Home

Results 31 - 40 of 233,883 for market segments. Search took 4.71 seconds.  
Sort by date/Sort by relevance
Similarly, experiences in setting up financial markets in LDCs and their impact on domestic resources mobilization could provide a valuable insight in , and shed light on an area that so far has been largely overlooked. At the micro level, the issue of developing domestic markets as a means for increasing the competitiveness of LDCs products in their own markets deserves attention. Appropriate strategies, policies and programmes, including for capacity-building, the creation of a business- Issues paper for 17 February ECOSOC high-level segment preparatory roundtable A: “Mobilizing domestic resources, capacity-building and national policy measures for the creation of an enabling environment for poverty eradication in the context of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2001- 2010” - 3 - friendly environment, nurturing of the domestic private sector and a commensurate increase in its share of the domestic market are issues that the RT meeting may wish to explore, with guidance from best practices and lessons learned in LDCs.
Language:English
Score: 1021372.5 - https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/m...s%20paper%20-%20RTA%20REV1.pdf
Data Source: un
New Corporate Image Title: Arial 20 Air Transport and Tourism: Smart Product Mix ICAO, Air Transport Meeting Georgetown, Guyana 22 November 2018 Guilherme Esmanhoto 2 Aviation policy is a driver to increase competitiveness and generate more traffic and has to be in line with the new way of traveling High level degree of liberalization in air transport bilateral and multilateral ASAs Source: Airbus Global Market Forecast Nivel de liberalización Regulado Tradicional Liberal Flujo intra- regional Flujo regional Level of liberalization Regulated Liberal 3 Non-liberalized aviation policy leads to a vicious circle… The domestic market is not able to sustain itself The domestic market depends on the incoming international traffic flow The incoming international flow is restrained to protect the national airline The national airline fails to take advantage International market continues to be underdeveloped Domestic market receives less international flows 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 …whilst a liberalized aviation policy leads to a virtuous circle The inflow of incoming international passenger traffic is increased Higher efficiency and lower prices lead to higher levels of tourism and investment Higher inflows of international passenger traffic leads to an increase of the domestic passenger traffic (distribution) Domestic market has higher resources to sustain itself Better domestic service network fosters further international inflow 1 2 3 4 5 6 Liberalized air transport market set the basis for what comes next 5 • Years ago: traveler experience and selection of destination were highly dependent on travel agencies, who in turn depend on tour operators and charters • Nowadays: fast changing sector due to: Traditional way of traveling has changed mainly due to three factors: LCC, client’s desire of experiences and new technologies LCC made new destinations more accessible, reducing the dependence of tour operation and charter pre-define holiday packages Desire for authenticity, active discovery and being connected are travelers’ new basics Internet connectivity, search and geolocation technologies, mobile payments and social platforms, have a direct impact in travel Irruption of LCC Travel experience Technology 01/ 02/ 03/ 6 • Tour operators had tend to vertical integration • Charter airlines have started operating scheduled services to fill seats through other channels • However, this reaction hasn’t been enough to face the growth of low cost and to adapt their products to new travelers behavior • The low-cost segment has absorbed part of the tour operators and charter segment market share in recent years LCC has made more accessible air travel and has changed traditional airlines business models 01/ From tour operators and charter operations to low-cost and scheduled flights Changes in business model • Democratization of air travel • Increased options with new point-to-point destinations • Reduction on air fares • Scheduled and non-scheduled (charter) airlines had to review their business models to not lose (additional) market share From holiday packages to flexible products • From “pack-holidays” to independent product with separated buying process • Promoting flexible touristic products • Controlled by the traveler LCC has redrawn the aviation industry 7 Business case: charter operations in Europe Europe: strong reduction of charter mkt share on total flights Source: CAPA, Eurocontrol Statfor. 2014 data no available Europe: LCC share of total flights has more than doubled in the same period S h a re o f C h a rt e r fl ig h ts ( % ) F li g h ts in E u ro p e b y c a te g o ry ( % ) 01/ Arab spring events hitting demand for holidays to North Africa 3.4% 7.7% 13.3% 30.1% After years of decline or transition to a low-cost, scheduled model, charter segment represents only a small share of all flights 8 • From tourism service industry offering a flight, a room and some food Living travel experience: travelers want to experience seamless journeys tailored to their habits and preferences 02/ Before Nowadays • From travelers selecting from a pre-defined list of destinations (selected by agencies) • From “popular” destinations • From control in hand of tour operators and agencies • To offer experiences • To a wide-open range of possibilities • To “exclusive” experiences • To control in hands of travelers (self tailor- made trip) 9 • Booking a trip today, and booking a trip 15 years ago are two completely different processes • Through technology travelers can control all the trip Technology is changing the travel industry 03/ The Smartphone Transactional and flexibility Better Communication Maps Customer power Mobile platforms have become essential, from awareness of a destination to transactional, and client relation and sharing their experience through social-media Travelers can book flights, remote check-in, boarding passes, change flights, seats, upgrades, giving the travelers flexibility Customers can directly contact the airline, and can expect a response in a reasonable amount of time. This ability to engage quickly has helped to retain customers and the reliance on airlines to solve problems GPS become accessible giving travelers the confidence to be more spontaneous and make fewer plans Technology has changed the balance of power between business and customer across the travel industry 10 Liberalized environment as the basis for further air market development In conclusion, smart product mix for the tourism segment should consider: Travel is experiencing a fast transition lead by travelers.
