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LETTER DATED 9 MAY 2022 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF IRELAND TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
The Resolution recalls all parties to their obligations under international humanitarian law regarding the protection of civilians and sparing civilian objects. However, hunger continues to be used as a tactics of warfare by belligerents, and vulnerable populations are purposely famished for political or strategic gains.
语言:中文
得分: 1544313.9 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc.../get?open&DS=S/2022/378&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
LETTER DATED 28 AUGUST 2020 FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AND THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES OF THE MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
.: General 28 August 2020 Resolution 2540 (2020) Adopted by the Security Council on 28 August 2020 The Security Council, Recalling its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia, Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence, and unity of Somalia, and underscoring the importance of working to prevent the destabilising effects of regional disputes from spilling over into Somalia, Expressing serious concern at the ongoing threat posed by Al-Shabaab, as well as the presence of affiliates linked to Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh), condemning the attacks by Al-Shabaab in Somalia and the region, including the attack on 28 December 2019 which killed over 90 people and injured over 140, expressing concern at the increase in the use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), and reiterating its determination to support comprehensive efforts to reduce the threat posed by Al-Shabaab in Somalia, Paying tribute to the bravery and sacrifices made by the Somali security forces and African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and in the fight against Al-Shabaab, commending the contribution of AMISOM to building lasting peace and stability in Somalia, recognising that security provided by AMISOM continues to make a significant contribution, and further recognising the need to make international support for Somali security efforts more efficient and effective, particularly ahead of the Somali security institutions and forces taking the lead on security in 2021, Emphasising the essential role of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) in supporting the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and its Federal Member States (FMS) through the provision of strategic advice and good offices, capacity building, and the coordination of international partners’ support, including with respect to elections support, underscoring that this mandate is complementary to the mandates of AMISOM, the United Nations Country Team and support provided by other international partners, and underlining the importance of coordination among international partners, S/2020/854 3/9 20-11303 Expressing its full support for the Special Representative of the Secretary- General and head of UNSOM, and for the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission for Somalia and Head of AMISOM, and encouraging efforts to further strengthen relations between the FGS and the United Nations, Welcoming Somalia’s attainment of the decision point under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative on 25 March 2020, further welcoming Somalia’s economic and financial reforms and the development of its ninth National Development Plan which have underpinned this, including FGS-FMS cooperation, and recalling that further collaboration on political, security, development and economic reforms will be essential to meet the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative Completion Point, Emphasising the importance of a comprehensive approach to peacebuilding and sustaining peace in Somalia, particularly through the prevention of conflict, addressing root causes at all stages of conflict, and undertaking political, economic and security reforms, and promoting social development, Further welcoming commitments made by Somali stakeholders at the 2019 Somalia Partnership Forum to accelerate security sector, economic and political reforms, in particular commitments to deepen federalism and conduct elections in 2020/2021 that are free, fair, credible and, welcoming also recent dialogue between the FGS and FMS, reiterating that elections, which are to be held in 2020/2021, should be transparent and inclusive, held in accordance with the Provisional Federal Constitution of Somalia and taking fully into account the recommendations of the National Independent Electoral Commission (NIEC) and relevant parliamentary legislation, and be underpinned by broad based consensus involving all relevant stakeholders including the FGS, FMS and Parliament, underscoring the importance of a timely and inclusive electoral process for Somalia’s political stability, and further reiterating its expectation that future elections in Somalia ensure the representation of all Somalis, in line with long-standing commitments to conduct one-person-one- vote elections, Welcoming progress made in recent meetings between the FGS and FMS, emphasising the urgency of full cooperation between the FGS and all FMS, noting the responsibilities of all parties to improve cooperation and engage in discussions led by the FGS in Dhusamareb, and underlining of the importance of cooperation and consensus for further progress on key national priorities, including the implementation of the National Security Architecture, agreement on a federated justice system, power and resource-sharing, the constitutional review, fiscal federalism, and the planning and holding of national elections, Welcoming also the enactment in February 2020 of the Electoral Law, which represents a significant step forward, and the resolution of key outstanding