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The formal and informal sectors in Colombia: Country case study on labour market segmentation Employment Working Paper No. 146 Type: Working paper Date issued: 12 December 2013 Reference: 1999-2939 (print)[ISSN] 1999-2947 (web pdf)[ISSN] Authors: Ximena Peña Download: The formal and informal sectors in Colombia: Country case study on labour market segmentation pdf - 1.1 MB The current paper is one in the series of such country studies. It makes an important contribution to the discussion on segmentation of labour markets, providing an overview of the institutional setup as well as empirical evidence on the extent of segmentation and its implications for various aspects of job quality. The paper also offers a policy perspective on the ways to alleviate the negative consequences of segmentation. Tags: non-standard forms of employment, labour market segmentation, unemployment, low wages, labour legislation, informal economy Regions and countries covered: Colombia Tools A A+ A++ Print Share this content in © 1996-2022 International Labour Organization (ILO) | Copyright and permissions  | Privacy policy | Fraud alert | Disclaimer   Skip to top
Language:English
Score: 1109015.9 - https://www.ilo.org/employment...WCMS_232495/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
1 The Jordanian Labour Market: Multiple segmentations of labour by nationality, gender, education and occupational classes Regional Office for Arab States Migration and Governance Network (MAGNET) 2 The Jordanian Labour Market Multiple segmentations of labour by nationality, gender, education and occupational classes Discussion Paper1 July 2015 Regional Office for Arab States Migration and Governance Network (MAGNET) 1 This paper draws on the findings of a large research study which was carried out by the ILO's Migration and Governance Network (MAGNET, an initiative funded by the Swiss Development Cooperation) 3 The paper analyses available labour market evidence to identify key segments of workers - nationals, migrants (or migrants in strict sense) and refugees (or forced migrants) in the Jordanian labour market, and their interactions. (...) The first one examines demography, education and the training system, to quantify the stocks and flows of workers that characterize the Jordanian labour market. The second chapter describes the different segments of the labour market and the interactions between key segments of workers, also discussing data and information gaps within existing data sources. (...) These young Jordanians are unlikely to interact with the low skilled labour markets of migrants, because they for a jobs in a different segment of labour demand.
Language:English
Score: 1101510.7 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_471869.pdf
Data Source: un
Support to the Yemeni Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour in Labour Market Information and Employment Policy: Public-Private Partnership 06 October 2015 In 2006, the ILO and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) helped Yemen formulate a Labour Market Information System and Human Resource Development Strategy. (...) An international literature review 16 January 2014 This research has been commissioned by the International Labour Office (ILO) as a contribution to the Global Product 154 and the Area of Critical Importance, Productivity and working conditions in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). 2013 Employment growth and segmentation in Peru, 2001–2011: Country case study on labour market segmentation 12 December 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 151 Dual dimensions of non-regular work and SMEs in the Republic of Korea: Country case study on labour market segmentation 12 December 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 148 Role of labour regulation and reforms in India: Country case study on labour market segmentation 12 December 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 147 The formal and informal sectors in Colombia: Country case study on labour market segmentation 12 December 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 146 The Labour Markets of Emerging Economies: Has growth translated into more and better jobs? (...) : Country case study on labour market segmentation 08 August 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 145 Italy: A dual labour market in transition: Country case study on labour market segmentation 08 August 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 144 Beyond the contract type segmentation in Spain: Country case study on labour market segmentation 08 August 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 143 An anatomy of the French labour market: Country case study on labour market segmentation 08 August 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 142 The Philippines Employment Projections Model: Employment targeting and scenarios 15 May 2013 Employment Working Paper No. 140 Perspectives on Labour Economics for Development 01 March 2013 Perspectives on Labour Economics for Development seeks to provide a comprehensive, but non-technical, coverage of labour market issues in a developing country context to help policy-makers and other readers improve their capacity to understand these topics and develop appropriate and effective policy responses.
