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Informality and labour market segmentation: the case of Argentina | Publication | Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Skip to main content United Nations 2030 Agenda COVID-19 Español English Português About ECLAC tw fb fl yt Main menu Topics Economic Economic development International trade and integration Production, productivity and management Social Social development Population and development Environmental Sustainable development and human settlements Natural resources Cross-cutting 2030 Agenda Gender affairs Planning for development Statistics Regional architecture Regional architecture Sessions of the Commission Observatories Subsidiary bodies Regional Forum on Sustainable Development Treaties and agreements Cooperation Data and statistics Knowledge Publications Featured Search CEPAL Review Notas de Población Training Courses Workshops Study programmes Library Featured Search Ask us Communities All Communities Observatories All Observatories News Events Available in English Español Informality and labour market segmentation: the case of Argentina Economic development December 2015 | Regular Publications, Reviews and Bulletins » CEPAL Review Informality and labour market segmentation: the case of Argentina Author: Beccaría, Luis Alberto - Groisman, Fernando Physical Description: p. 121-136; tabls. Date: December 2015 ECLAC symbol: LC/G.2652-P View publication Download pdf Description The document evaluates the presence of segmentation in the Argentinean labour market. The analysis is centred on the comparison of the earnings of formal and informal workers. (...) Our results support the segmentation hypothesis for the Argentine urban labour market: workers with similar probabilities of entering/exiting across sectors obtain different earnings.
Language:English
Score: 1155806.5 - https://www.cepal.org/en/publi...et-segmentation-case-argentina
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - 09-S3-French-overview.ppt 1 International Telecommunication Union Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Next Generation Networks and Telecommunication Regulations Few considerations about 2003 Few considerations about 2003 French Telecommunication marketFrench Telecommunication market Marco Carugi Nortel Networks ITU-T NGN FG WG1 Co-Chair and Q.11/13 Rapporteur 19.09.2004 Page - 2Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Few numbers of the French Telecommunication market • French Telecom Business in 2003 : 35 Billion Euros (3.3% annual growth against 3% in 2002 and 10% before 2002) • French Internal Product annual growth in 2003 : 2% • Fixed telephony : 13.5 Billion Euros (-4.1%) • Low speed Internet: 0.13 B Euros (+12%) • Mobile services : 13.2 B Euros (+12.6%) * • Leased lines : 2.2 B Euros (+0.5%) • Terminal sale/rent : 1.8 B Euros (+3.7%) * This segment having still high margins of growth with multimedia services (mobile Internet, SMS, MMS, ,inter-personal communications etc.) 2 19.09.2004 Page - 3Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Comparing with the European TLC market (1) • Fixed telephony : • long distance call price is in EU average • Local call price is higher (but subscription is lower) • Incumbent carrier (FT) market ratio : 75% (higher than EU average) • Interconnection price : EU average for regional, lower for local => incentive to alternative networks deployment • Leased lines (and interconnection leased lines) : • Price higher than EU average French Telephony market summary : good situation for users, with limited concurrence although the entry conditions are satisfactory (except for leased lines) 19.09.2004 Page - 4Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 Comparing with the European TLC market (2) • Mobile market (except Internet) : • Market structure is similar to other EU countries (but only 3 providers) • Subscriber growth is in EU average : 8% • Difficult to establish an EU comparison in terms of prices for user • Internet market • Low speed is stabilising (although quite high) • High speed is growing (penetration ratio is comparable to EU countries with similar size, higher than EU average) • Increasing competition (one of EU’s highest unbundled line numbers) although local loop access prices are in EU average => Results for users in 2003 : reduction of prices and increase of speed 3 19.09.2004 Page - 5Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 2003 highlights from the French Regulation Authority (1) • 2003 : first year of reform of the legal regime resulting from transposition of European directives in French national law • First concrete action in summer 2003 : everybody is now allowed to deploy networks and provide services • This promotes concurrence in favour of consumers, including residential users and enterprises. • Second concrete action : • French parliament approval of law transposing the EU “universal service directive” into national level (to be completed with adoption of new law on electronic communications and audiovisual services and new law on digital economy) 19.09.2004 Page - 6Nanjing, China August 25 - 26, 2004 2003 highlights from the French Regulation Authority (2) • French regulation is adapting to competition situation confirmed by the analysis of market segments identified by the EU Commission • Market segment analysis will continue in 2004 • Segment regulation will adopt principles and methods of concurrence, being more efficient where it has to be active (wholesale versus retail) • Most important facts in 2003 • Fixed market numbers overcome by mobile market ones • Confirmation of “high speed” success : 3.5 M users (double than 2002) - 3M via ADSL. Unbundling is now a reality in France. • Two key goals in 2004 for the French Regulation Authority : • Preserve the concurrence in high speed among SPs for the retail market and among Carriers for the wholesale market. • Extend concurrence in high speed market outside urban regions (and help regional communities to increase territory digitalisation)
Language:English
Score: 1153770.3 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...hina/09-S3-French-overview.pdf
Data Source: un
Future Video Terminal Market Segments H.263L products will, according to the present schedule, reach the market about 2001-2002. (...) The requirements should be based on a coherent view of the future target market segment for the new standard. We think that there will be two major terminal market segments for video communication: Desktop terminals with big high-quality displays, fast powerful general purpose processors and a fairly broad band network connection by e.g. (...) Each of these terminal market segments will be used in several different modes: Real-time video telephony including multi-user conference.
