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Competition policy at the national level and in the European Union as a whole may favor an "open network" approach in which multiple service providers are allowed rights to resell the capacity of the public infrastructure (in this case, the GMPCS space segment). On the other hand, GMPCS space segment operators may wish to grant certain exclusive operating and marketing rights to local entities in the course of commercial negotiations, and this may play an important part in mobilizing capital to build and launch the space segment. (...) This issue may be primarily one for resolution in the market place and in bilateral discussions between space segment operators and other entities associated with the particular proposed system. (...) The risk to avoid in this case is a situation where, if the GMPCS space segment operator is affiliated with a handset manufacturer, the handset markets are thereby closed "de facto" to other manufacturers.
Language:English
Score: 1061829.6 - https://www.itu.int/newsarchive/wtpf96/gmpcs.html
Data Source: un
The seller would continue sales in each segmented market up to the point where costs of producing and selling an additional unit of the product exceed revenues from such sales in that market. (...) However, in practical terms, market segmentation within countries is more difficult than between countries. (...) These regulation-driven obstacles to trade may be able, in practice, to contribute to the market segmentation necessary to make differential pricing work.
Language:English
Score: 1060999.7 - https://www.wto.org/spanish/tr...s/trips_s/wto_background_e.doc
Data Source: un
The seller would continue sales in each segmented market up to the point where costs of producing and selling an additional unit of the product exceed revenues from such sales in that market. (...) However, in practical terms, market segmentation within countries is more difficult than between countries. (...) These regulation-driven obstacles to trade may be able, in practice, to contribute to the market segmentation necessary to make differential pricing work.
Language:English
Score: 1060999.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...e/trips_e/wto_background_e.doc
Data Source: un
Each country should have a comprehensive development program for the NGV market including different segments of the transport sector: private cars, buses, LCVs, heavy trucks, construction and communal machinery, agricultural and quarry machinery, railway transport, water transport etc. 2. (...) The layout should be based on the potential demand research for the different segments of the transport sector. 4. The meaningful result of the UNECE project would be the start of a pilot project to develop a comprehensive development program for one of the developing NGV markets in target UNECE countries www.ngvrus.ru Recommendations • To organize a specific research of power mix perspectives • To initiate a pilot projects for implementation a comprehensive development program • To support creation of a unified interstate register of cylinders to control their circulation and simplify procedures for the end user when crossing borders • To initiate a project to create promo video-materials clarifying the specifics of NGV fuel in the UNECE countries involving industrial associations www.ngvrus.ru Saint Petersburg, Kirochnaya st., 64 web@ngvrus.ru www.ngvrus.ru Thank you for attention! Natural Gas Vehicles Association Russian Federation Vasiliy Zinin @vasiliyzinin Decarbonization of the transport sector in UNECE member states: Kazakhstan Structure of the Report Life cycle analysis Number of existing CNG stations Motorization level (per 1000 inhabitants) Natural Gas Market Kazakhstan Factsheet Environmental effects Structure of the Transportation Sector (incl off-road machinery) Guideline for Kazakhstan Comprehensive Development Program Recommendations Thank you for attention!
Language:English
Score: 1060526.6 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...0Association%20of%20Russia.pdf
Data Source: un
These new platforms are expected to become important in all of the different identified segments. The two table below demonstrates how, on a segment by segment basis, how new commerce platforms might have an effect on the segment. The first table shows, for each segment, what the current environment for selling – in person and remotely – might look like. Table 2 – New Commerce Platforms by Segment Selling: Current Environment Segment POS (Face to Face) Remote (eCommerce, mCommerce) M0 Cash is the norm Some use of mobile Minimal P2P eMoney on feature phones but con- strained due to costs M1 Cash is the norm.
Language:English
Score: 1059542.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page181.html
Data Source: un
In 2001 he has moved to department of Key customers as head of marketing and sales where he fully enhanced the various sales activities and reduced key customer complain by 90% , and he developed in coordination with IT department a program that used to segment the market in order to serve the customer in various segment in more proactive way. (...) He also helped in developing various pricing strategy and prepared number of economics study in pricing as well as in future development of telecommunication market.