issues by the Somali Federal Parliament, in collaboration with the NIEC, including the definition of constituencies, allocation of seats to constituencies, implementation of the 30 percent quota of seats for women to which Somalia has committed and representation of Benadir and “Somaliland”, and noting the importance of timely donor support once an implementable, affordable and democratic electoral model has been agreed, Further reaffirming the importance of inclusive politics and democratic elections in ensuring long-term peace and stability in Somalia, underlining the need for swift implementation of the jointly agreed Mutual Accountability Framework, including the political, economic and security milestones, and recognising that the S/2020/854 20-11303 4/9 FGS has the primary responsibility to deliver Somalia’s commitments in close cooperation with FMS, Expressing concern about delays in consolidating Somalia’s federal system and underscoring the importance of progress on key priorities, including power and resource-sharing, shared responsibilities for security, the constitutional review and fiscal federalism, all of which require political agreements that can form the basis for legislation in the Federal Parliament, Recognising reconciliation efforts in Galmudug, reaffirming the importance of continued peace and reconciliation in Jubaland, underlining the importance of dialogue and local reconciliation processes to stability in Somalia, and further reaffirming the importance of leadership from the FGS and engagement by the FMS in de-escalating tensions and engaging in constructive dialogue, Welcoming the direct talks between the leaders of Somalia and “Somaliland” in Djibouti from June 12-15, and encouraging additional technical and political discussions between the parties to build confidence and strengthen political coordination, Welcoming an increased focus on the need to revitalise the high-level meetings of the Comprehensive Approach to Security through the newly established Security and Justice Committee progress on security sector reforms, including on electronic payment of the security forces, human resource management, progress in implementing the New Police Model, and initial progress in conducting operations against Al-Shabaab in Lower Shabelle, expressing its concern that there have been further delays to the implementation of the National Security Architecture, the delivery of the Somali-led Transition Plan, which the FGS has committed to updating by the end of September 2020, the generation of able, affordable, accountable and Somali forces, and the integration of regional forces in the federal armed forces, further expressing concern over the implications of the lack of political dialogue and rising tensions between the FGS and some of the FMS in delaying a range of security reforms, and underlining the need to accelerate implementation of security sector reforms, Reiterating the need for coordinated engagement among all actors towards transition to Somali security leadership during 2021, in line with resolution 2520 (2020), the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) Strategic Concept of Operations 2018–2021, and the aims set out in the Somali-led Transition Plan, and emphasising in this regard the importance of the independent assessment with a view to presenting options to the Security Council on international engagement in security arrangements in Somalia post-2021, including the role of the UN, in particular that of UNSOM, AU and international partners, as mandated in its resolution 2520 (2020), and the need for inclusive discussions with all relevant actors, Expressing grave concern at ongoing humanitarian crises in Somalia as a result of the protracted conflict and recurring events including drought, flooding and the locust infestation, recognising that the COVID-19 pandemic presents an additional and profound challenge to Somalia’s health system, socio-economic and humanitarian situation, as well as social cohesion due to increased stigmatisation, expressing further concern at the number of Somali refugees and increasing number of internally displaced persons (IDPs), as well as their increasing humanitarian and protection needs, welcoming the FGS’s recent ratification of the African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of IDPs in Africa (the Kampala Convention), calling on the FGS to fully implement its provisions and to make progress on its commitment to deliver durable solutions for displaced persons in Somalia, reaffirming its strong condemnation of the deliberate targeting of civilians, including humanitarian S/2020/854 5/9 20-11303 personnel, and civilian objects in situations of armed conflict, as well as the indiscriminate use of weapons in populated areas and their consequences for the civilian population, calling upon all parties to the conflict in Somalia to refrain from such practices in accordance with their obligations under international law, welcoming the efforts by the FGS, FMS, the United Nations, and the response and generous support by donors, encouraging further cooperation with international and national humanitarian actors to relieve immediate need, and underlining the need for greater and diverse investment in resilience, including for IDPs, in order to reduce long term need and support Somalia to achieve sustainable development, Condemning continued violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, expressing deep concern in particular at violations and abuses committed against children and those involving sexual and gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict situations, recognising that women and girls are disproportionately affected by these violations and abuses in Somalia, recalling the 2020 Conclusions on Children and Armed Conflict (S/2020/174), resolution 1325 (2000) and all subsequent resolutions on Women, Peace and Security, encouraging the swift enactment of the Somali Child Rights