Language:English
Score: 1152993.9 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...video-site/9712_Eib/q15c20.doc
Data Source: un
In the 1990s, most countries sought to address the employment problem essentially through policies designed to increase labour market flexibility. But these policies had very limited success in reducing unemployment and instead led to growth of low-paid part-time and temporary jobs and even to two-tier labour markets. (...) Employment growth in the formal segment must exceed the labour force growth in the economy, and labour market regulations and institutions must not generate strong incentives for the substitution of capital for labour. (...) This reallocation cannot be achieved through policies that increase the flexibility of labour markets. Labour market policies must impart simple but new skills to these people, promoting new forms of apprenticeship arrangements and guaranteeing welfare through wage subsidies.
Language:English
Score: 1151385.6 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...uments/article/wcms_092210.pdf
Data Source: un
At the other extreme, some companies have accepted to more or less fully allocate these fixed costs exclusively to these segments of the market where a solvent demand makes the business nevertheless (highly) profitable. This allows to offer to the poorest segments of the market a price closed to or even equal to the marginal cost. (...) Remembering that they were not so long ago belonging to the poor segments of the market demand, they (individuals as well as countries) tend to use the emotional route, or try to bargain volumes for prices to get the lowest possible price.
Language:English
Score: 1145888.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...ntations_e/16martin_text_e.doc
Data Source: un
At the other extreme, some companies have accepted to more or less fully allocate these fixed costs exclusively to these segments of the market where a solvent demand makes the business nevertheless (highly) profitable. This allows to offer to the poorest segments of the market a price closed to or even equal to the marginal cost. (...) Remembering that they were not so long ago belonging to the poor segments of the market demand, they (individuals as well as countries) tend to use the emotional route, or try to bargain volumes for prices to get the lowest possible price.
Language:English
Score: 1145888.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...ntations_e/16martin_text_e.pdf
Data Source: un
Misunderstanding of LA labor markets! Latin America: which jobs are not in danger? First, the bad ones …..  Latin American labor markets are segmented - A demand-driven segment (large, medium, small private enterprises; public sector), pro-cyclical job growth - A supply-driven segment (low income households), with counter- cyclical dynamics  Supply-driven segment: subsistence needs, low productivity, low technological level (far from productive frontier), does not compete with demand-driven segment: movement of productive frontier without consequence  => Technological change without (direct) impact in this segment, it might even grow Taking into account structural differences affects estimates of risk of job destruction Chile: Risk of automatization of jobs, method Frey and Osborne, standard and adjusted method (preliminary results) (percentages) Source: ECLAC … and on the sector level… Chile: High risk of automatization of jobs by industry, method Frey and Osborne, standard and adjusted method (preliminary results) (absolute numbers) Source: ECLAC … and regarding the argument that less developed countries have the highest risk of job substitution … Latin America: GDP pc and risk of job substitution, Frey/ Osborne method, preliminary results Latin America: GDP pc and risk of job substitution, adjusted method, preliminary results Source: ECLAC And in the formal sector? (...) Distributional issues  Latin America among the most unequal regions – among others, related to heterogeneous production structure, weak institutions  Skill supply characterized by strong segmentation of quality of education  Threat of increased structural heterogeneity with widening technological gaps  Recently, there has been a polarization of the occupational structure of most LA countries, albeit to a lesser degree than in OECD countries.  On the firm level, Crespi and Tacsir (2012) find a skill-bias of product innovation, especially in high-tech sectors (4 LA countries)  Santos, Monroy and Moreno (2015, cit. in Dutz et al, 2018) find that higher ICT intensity is related to higher demand for cognitive skills  Dutz, Almeida and Packard (2018) find mixed results regarding the evolution of the wage gap between high- and low-skilled workers as a result of increased ICT use  New options through platforms but threat of new informality in the context of already high (old) informality => challenges for labor market regulation and social security Conclusions  Risk of – direct and indirect – job destruction  Estimates have to take into account LA labour market structure: Risk centered in (relatively) good jobs  Opportunities for productive job transformation and job creation  But multiple obstacles have to be faced => challenges for public policies and public-private cooperation  Key areas: technology development/ adjustment and support of implementation, skill development (changing demand, lags, segmentation), labour regulation, social security
Language:English
Score: 1138890.6 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...vents/files/8_weller_eclac.pdf
Data Source: un