Language:English
Score: 1055820.3 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina.../kuala-lumpur-05/cv-jassmi.pdf
Data Source: un
STATUS AND TIMEFRAMES OF ICASA’S REGULATORY PROJECTSIN TERMS OF THE ECA ACT FOR THE STAKEHOLDERS MEETING ITU REGIONAL ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL FORUM OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS/ICT FOR AFRICA COSTING AND TARIFFS IN SOUTH AFRICA Mr Leweng Mphahlele Manager: Economic & Financial Analysis ICASA • Vision & Mission of ICASA • Overview of S.A market • Why regulate? • Regulatory approach • Cost model used • Cost standard • Asymmetry principles • Call Termination rates CONTENT VISION & MISSION Vision To advance the building of a digital society Mission To ensure that all South Africans have access to a wide range of high-quality communication services at affordable prices. 3 4 ICASA’s mandate is derived from the following Acts: • The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa • The Broadcasting Act of 2002 • ICASA Act of 2000 • The Electronic Communications Act of 2005 • The Competition Act of 1998 • The Promotion of Administration Justice Act of 2000 • The Postal Services Act of 1998 ICASA MANDATE SOUTH AFRICAN TELECOMS MARKET 5 Mobile market: • Four mobile operators (and one MVNO) • No of subscribers approx. 74 million • Mobile penetration approx. 123% • Mobile broadband penetration approx. 45% • Population coverage >95% • Mobile geographic coverage >75% Fixed line market: • Two fixed line operators • No of subscribers approx. 4 million • Fixed line penetration approx. 8% • Fixed broadband penetration 2.1% Consolidation in the ICT sector ICASA may regulate tariffs and prices: • where there is a lack of effective competition in a particular markets or market segments i.t.o Chapter 10 of the ECA What process is to be followed? • Define the relevant wholesale and retail markets or market segments; • Determine whether there is effective competition • Determine which, if any, licensees have SMP • Impose appropriate pro-competitive licence conditions WHY REGULATE? • 2010: – First cost-based regulation of termination – FAC cost standard – 30% asymmetry • 2013: – Review of regulations: • Introduce LRIC + • Increase asymmetry to over 50% HISTORY OF CALL TERMINATION 2014 CHALLENGE • Operators challenged ICASA process in court • Court struck regulations down but: – Suspended order for 6 months – ICASA was given 6 months to redo cost modelling 8 • Agreed with operators on market definition • LRIC + cost standard • Reconciliation of Top-down Accounting and Bottom-up scorched node models • Asymmetry based on cost differentials • Concluded in 6 months PROCESS TO COMPLY WITH THE COURT ASYMMETRY PRINCIPLES • Limit the disadvantages faced by later entrants & smaller operators and enable them to compete effectively with large operators • Qualifying criteria for asymmetry is terminating minutes <20% • Current small operators whose share of terminating minutes is <10% may to qualify for asymmetry after 2017 FINAL CALL TERMINATION RATES Mobile location Fixed location W0N B0N 1 Oct 2014 - 30 Sept 2015 US$0.017 US$0.011 US$0.0013 1 Oct 2015 - 30 Sept 2016 US$0.014 US$0.010 US$0.010 1 Oct 2016 - 30 Sept 2017 US$0.011 US$0.009 US$0.009 Mobile location Fixed location W0N B0N 1 Oct 2014 - 30 Sept 2015 US$0.027 US$0.016 US$0.018 1 Oct 2015 - 30 Sept 2016 US$0.021 US$0.013 US$0.014 1 Oct 2016 - 30 Sept 2017 US$0.016 US$0.010 US$0.010 Base call termination rates Asymmetric call termination rates THANK YOU. 12 ITU REGIONAL ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL FORUM OFTELECOMMUNICATIONS/ICT FOR AFRICACOSTING AND TARIFFS IN SOUTH AFRICAMr Leweng MphahleleManager: Economic & Financial AnalysisICASA CONTENT VISION & MISSION ICASA MANDATE SOUTH AFRICAN TELECOMS MARKET WHY REGULATE?
Language:English
Score: 1055329.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/R...o_Tome/Session%207-lewveng.pdf
Data Source: un
Analysts point to the country’s foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of foreign investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as a share of total manufactured goods. (...) While this sustained growth suggests the presence of a competitive market environment, a closer examination reveals several challenges that result from well-understood market failures in the provision of broadband services. (...) AR-SAT will fulfil connectivity demands in the public sector and operate under open network principles in the wholesale data transport market. This strategy is complemented with financial stimulus to local operators in the last-mile segment, as well as the establishment of public access centres across the nation.