Act, underscoring the need to respect, protect and promote human rights, end impunity, and hold accountable those responsible for violations or abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, and reaffirming its support for the United Nations’ zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse, Recalling resolution 2532 (2020) demanding a general and immediate cessation of hostilities in all situations on the Council’s agenda, as well as calling upon all parties to armed conflicts to engage immediately in a durable humanitarian pause for at least 90 consecutive days, in order to enable the safe, timely, unhindered and sustained delivery of humanitarian assistance in accordance with the humanitarian principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence, Expressing deep concern about the serious humanitarian threat posed to civilians by landmines, explosive remnants of war (ERW) and IEDs in Somalia, which causes serious social and economic consequences for the population of Somalia, and of personnel participating in law enforcement, humanitarian, peacekeeping, rehabilitation and clearance programmes and operations, recognising that mine action contributes to the protection of civilians and supports stabilization and peacebuilding efforts, and underlining the need to accelerate capacity-building measures that aim to strengthen capacities to mitigate against the threat of landmines, ERW and IEDs in Somalia, Further recognising the adverse effects of climate change, other ecological changes, natural disasters, among other factors, on the stability of Somalia, including through drought, desertification, land degradation and food insecurity, and recalling its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2011/15, 1. (...) Expresses its concern about all violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including those involving sexual and gender-based violence in conflict, further calls upon all parties to comply with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law, as applicable, in relation to the protection of the civilian population, and civilian objects, and further reiterates the urgent and imperative need to hold accountable all those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including the right to freedom of expression, including against journalists and other media professionals and associated personnel; 9.
语言:中文
得分: 1470540.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc.../get?open&DS=S/2020/854&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
HUMAN RIGHTS AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION, OR WITH INDISCRIMINATE EFFECT, OR OF A NATURE TO CAUSE SUPERFLUOUS INJURY OR UNNECESSARY SUFFERING : WORKING PAPER / SUBMITTED BY Y.K.J. YEUNG SIK YUEN IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUB-COMMISSION RESOLUTION 2001/36
The protection of the civilian population against the effect of hostilities is specifically covered by the “Basic Rule”: “In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population and civilian objects, the Parties to the conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants and between civilian objects and military objectives and accordingly shall direct their operations only against military objectives.”17 32. (...) It is accordingly prohibited to attack, destroy or render useless objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian populations which must be protected. Such objects would include foodstuffs, agricultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works. 34.
语言:中文
得分: 1420009.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...DS=E/CN.4/SUB.2/2002/38&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
CHAIRPERSON’S SUMMARY
Many commentaries addressed guiding principles (b)3 and (d)4 together, noting that while they do deal with distinct issues, they are inextricably linked. Several viewed that responsibility and accountability necessitate a degree of human control, which should be exercised throughout a weapon system’s life cycle.
语言:中文
得分: 1384053.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...&DS=CCW/GGE.1/2020/WP.7&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
LETTER DATED 18 NOVEMBER 2020 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF AZERBAIJAN TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
., Mushvig Mehdiyev, “Armenia Deploys PKK Terrorists to Occupied Azerbaijani Lands”, Caspian News (26 September 2020), https://caspiannews.com/news-detail/armenia-deploys-pkk- terrorists-to-occupied-azerbaijani-lands-2020-9-25-36/. 9 “Are PKK-linked terrorists fighting alongside Armenia in occupied-Karabakh”, TRT World (1 October 2020), https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/are-pkk-linked-terrorists-fighting-alongside-armenia-in- occupied-karabakh-40201. 10 James Wilson, “PKK’s involvement in the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict would jeopardize European security”, Eureporter (23 September 2020), https://www.eureporter.co/frontpage/2020/09/23/pkks- involvement-in-the-armenia-azerbaijan-conflict-would-jeopardize-european-security/. 11 “Armenia transfers YPG/PKK terrorists to occupied area to train militias against Azerbaijan”, Daily Sabah (25 September 2020), https://www.dailysabah.com/politics/war-on-terror/armenia-transfers- ypgpkk-terrorists-to-occupied-area-to-train-militias-against-azerbaijan. (...) The State Security Service of the Republic of Azerbaijan intercepted radio- communication of terrorists linked to PKK who were taking part in hostilities against Azerbaijan. (...) Since 27 September 2020, as a result of direct and indiscriminate attacks by the armed forces of Armenia, 94 civilians had been killed, more than 400 civilians had been wounded and some 3,410 private houses, 120 apartment buildings and 512 other civilian objects, including schools, kindergartens, hospitals, religious sites and cultural monuments, had been either destroyed or damaged.