Visibility >10 years Soon obsolete Consumer Telematics Commercial Telematics Public Telematics In-Car Hands- Free Input Remote Diagnostics Advanced Collision Avoidance Systems Bluetooth in Automotive In-Car Digital/ Satellite Radio MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport) X-by-wire Technologies © 2005 GartnerG2 5 ITU-T The Fully Networked Car, A Workshop on ICT in Vehicles ITU-T Geneva, 2-4 March 2005 Telematics Hype Curve - Consumer Segment Trough of Disillusionment Slope of Enlightenment Plateau Maturity Technology Trigger Peak of Inflated Expectations Visibility Advent of the Internet and mobile computing Reduced investment activity Wingcast dissolution Non-automotive content and app. providers see telematics as a new channel opportunity New telematics service providers enter the market OnStar launch Growing interest & investments from automakers, suppliers & technology providers Search for new “second-tier” telematics market opportunities/segments Growing market consolidation and company closures Realization of true potential of telematics Development of apps. that meet customers’ needs Integration of telematics services into broader, mobile service offerings 1994-2000 2001 2002-2003 2004-2006 2007-2012 Consumer Demand High Low High Low HighLow We are here ! (...) How important do you think the following factors are for accelerating market adoption for telematics solutions in all market segments in Europe? (...) Base: All car drivers, Germany 24 43 33 The Car Manufacturer (Not a Third-Party) Another Provider (Not the Car Manufacturer) Would Consider Both (Manufacturer or a Third-Party) Other Possible Providers… Car Dealership (No.2 in Germany) Insurance Company (No.2 in France) Breakdown Provider (No.2 in UK) Police/Government Retailers Auto Electronics Fitters Mobile Phone Companies, Etc. © 2005 GartnerG2 12 ITU-T The Fully Networked Car, A Workshop on ICT in Vehicles ITU-T Geneva, 2-4 March 2005 Some Closing Thoughts § In ALL markets, start simple, then grow. § Segmentation is Crucial in All Market Segments.
Language:English
Score: 1135365.6 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...03/presentations/s2-dornan.pdf
Data Source: un
Stéphane Germain, Vice President Business Development, EMS Satellite Networks Abstract As a supplier to several satellite operators, and with years of experience from both the space segment and ground segment perspectives, EMS is uniquely positioned in the satellite broadband IP market. Market positioning, segmentation and technology are briefly explored. (...) Finally, key success factors both for satellite operators and the market in general are suggested. Biography Mr. Stéphane Germain, Vice-President at EMS Satellite Networks, is responsible for business development, sales and marketing.
Language:English
Score: 1133265.6 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...ellites/200212/germain-s1.html
Data Source: un
Maria Neira, WHO: Experience with access to essential medicines for tropical diseases (MS Word, 3 pages, 29KB)( pdf , 22KB) Jeffrey Sturchio, Merck: The Case of Ivermectin: Lessons Learned and Implications for Improving Access to Care and Treatment in Developing Countries (MS Word, 5 pages, 35.5KB)( pdf , 21KB) Chuck Hardwick, Pfizer: Access to Medicines in the Developing World Through Partnerships (MS Word, 8 pages, 31KB)( pdf , 16KB) Session V — Market Segmentation: Techniques, Actors and Incentives    back to top This session sought to examine the different ways in which the segmentation of markets necessary for differential pricing can be made effective, taking into account the need to ensure consistency with WTO and other international trade rules. Also considered were the extent to which competition law puts constraints on the use of market segmentation techniques. Marketing strategies by manufacturers and contractual approaches Albert Itschner, Novartis: Market segmentation and price differentiation: a novel approach (MS Word, 4 pages, 31.5KB)( pdf ,  17KB) Keith McCollough, Vuna Healthcare Logistics: Purchase undertakings (MS PowerPoint, 11 pages, 956KB) ( pdf , 234KB) Clifford Wong, Medimpact Healthcare Systems, Inc: Differential Pricing Impact On Drug Costs To A Purchaser: Effectiveness of "Ex Post Reimbursement" Strategies (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 52KB)( pdf , 535KB) Governmental measures Guy Woods, Lacuna Research Ltd: Governmental Measures: Role of regulatory authorities (MS Word, 6 pages, 47KB)( pdf , 23KB) John Bisonga, Customs & Excise, Government of Kenya: Export controls (MS Word, 7 pages, 45KB)( pdf , 325KB) The use of intellectual property rights Richard Wilder (Powell, Goldstein, Frazer & Murphy): The Value of Intellectual Property Rights (MS Word, 8 pages, 57KB) ( pdf , 29KB) Carlos Correa, University of Buenos Aires: Intellectual Property Rights and the Exhaustion Principle (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 43.5KB)( pdf , 29KB) Competition policy considerations Harvey Applebaum, Covington & Burling : Antitrust/Competition Law Considerations and Trade Law Considerations (MS Word, 3 pages, 32.5KB)( pdf , 12KB) Alberto Heimler (Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato, Italy): The pharmaceutical industry and parallel trade (MS Word, 6 pages, 95.5KB)( pdf , 22KB) Session VI — Purchaser Perspectives and Incentives for Differential Pricing This session considered the perspectives of purchasers in high and low income markets and consider their influence on the price of essential drugs. It asked whether differential pricing for low income countries will put downward pressure on prices in industrialized countries even with market segmentation. It considered existing and potential fiscal and other incentives for companies to implement differential pricing.
Language:English
Score: 1131371.3 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr..._e/hosbjor_presentations_e.htm
Data Source: un