Language:English
Score: 1053837.1 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...d/MinicasestudyBBArgentina.pdf
Data Source: un
Jacques-François Martin, (Fonds mondial pour la vaccination infantile): Tiered Prices (or Differentiated Prices or Market Segmentation) text (MS Word, 18 pages, 120Ko)( pdf , 470Ko) et slides (MS PowerPoint, 18 pages, 120Ko)( pdf , 469Ko) Christian Saunders, (FNUAP): UNFPA’s Experience With Contraceptives (MS PowerPoint, 24 pages, 193Ko)( pdf , 1,057Ko) Cecile Miles, Ranbaxy, Inde: Experience with Generic Drugs (MS PowerPoint, 13 pages, 69Ko)( pdf , 47Ko) Dorothy Ochola, (Ouganda): Current experience with differential pricing of HIV/AIDS related drugs in Uganda (MS PowerPoint, 18 pages, 120Ko)( pdf , 48Ko) John Wecker, Boehringer-Ingelheim: Current Experience with Differential Pricing: Accelerating Access Initiative and the Viramune(R) Donation Program (MS Word, 4 pages, 30.5Ko)( pdf , 14Ko) Dr. (...) On examinera aussi dans quelle mesure le droit de la concurrence entrave l'application des techniques de segmentation des marchés. Stratégies de commercialisation des fabricants et approches contractuelles: Stratégies Albert Itschner, Novartis: Market segmentation and price differentiation: a novel approach (MS Word, 4 pages, 31.5Ko)( pdf ,  17Ko) Keith McCollough, Vuna Healthcare Logistics: Purchase undertakings (MS PowerPoint, 11 pages, 956Ko) ( pdf , 234Ko) Clifford Wong, Medimpact Healthcare Systems, Inc: Differential Pricing Impact On Drug Costs To A Purchaser: Effectiveness of "Ex Post Reimbursement" Strategies (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 52Ko)( pdf , 535Ko) Mesures gouvernementales Guy Woods, Lacuna Research Ltd: Governmental Measures: Role of regulatory authorities (MS Word, 6 pages, 47Ko)( pdf , 23Ko) John Bisonga, (Département des douanes et des droits d'accise, Kenya): Export controls (MS Word, 7 pages, 45Ko)( pdf , 325Ko) Droits de propriété intellectuelle Richard Wilder (Powell, Goldstein, Frazer & Murphy): The Value of Intellectual Property Rights (MS Word, 8 pages, 57Ko) ( pdf , 29Ko) Carlos Correa, (Université de Buenos Aires): Intellectual Property Rights and the Exhaustion Principle (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 43.5Ko)( pdf , 29Ko) Politiques de concurrence Harvey Applebaum, Covington & Burling : Antitrust/Competition Law Considerations and Trade Law Considerations (MS Word, 3 pages, 32.5Ko)( pdf , 12Ko) Alberto Heimler (Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato, Italy): The pharmaceutical industry and parallel trade (MS Word, 6 pages, 95.5Ko)( pdf , 22Ko) Séance VI — Perspectives des acheteurs et incitations à l'application de prix différenciés haut de page This session considered the perspectives of purchasers in high and low income markets and consider their influence on the price of essential drugs. It asked whether differential pricing for low income countries will put downward pressure on prices in industrialized countries even with market segmentation. It considered existing and potential fiscal and other incentives for companies to implement differential pricing.
Language:English
Score: 1053455.1 - https://www.wto.org/french/tra..._f/hosbjor_presentations_f.htm
Data Source: un
High-density and low-density market segments Stratospheric and other broadband systems can be differentiated into high-density and low-density market segments. (...) It is important to not confuse low-density market segments with developing parts of the world. (...) The developing world’s mega-cities — from Cairo and Lagos to Jakarta and Bombay — are high-density market segments which need the stratospheric architecture in order to ensure mass access to the broadband channels which are essential to rapid economic development.
Language:English
Score: 1053446 - https://www.itu.int/newsarchive/press/WRC97/Skystation.html
Data Source: un