Language:English
Score: 1019958.8 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...Guilherme%20Esmanhoto%20v3.pdf
Data Source: un
Director, Private Sector Task Force Executive in Residence and Adjunct Associate Professor, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University http://www.who.int/workforcealliance/knowledge/en/ Disclaimer & Limitations • Views expressed are those of the authors Jeffrey Moe, Caroline Hope Griffith and Michael Merson; not necessarily those of the Global Health Workforce Alliance • Report limited – self-report data v. objective (independently verified) – descriptive v. normative or prescriptive – “health workforce innovation” is also occurring in the public sector • report focused only on private sector activity 3 IN HEALTH, THE PRIVATE SECTOR PLAYS A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN LOW INCOME MARKETS E.G. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA *52% of expenditure is on private providers when extrapolated for SSA (excluding South Africa) from most recent year available between 1995-2002 from NHA reports for Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe; 41% when other sources for an additional 13 countries are included (at average exchange rate) Source: NHA, MoH, WHR 2006, team analysis ~50 ~50 Providers Public Private 100% ~65 ~15 ~10 ~10 Private sector providers For-profit Social enterprise Nonprofit Traditional healer Public Private Health care expenditure by provider ownership Percent* $16.7B When measured on a usage basis: • Private sector providers likely comprise larger share of market due to under-reporting of non-profit and informal segments • Social enterprises, non-profit and informal segments comprise larger share of private sector due to smaller user fees and under-reporting ~50 ~5 ~5 Public Financing agent Other private Out-of- pocket 100% Private prepaid ~40 Health care expenditure by financing agent Percent $16.7B ~50 ~50 Providers Public Private 100% ~65 ~15 ~10 ~10 Private sector providers For-profit Social enterprise Nonprofit Traditional healer Public Private Health care expenditure by provider ownership Percent* $16.7B When measured on a usage basis: • Private sector providers likely comprise larger share of market due to under-reporting of non-profit and informal segments • Social enterprises, non-profit and informal segments comprise larger share of private sector due to smaller user fees and under-reporting When measured on a usage basis: • Private sector providers likely comprise larger share of market due to under-reporting of non-profit and informal segments • Social enterprises, non-profit and informal segments comprise larger share of private sector due to smaller user fees and under-reporting ~50 ~5 ~5 Public Financing agent Other private Out-of- pocket 100% Private prepaid ~40 Health care expenditure by financing agent Percent $16.7B Source: IFC 2008 Private Health Sector Context Low Income Countries • Private = non-government (NGO), faith-based (FBO), not for profit, for-profit; all non-state – Blurry lines between public and private health resources – Mistrust • Government often describes private health sector as 1) providing services targeting the middle class; 2) provides low quality, unregulated services which exploit the poor • Private sector has accused government of 1) under-investment in HC, 2) investment in broken systems, 3) malfeasance and/or corruption – Private health sector growth is potentiated AND constrained by its “enabling environment” • Legal, business, policy, HC market, technology, civil society = enabling environment • Weak institutional frameworks impede private health sector growth • HC innovators often lack business acumen, management expertise • Aid programs can create a “donor mentality”; reduce search for sustainability Enabling Environment or Innovation Eco-system Health workforce innovators: workforce innovation is often a by-product of mission Innovator’s Primary Mission Health Work- force Supply Increase effectiveness and efficiency Increase retention 31 Health Workforce Innovators (identified in 2008; MANY others not included in this report) Increase Supply Increase Efficiency and Effectiveness of Existing Workers Increase Retention Rural Technology Business Incubator– First Care Health Enterprise, Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI), African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF_ - Maridi), Touch Foundation, Healthstore Foundation/CFWShops, Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) , Health Careers of America, Aga Khan School of Nursing, AMREF E- Learning Program - Kenya. (...) Leadership, Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSA) Gaps ID local and international talent to lead Training to close KSA gaps & build business plans Match Funders to Plans Foundation, government, individual, private equity and banks fund plans they choose Baselines set which allow assessments of health outcomes, quality, access Health Workforce Incubators: Stimulate private health sector markets for ideas, talent and capital HWI Health Workforce Incubators NOTE: Incubator = event, process or location ▪ Promote public/private dialogue – Advocate “whole market” approach with active and coordinated private & public roles in HRH responses – Country Coord. & Facilitation – Public Private Partnerships – Develop enabling environment ▪ Amplify patient perspective and overhaul regulation to balance patient safety with innovation – Bring patient voice into regulation of professionals – Patients supported to make informed decisions – Build “right-touch” regulation ▪ Curate global health workforce innovations – e.g. Center for Health Market Innovations, International Partnership for Innovative HC Delivery ▪ Leverage productivity through use of technology – Base staffing models around telemedicine – Assume email and telephone consultations • Match training and staffing to actual systems of care – Train for care outside hospitals, clinical leadership, continuous improvement, research – Increase vocational training and apprenticeships for specific processes within care pathway Increase evidence, accountability, training and access to funding – Funders support or require independent evidence gathering – Private sector: internal accountability – Incubators: scale local activities OR replicate global innovation, training for innovator managers, funding 1 2 3 6 5 4 Private Health Sector and HRH Crisis: Recommendations Thank you Diapositive numéro 1 Disclaimer & Limitations IN HEALTH, THE PRIVATE SECTOR PLAYS A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN LOW INCOME MARKETS E.G.
