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Why programmes fail to reach most disadvantaged groups (1) The most disadvantaged groups are often not eligible for participation in mainstream labour market programmes, as these are confined either to registered unemployed or to those entitled to UI benefits. (...) Mismatches between provision and individual needs Mismatches between provision and labour market needs Programmes are geared towards weak or marginal labour market segments (small-scale local initiatives) given the resistance of companies in ‘market’ economic sectors. Why programmes fail to reach most disadvantaged groups (5) Temporary job creation in non- profit or other local initiatives sometimes reinforces segmentation or result in a backslide into unemployment Segmentation, sidetrack and dead end Stigmatization effect The mere fact of benefiting from a programme may reveal the labour market difficulties of an individual to employers on the basis of disadvantages usually attributed to a group (e.g. long-term unemployment).
Language:English
Score: 1035535.2 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_612072.pdf
Data Source: un
There are different state of the market development in target countries: ■ INITIAL STAGE OF THE NGV MARKET DEVELOPMENT → Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kyrgyzstan, North Macedonia, Romania, Turkmenistan, ■ EMERGING NGV MARKETS → Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Serbia, Tajikistan, ■ MATURE NGV MARKETS → Armenia and Uzbekistan. (...) As the first step, each country should have a comprehensive development program for the NGV market including different segments of the transport sector: private cars, buses, LCVs, heavy trucks, construction and communal machinery, agricultural and quarry machinery, railway transport, water transport etc. (...) Countries with international transit routes have a great potential for small-scale LNG market development. There are several main steps for regulatory authorities to start with: ■ to make a complex analysis of transport and energy sectors and specify the fuel potential of every segment of transport sector, ■ to understand the perspectives of power mix in the long run, ■ to develop a comprehensive program of NGV market development with an infrastructure layout based on potential demand, ■ to initiate simplification of technical regulation for filling stations, ■ to develop a system for cylinders turnover monitoring, ■ to implement a program for popularization NGV among citizens.
Language:English
Score: 1033118.5 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...GV_Report_ExecSummary_2004.pdf
Data Source: un
36schoonveld_e.PDF Market Segmentation and International Price Referencing Ed Schoonveld 1 MARKET SEGMENTATION AND INTERNATIONAL PRICE REFERENCING 1. (...) Interestingly, the Southern European economies have strengthened sufficiently to allow them to enter the European Market Segmentation and International Price Referencing Ed Schoonveld 3 Monetary Union. (...) Pharmaceutical companies make investment decisions for the exploration and development of new drug treatments on the basis of its scientific probability of success Market Segmentation and International Price Referencing 6 Ed Schoonveld and its ability to recoup its investment and make a reasonable profit.
Language:English
Score: 1031830.3 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...entations_e/36schoonveld_e.pdf
Data Source: un
Maria Neira, WHO: Experience with access to essential medicines for tropical diseases (MS Word, 3 pages, 29KB)( pdf , 22KB) Jeffrey Sturchio, Merck: The Case of Ivermectin: Lessons Learned and Implications for Improving Access to Care and Treatment in Developing Countries (MS Word, 5 pages, 35.5KB)( pdf , 21KB) Chuck Hardwick, Pfizer: Access to Medicines in the Developing World Through Partnerships (MS Word, 8 pages, 31KB)( pdf , 16KB) Session V — Market Segmentation: Techniques, Actors and Incentives    back to top This session sought to examine the different ways in which the segmentation of markets necessary for differential pricing can be made effective, taking into account the need to ensure consistency with WTO and other international trade rules. Also considered were the extent to which competition law puts constraints on the use of market segmentation techniques. Marketing strategies by manufacturers and contractual approaches Albert Itschner, Novartis: Market segmentation and price differentiation: a novel approach (MS Word, 4 pages, 31.5KB)( pdf ,  17KB) Keith McCollough, Vuna Healthcare Logistics: Purchase undertakings (MS PowerPoint, 11 pages, 956KB) ( pdf , 234KB) Clifford Wong, Medimpact Healthcare Systems, Inc: Differential Pricing Impact On Drug Costs To A Purchaser: Effectiveness of "Ex Post Reimbursement" Strategies (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 52KB)( pdf , 535KB) Governmental measures Guy Woods, Lacuna Research Ltd: Governmental Measures: Role of regulatory authorities (MS Word, 6 pages, 47KB)( pdf , 23KB) John Bisonga, Customs & Excise, Government of Kenya: Export controls (MS Word, 7 pages, 45KB)( pdf , 325KB) The use of intellectual property rights Richard Wilder (Powell, Goldstein, Frazer & Murphy): The Value of Intellectual Property Rights (MS Word, 8 pages, 57KB) ( pdf , 29KB) Carlos Correa, University of Buenos Aires: Intellectual Property Rights and the Exhaustion Principle (MS PowerPoint, 7 pages, 43.5KB)( pdf , 29KB) Competition policy considerations Harvey Applebaum, Covington & Burling : Antitrust/Competition Law Considerations and Trade Law Considerations (MS Word, 3 pages, 32.5KB)( pdf , 12KB) Alberto Heimler (Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato, Italy): The pharmaceutical industry and parallel trade (MS Word, 6 pages, 95.5KB)( pdf , 22KB) Session VI — Purchaser Perspectives and Incentives for Differential Pricing This session considered the perspectives of purchasers in high and low income markets and consider their influence on the price of essential drugs. It asked whether differential pricing for low income countries will put downward pressure on prices in industrialized countries even with market segmentation. It considered existing and potential fiscal and other incentives for companies to implement differential pricing.
Language:English
Score: 1031470.4 - https://www.wto.org/spanish/tr..._s/hosbjor_presentations_s.htm
Data Source: un
This allows adapting the work of carriers in narrow terms of competition in the air transportations market. Taking into account the commercial dividends from such kind of airlines cooperation, we can also mention the deficiencies of the use of codesharing practice such as the advertisement of the scheduled flights without indication of the actual carrier, partial reduction of the level of passenger services and actual redistribution and not the transportations stimulation. 1.2 Codesharing with airlines of three and more countries suffers greater losses for opening of the direct air services between the countries. (...) The designated airline(s) shall not, however, exercise traffic rights on domestic segments in the other country. A36-WP/65 EC/7 - 3 - 2.4 All operating airlines involved in the codesharing arrangements should be designated by their respective Contracting Party and hold the underlying traffic rights on the route or segment concerned. 2.5 All marketing airlines involved in the codesharing arrangements may hold out and market third and fourth freedom services on the route or segment concerned. (...) There will be no limitation on capacity to be offered by the marketing airline on codeshared operations. 2.8 No fifth freedom or stopover rights may be exercised by the marketing carrier on codeshared flights. 2.9 Nothing in these codesharing arrangements will provide the designated airline(s) of either side with any additional own-operated aircraft rights, apart from the ability to enter into codesharing arrangements as stipulated above. 2.10 a) Each airline participating in codesharing should ensure that at the point of sale of a passenger ticket for a service to be operated under the above codesharing arrangements, the passenger is notified, in respect of each journey or each segment of a journey, as to which airline is the actual operating airline.
Language:English
Score: 1031053.6 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...%2036th%20Session/wp065_en.pdf
Data Source: un
Fluconazole: Chuck Hardwick (Pfizer, Inc.) 10:30-11:00 - coffee break 11:00-12:30 - Session V – Market Segmentation: techniques, actors and incentives This session will seek to examine the different ways in which the segmentation of markets necessary for differential pricing can be made effective, taking into account the need to ensure consistency with WTO and other international trade rules. Also considered will be the extent to which competition law puts constraints on the use of market segmentation techniques. Marketing strategies by manufacturers and contractual approaches: Market segmentation and price differentiation: A Novel Approach: Albert Itschner (Novartis) Purchase undertakings (including security and prevention of diversion): Keith McCullough (Vuna Healthcare Logistics) Ex post reimbursement techniques: Clifford Wong (Kaiser Permanente, retired; MedImpact) Governmental measures: Role of regulatory authorities: Guy Woods (Lacuna Research, Ltd.) (...) It will ask whether differential pricing for low income countries will put downward pressure on prices in industrialized countries even with market segmentation. It will consider existing and potential fiscal and other incentives for companies to implement differential pricing.