Language:English
Score: 1094651 - https://www.ilo.org/empelm/pubs/lang--en/index.htm
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Is the market changing, are new services getting more acceptable, is quality becoming more important? (...) ØIntentions Surveys ØFeature evaluations ØChoice models ØTrial markets ØAnalogies – other products – other countries © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting First generation Up to T Both generations, Competition Time line Adopters at T-1 Market Potential for first generation, M1 Adopters at T Adopters & Users at T Leavers Switchers Exit Adopters & Users at T+1 Adopters & Users at T+1 Switchers ExitExit Market Potential for second generation, M2 M1, not M2 Leavers Forecasting telecommunication service subscribers in substitutive and competitive environments, Jun et al, IJF, 2002 © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Competition between TechnologiesCompetition between Technologies 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 10 20 30 40 50 Period 1s t G en 'io n 1st Gen'ion 2nd Gen'ion TOTAL © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Segmentation Approaches to Forecasting) Small Large Commercial Large Service Business Income > 30K Income < 30K Professional Business Subscribers Attending College Not attending Below 21 years Income < 20K 21 - 50 Income > 30K Income <30K Not retired Retired > 50 Personal Subscribers All users • Forecast consumption in each segment • Project numbers in each segment }and multiply Market Potential -Decomposition Methods I (applies to new and established markets Market Potential -Decomposition Methods I (applies to new and established markets © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Decomposition Methods IIDecomposition Methods II Step: 1. (...) ADSL ISDN2 Usage models Market Potential - Decomposition Methods III Market Potential - Decomposition Methods III © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Choice Models - segmenting consumers and forecasting each segment Choice Models - segmenting consumers and forecasting each segment nmarket research based ä observed data ä hypothetical questions for new products/ services Problems 6 sample size in small populations 6dynamics ä how do the parameters change over the planning horizon 6price dependency ä measurement (quality) ä projected behaviour Used in stable & growth markets © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting The Bass Model: basic segmentationThe Bass Model: basic segmentation • Two types of people: – Innovators • They adopt because of their attitude to technology – Imitators • They adopt when exposed to consumers who have adopted already Red: adopters Black: potential adopters Blue: lacking information Red: adopters Black: potential adopters Blue: lacking information 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 Logist ic G o m p e r t z © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Estimating the Diffusion Path: • limited if any sales data • S-Shaped curve used to represent adoptions • different curves and parameters Ø different market potential and uptake trajectory Ø dependent on key parameters Modelling multinational telecommunications demand with limited data, Islam et al, IJF, 2002 The Effect of Increasing Imitation in the Social System 0 5 10 15 20 25 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 H ou se ho ld s (M ill io ns ) Increases Slope of the Curve The Effect of Increasing Innovation in the Social System 0 5 10 15 20 25 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 H ou se ho ld s (m ill io ns ) Pulls curve leftwards Issues: • data limitations • market potential affected by product/ social factors © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Models of Interacting IndividualsModels of Interacting Individuals • Different networks of consumers Ø Different adoption patterns Connected to your two nearest neighbours Connected at RandomConnected to near neighbours but with other links •Each group of individuals has its own rules of behaviour and interaction • affected by its environment •Each group of individuals has its own rules of behaviour and interaction • affected by its environment The impact of networked groups (Bass defines a simple network) © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting How can these ‘Agent based models’ be used (Collings, BTExact) How can these ‘Agent based models’ be used (Collings, BTExact) • Aim to understand behaviour of interacting markets – Diverse individual behaviour – Asymmetric information and motivation • Examples – Financial markets – Customer relationship management © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting EXTENSIONS and ISSUES • Can include marketing and economic variables • Estimation (analogy or numerical methods) – Meta Models • link the diffusion parameters to market characteristics • to other products, other markets – Genetic algorithms • Incorporation of effects from other products/ markets Diffusion models • Supply restrictions (in regulated markets) • Disaggregate models ( e.g. to industry specific uptake of fax) © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Bass Model - Diffusion Parameters and Meta Model Imitation Innovation Mobile NICs UK, Denmark Japan Describing the speed and shape of the adoption path Average diffusion parameters © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Service provider decision factors influences Potential Market Marketing Quality Price Understanding Utility Acceptability Adoption Simulation Modelling • system dynamics replicate diffusion curves • offer more flexibility for incorporating – information and processes – decision variables Simulation Modelling • system dynamics replicate diffusion curves • offer more flexibility for incorporating – information and processes – decision variables Key benefit: transparency of model © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Evaluation - Models of Market Potential • Choice Models – Based on intentions data • Models of Market Penetration – define potential = CM(t) where M(t) is determined by the economic/ social system of the market – Based on analogous products and countries Problems • ‘current intentions • changing valuations • unvalidated • c depends on time Evaluation - Models of the Diffusion Path • Limited forecast validation – short term (if any) – use too much data – poor benchmarks • No forecast validation • Limited parameter validation • Aggregate Bass-type diffusion • Simulation © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Final commentsFinal comments • Widespread interest in telecoms forecasting • Survey evidence suggests organisations which adopt a more ambitious and rigorous approach do better • Primary methods ‘naïve qualitative’ – despite major investments (and disasters) riding on the results of a forecas – Structured use of judgement (E.g.