语言:中文
得分: 1373774.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...sf/get?open&DS=A/75/625&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTRAJUDICIAL, SUMMARY OR ARBITRARY EXECUTIONS, PHILIP ALSTON : ADDENDUM
With respect to the required precautions in carrying out an attack, the general rule is that “constant care” and “[a]ll feasible precautions” must be taken “to avoid, and in any event to minimize, incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects” (ICRC Study, Rule 15). This general rule is supplemented by a number of more specific rules. (...) The international forces generally conduct protect the civilian population and civilian objects under their control against the effects of attacks” (ICRC Study, Rule 22). (...) In addition to certain objects (see ICRC Study, Rule 8), legitimate military objectives may include combatants and civilians taking a direct part in hostilities (ICRC Study, Rules 1, 6).
语言:中文
得分: 1372167 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...pen&DS=A/HRC/11/2/ADD.4&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY ON THE SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC
The Chamber notes that the “systematic” element has been defined by the ICTR as (i) being thoroughly organised, (ii) following a regular pattern, (iii) on the basis of a common policy, and (iv) involving substantial public or private resources (citations omitted), whilst the ICTY has determined that the element requires (i) a political objective or plan, (ii) large-scale or continuous commission of crimes which are linked, (iii) use of significant public or private resources, and (iv) the implication of high-level political and/or military authorities.24 19.
语言:中文
得分: 1349156.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...get?open&DS=A/HRC/21/50&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT IN THE FIELD OF CULTURAL RIGHTS, FARIDA SHAHEED : ADDENDUM
ARADESC aims to identify priorities for research on economic, social and cultural rights and to further link research to public policies. It 14 See www.ccdh.org.ma/? (...) Some have approached the Government to request that certain tangible objects be included in the list of national cultural heritage objects. (...) With regard to freedom of association, which is intrinsically linked to cultural rights,27 the Independent Expert was informed that some non-governmental organizations experience difficulties in becoming registered, for various reasons. 57.
语言:中文
得分: 1330766.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/20/26/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
OFFICIAL COMPENDIUM OF VOLUNTARY NATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE SUBJECT OF HOW INTERNATIONAL LAW APPLIES TO THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES BY STATES SUBMITTED BY PARTICIPATING GOVERNMENTAL EXPERTS IN THE GROUP OF GOVERNMENTAL EXPERTS ON ADVANCING RESPONSIBLE STATE BEHAVIOUR IN CYBERSPACE IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL SECURITY ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION 73/266
The second component distinguishes between objects which are targetable as legitimate military objectives, and civilian and protected objects. (...) To the extent that a State enjoys the right to exercise sovereignty over objects and activities within its territory, it necessarily shoulders corresponding responsibilities to ensure those objects and activities are not used to harm other States. (...) To the extent that a state enjoys the right to exercise sovereignty over objects and activities within its territory, it necessarily shoulders corresponding responsibilities to ensure those objects and activities are not used to harm other states.
语言:中文
得分: 1294478.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...sf/get?open&DS=A/76/136&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON EXTRAJUDICIAL, SUMMARY OR ARBITRARY EXECUTIONS, CHRISTOF HEYNS : ADDENDUM
National security and international military forces (pro-Government forces) were linked to 440 deaths or 16 per cent of all civilian deaths, a reduction of 26 per cent compared with 2009. (...) Although overall civilian deaths from air attacks by pro-Government forces decreased in 2010 from 2009, the number of Afghan civilians killed in air strikes increased in 2010: in the first half of the year, 69 civilians were killed in air attacks; in the second half, 102 civilians died from air strikes – a 48 per cent increase. This is linked to significant increases in the use of air assets in combat in the latter half of 2010.24 23. (...) Even where targets were legitimate military objects, such as military installations and combatants (pro-Government forces), these attacks and tactics often disproportionately harmed civilians.
语言:中文
得分: 1288682.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/17/28/ADD.6&Lang=C
数据资源: ods