Language:English
Score: 1025532.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...top_e/trips_e/tn_hosbjor_e.htm
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Most of the commitments permit the supply of public voice services, either immediate or phased-in, in at least one market segment. However, two of the 61 governments commit to voice only over closed user groups in all market segments. (...) NEW ZEALAND Commits to open markets for all basic telecommunication services for all market segments (local, long-distance and international). (...) VENEZUELA Commits to open markets for facilities based voice telephone services in all market segments (local, long distance and international) as of November 2000.
Language:English
Score: 1024672.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres97_e/bt-summ3.htm
Data Source: un
This can present a strong barrier for NGV market development. For these countries, focusing on specific pilot projects in selected segments of the transport sector (such as water transport) is more beneficial. 22. (...) It is recommended that the energy mix in all of the project countries be evaluated to provide the basis for a life cycle comparison of electric vehicles and NGVs; (b) Each project country should consider a comprehensive development programme for an NGV market, including different segments of the transport sector: private cars, buses, light commercial vehicles (LCVs), heavy trucks, construction and communal machinery, agricultural and quarry machinery, railway transport, and water transport. (...) The regulatory authorities in the project countries can introduce the following changes: • Make a comprehensive analysis of the transport and energy sectors and specify the fuel potential of every segment of the transport sector • Understand the perspectives of the power mix over the long term • Develop a comprehensive programme for development of an NGV market with an infrastructure layout based on potential demand • Initiate simplification of technical regulations for CNG filling stations • Develop a system for monitoring turnover of CNG cylinders • Implement a programme for popularization of NGVs among the general public.
Language:English
Score: 1024646.4 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...19%20Gas%20Transport_Reccs.pdf
Data Source: un
NEW ZEALAND Commits to open markets for all basic telecommunication services for all market segments (local, long-distance and international). (...) VENEZUELA Commits to open markets for facilities based voice telephone services in all market segments (local, long distance and international) as of November 2000. (...) These commitments permit competition the supply of public voice services, either immediate or phased-in, in at least one market segment, except for one, which commits to voice only over closed user groups in all market segments.
Language:English
Score: 1024094.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...highlights_commit_exempt_e.htm
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Category of Licenses Under Converged Category of Licenses Under Converged Licensing Framework (contLicensing Framework (cont……)) 23 Other License Categories in the New Other License Categories in the New Licensing FrameworkLicensing Framework • Postal Services Licence: Authorises the provision of postal services • Courier Service licence: Give the authorization to provide courier services • Frequency Spectrum User Licence: Authorizes the Licensee to use frequency spectrum resource and own radio communication station(s) • Installation and Maintenance Licence: Authorises the installation and maintenance of electronic communication equipment and network. • Importation and Distribution Licence: Authorises Importation and distribution of electronic communication equipment. • Type-Approval: Authorizes the electronic communication equipment to operate in the United Republic of Tanzania. • Numbering: Authorizes the use of scarce resources of numbers. 24 Market SegmentMarket Segmentationation • The four licence categories mentioned in the converged licensing framework are further subdivided into four market segments to reflect and focus their corresponding markets as follows: • International Market Segment: Licensee is authorized to offer services from one or more of the four category licences to International market. • National Market segment: Licensee is authorized to provide services National wide. • Regional Market segment: Licensee authorized to provider service in an administrative region. • District Market segment: Licensee authorized to provide services in an administrative district. 25 Important Issues Considered in Implementing Important Issues Considered in Implementing the licensing frameworkthe licensing framework 1. (...) (i) Increased Number of Operators as at 30/9/2006 S/N Type of Licence Market Segment Number of Licence Issued International 3 National 3 International 3 National 3 International 6 National 17 National Television / Radio 4 / 5 Regional Television / Radio 5 / 7 District Television / Radio 27 / 35 Community Television / Radio 2 / 6 4. (...) ) - TCRA Views on the Next Generation Networks (NGN) Communication Sector Overview Establishment of TCRA Functions of TCRA TCRA Vision TCRA Mission Introduction of the Converged Licensing Framework in Tanzania Objectives of the Converged Licensing Framework The Converged Licensing Framework Principles Other License Categories in the New Licensing Framework Market Segmentation Lessons of Experience Lessons of Experience (cont…) Lessons of Experience (cont…) Lessons of Experience (cont…) Lessons of Experience (cont…) Appreciation
Language:English
Score: 1023409.9 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...00610/presentations/npr-p2.pdf
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