Language:English
Score: 1088652.7 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...asting/fildes-presentation.pdf
Data Source: un
The segment AB represents combinations of dR and dP for which a regional multinational headquartered in the North makes zero prots; i.e., 2dR + 2dP = x+ xs. 14 RD PD λ−1 sx λ−1 sx o45 •A • C •D • E •B Figure 4: Market potentials with low FDI costs: xs=x < (1 ) = (1 + 3) In the interior of this segment, Northern rms strictly prefer to export to the South but also strictly prefer to operate a subsidiary in the regional market that is not their own. (...) But notice, now, that the same is true all along the segment BC. As long as the market potential in 15 every country exceeds xs= (1 ), all active rms choose to be global multinationals. (...) In terms of our Figure 2, the discussion in Fajgelbaum et al. (2010) indicates that the equilibrium in the market for high-quality goods falls somewhere along the segment BC, where dRH > d P H .
Language:English
Score: 1081670.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...gtdw_e/wkshop12_e/grossman.pdf
Data Source: un
Informality and labour market segmentation: the case of Argentina | Publication | Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Skip to main content United Nations Español English Português About ECLAC Executive Secretary Headquarters and offices Library CEPAL Review Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Menu Home Work areas 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Gender affairs International trade and integration Economic development Production, productivity and management Social development Sustainable development and human settlements Statistics Planning for development (ILPES) Population and development Natural resources Cooperation Publications Data and statistics Training Press Centre Events Home Work areas 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Gender affairs International trade and integration Economic development Production, productivity and management Social development Sustainable development and human settlements Statistics Planning for development (ILPES) Population and development Natural resources Cooperation Publications Data and statistics Training Press Centre Events Search About ECLAC Executive Secretary Headquarters and offices Library CEPAL Review ES EN PT You are here Home » Publications » Informality and labour market segmentation: the case of Argentina Available in: English Español Informality and labour market segmentation: the case of Argentina December 2015 | Regular Publications, Reviews and Bulletins » CEPAL Review Economic development Author: Beccaría, Luis Alberto - Groisman, Fernando UN symbol.: LC/G.2652-P p. 121-136; tabls. December 2015 Download Publication pdf Description The document evaluates the presence of segmentation in the Argentinean labour market. The analysis is centred on the comparison of the earnings of formal and informal workers. (...) Our results support the segmentation hypothesis for the Argentine urban labour market: workers with similar probabilities of entering/exiting across sectors obtain different earnings.
Language:English
Score: 1072265.3 - https://www.cepal.org/en/publi...et-segmentation-case-argentina
Data Source: un
Integration Segment Achieving sustainable development through employment creation and decent work for all 1 April 2015 H.E. (...) For effective social dialogue, respect for the fundamental rights of freedom of association and collective bargaining is essential. • New innovative forms of social dialogue—drawing on the participation of trade unions, civil society, governments and businesses—are needed to adequately address evolving labour markets and consequent challenges in the 21st century. ECOSOC should consider launching such a dialogue. • We need to formalize the informal economy through provision of social protection and job security. • We must increase women’s participation in the labour market, because women can be engines of growth. • We need to provide our youth with the right skills and education that are in demand in today’s job market. • We do not have to choose between environmental sustainability and job creation; they are rather mutually reinforcing.
Language:English
Score: 1068500.6 - https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/i.../closing_remark_vp_croatia.pdf
Data Source: un
Thus on the telecommunication market in Togo, prices are set freely or are subject to a regulatory regime depending on the market segment. For market segments subject to a declarative regime, such as Internet and data transmission, prices are set freely by operators since the conditions required for pure competition appear to be present (free entry, atomicity of providers, etc.). For market segments subject to authorization, such as the telephone service, prices are regulated.
