses. Women have career breaks for childbearing or caring; they earn less and work shorter hours or do more informal work. (...) Other measures aim at increasing women’s labour market participation through making it easier to reconcile work and family life. Measures proven to be successful include greater flexibility of working hours and a tax system that offers incentives to women to earning an income. (...) The Czech Republic provides grants to carriers to acquire low-floor vehicles or vehicles with built-in facilities to make boarding easier for disabled persons and persons with limited mobility.
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Score: 928417.4 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/press/pr2009/09pau_p02e.htm
Data Source: un
Challenges to Biosecurity from Advances in the Life Sciences | United Nations Skip to main content Toggle navigation Welcome to the United Nations العربية 中文 English Français हिन्दी Português Русский Español Kiswahili UN Chronicle Toggle navigation Home About us Search Chronicle Conversations Archives » Article archives Issue archives Contact Coronavirus (COVID-19) Challenges to Biosecurity from Advances in the Life Sciences About the author Sergio Bonin Sergio Bonin is Political Affairs Officer for the Biological Weapons Convention and Chemical Weapons Convention, Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. (...) In another approach, attempts are made to construct a minimal genome reduced to the essential genes required for life in order to serve as the chassis for mounting genetic modules. (...) Every major breakthrough in science has been applied for malign ends and the life sciences are no exception. The application of synthetic biology and nanobiotechnology for nefarious purposes is unlikely in the short to medium term.
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Score: 928126.3 - https://www.un.org/en/chronicl...ecurity-advances-life-sciences
Data Source: un
Challenges to Biosecurity from Advances in the Life Sciences | United Nations Skip to main content Toggle navigation Welcome to the United Nations العربية 中文 English Français हिन्दी Português Русский Español Kiswahili UN Chronicle Toggle navigation Home About us Search Chronicle Conversations Archives » Article archives Issue archives Contact Coronavirus (COVID-19) Challenges to Biosecurity from Advances in the Life Sciences About the author Sergio Bonin Sergio Bonin is Political Affairs Officer for the Biological Weapons Convention and Chemical Weapons Convention, Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. (...) In another approach, attempts are made to construct a minimal genome reduced to the essential genes required for life in order to serve as the chassis for mounting genetic modules. (...) Every major breakthrough in science has been applied for malign ends and the life sciences are no exception. The application of synthetic biology and nanobiotechnology for nefarious purposes is unlikely in the short to medium term.
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Score: 928126.3 - https://www.un.org/en/node/26099
Data Source: un
For families trapped in shelters, e-vouchers made life easier | UNICEF State of Palestine Skip to main content State of Palestine Toggle navigation English العربية Global Links Visit UNICEF Global High contrast State of Palestine EXPLORE UNICEF About us Contact us Work with us Press centre Main navigation What we do Research and reports Stories Take action Search area has closed. (...) Search Close Search UNICEF Fulltext search Max Article For families trapped in shelters, e-vouchers made life easier The family fled heavy fighting in the early days of the war, and spent most of it taking shelter in the crowded Carmel boy’s school in Gaza City Monica Awad 03 September 2014 GAZA, State of Palestine, 3 September 2014 - Kifah Abu Shanab, husband Nabil and four children have just returned home in the Shejaiya neighbourhood, which was partly levelled by 50 days of armed conflict in Gaza.
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Score: 927617.8 - https://www.unicef.org/sop/sto...rs-e-vouchers-made-life-easier
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Violence While aggression is an unfortu- nate part of life, the sheer range and volume of online violence is something most of us don’t want our children to see or hear. (...) While this can promote greater communica- tion, understanding and respect; it also makes it easier to spread racial abuse and hate.
Language:English
Score: 926919.7 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ..._files/pdfs/cop-brochure_5.pdf
Data Source: un