Language:English
Score: 1068201.2 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...ambia-07/togo_politique_en.PDF
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - 09-S3-French-overview.ppt 1 International Telecommunication Union Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Next Generation Networks and Telecommunication Regulations Few considerations about 2003 Few considerations about 2003 French Telecommunication marketFrench Telecommunication market Marco Carugi Nortel Networks ITU-T NGN FG WG1 Co-Chair and Q.11/13 Rapporteur 19.09.2004 Page - 2Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Few numbers of the French Telecommunication market • French Telecom Business in 2003 : 35 Billion Euros (3.3% annual growth against 3% in 2002 and 10% before 2002) • French Internal Product annual growth in 2003 : 2% • Fixed telephony : 13.5 Billion Euros (-4.1%) • Low speed Internet: 0.13 B Euros (+12%) • Mobile services : 13.2 B Euros (+12.6%) * • Leased lines : 2.2 B Euros (+0.5%) • Terminal sale/rent : 1.8 B Euros (+3.7%) * This segment having still high margins of growth with multimedia services (mobile Internet, SMS, MMS, ,inter-personal communications etc.) 2 19.09.2004 Page - 3Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Comparing with the European TLC market (1) • Fixed telephony : • long distance call price is in EU average • Local call price is higher (but subscription is lower) • Incumbent carrier (FT) market ratio : 75% (higher than EU average) • Interconnection price : EU average for regional, lower for local => incentive to alternative networks deployment • Leased lines (and interconnection leased lines) : • Price higher than EU average French Telephony market summary : good situation for users, with limited concurrence although the entry conditions are satisfactory (except for leased lines) 19.09.2004 Page - 4Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Comparing with the European TLC market (2) • Mobile market (except Internet) : • Market structure is similar to other EU countries (but only 3 providers) • Subscriber growth is in EU average : 8% • Difficult to establish an EU comparison in terms of prices for user • Internet market • Low speed is stabilising (although quite high) • High speed is growing (penetration ratio is comparable to EU countries with similar size, higher than EU average) • Increasing competition (one of EU’s highest unbundled line numbers) although local loop access prices are in EU average => Results for users in 2003 : reduction of prices and increase of speed 3 19.09.2004 Page - 5Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 2003 highlights from the French Regulation Authority (1) • 2003 : first year of reform of the legal regime resulting from transposition of European directives in French national law • First concrete action in summer 2003 : everybody is now allowed to deploy networks and provide services • This promotes concurrence in favour of consumers, including residential users and enterprises. • Second concrete action : • French parliament approval of law transposing the EU “universal service directive” into national level (to be completed with adoption of new law on electronic communications and audiovisual services and new law on digital economy) 19.09.2004 Page - 6Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 2003 highlights from the French Regulation Authority (2) • French regulation is adapting to competition situation confirmed by the analysis of market segments identified by the EU Commission • Market segment analysis will continue in 2004 • Segment regulation will adopt principles and methods of concurrence, being more efficient where it has to be active (wholesale versus retail) • Most important facts in 2003 • Fixed market numbers overcome by mobile market ones • Confirmation of “high speed” success : 3.5 M users (double than 2002) - 3M via ADSL. Unbundling is now a reality in France. • Two key goals in 2004 for the French Regulation Authority : • Preserve the concurrence in high speed among SPs for the retail market and among Carriers for the wholesale market. • Extend concurrence in high speed market outside urban regions (and help regional communities to increase territory digitalisation)
Language:English
Score: 1062257.4 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...hina/09-S3-French-overview.pdf
Data Source: un
04 9kbs 56 to 128kbs 512Mbs 2Mbs Discussion highlights a fast changing market • What do market stakeholders need to know to be able to forecast the market better? (...) Knowledge of consumer behaviour How to apply this information to produce forecastsDevelop ment of new methodol ogies, or existing technique s re- applied The stakeholder positions • Digital divide highlights missed revenue or missed development opportunities and cost saving. – Marketers and Business Planners; • Missed revenue: Untapped market – Government and Regulators; • Missed development opportunities: Countries with less ICT may grow less. • Missed cost saving: Those on ‘wrong’ side of divide use government services more frequently. (...) Merge ‘similar’ segments i.e. if demographically similar. For each segment, measure their proportion in the data; This is an estimate of the proportion of consumers in the UK of this utility level.
Language:English
Score: 1061123.1 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...ing/robertson-presentation.pdf
Data Source: un