Language:English
Score: 1019894.8 - https://www.who.int/workforcea...012/presentation_Jeff-PSTF.pdf
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - Session 3_Competition Law Principles in the European Union (Doyle).ppt 1 Session 3: Competition Policy and European Regulation Training on Competition and Changing Market Conditions: Impact on ICT Regulation Addis Ababa, 6th – 9th November, 2007 By Dr Chris Doyle Warwick Business School & Consultant World Bank 2 Case study: The application of ex ante regulation in the EU – present and future 3 The current framework: Key Regulatory Directives (2002) Framework Directive Outlines principles and objectives Authorisation Directive Licensing regime – light-handed Access Directive Interconnection etc Universal Service Directive Social objectives and protecting certain end users 4 Framework Directive Provisions for dealing with NRAs and their tasks Article 7 procedures for SMP notifications, harmonisation and coordination Commission right of veto where NRA defines different relevant market and designates SMP and there is a “barrier to the single market” or “serious doubts” about compatibility with Community law and objectives of NRA (Article 8) Introduces SMP concept Market definition procedure NRA to identify markets guided by Commission Recommendation Market analysis procedure NRA to assess competition in market and identify SMP operators taking utmost account of Commission Guidelines 5 Significant Market Power “…there is not effective competition, i.e. in markets where there are one or more undertakings with significant market power” (Recital 27 Framework Directive) “An undertaking shall be deemed to have significant market power if, either individually or jointly with others, it enjoys a position equivalent to dominance, that is to say a position of economic strength affording it the power to behave to an appreciable extent independently of competitors, customers and ultimately consumers.” (Article 14(2) Framework Directive) (emphasis added) “Where a national regulatory authority determines that a relevant market is not effectively competitive, it shall identify undertakings with significant market power on that market” (Article 16(4) Framework Directive) (emphasis added) 6 Recommended markets 2002 Retail 1. (...) Voice call termination, mobile 17. National market for international roaming on mobile 18. Broadcasting transmission services 7 Recommended markets 2007 (proposed) Retail 1.
Language:English
Score: 1017203.5 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...hiopia/pdf/Session_3_Doyle.pdf
Data Source: un
Market delineation Technical basis Economic basis SSNIP test 2. SMP assessment Presumption at 25% market share Dominant position (single or joint) 3. Remedies choice Automatically full suite Based on market failure, justified, proportionate Comparison of EU Competition Regulation 3 www.windsor-place.com5 The aims of the Directive on competition in the markets for electronic communications networks and services The focal point of the new regulatory package is to address relevant markets that are characterised by a lack of effective competition. • In particular, the Directives have aimed to resolve the conceptual distinctions between the ex ante & ex post approach to competition law. • Effective competition is defined in terms of the existence of a dominant market actor or actors with significant market power “SMP”. • Ex ante obligations only imposed if following a market analysis, the market is not effectively competitive, that is there is no single or collective dominance • The identification of relevant markets requires an economic assessment, consistent with EU competition rules of the range of services which act as competitive substitutes to certain other services.
Language:English
Score: 1016464.9 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...%20-%20EU%20SMP%20Practice.pdf
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - Sudip Chaudhuri_IMCC_Market Access_02032018 Bonn.pptx Market Access Sudip Chaudhuri sudip@iimcal.ac.in International Business and Investment Forum on “Mobilizing investment, technology and partnership opportunities for Africa’s pharmaceutical industry” UN Campus, Bonn, 1-2 March, 2018 Situation in Africa Today High import dependence Difficulty in competing against imports Practically no protection Deficiency of technical knowledge High cost of production, including ◦ High interest rate Infrastructural problems But …. All countries when developing industries faced the same problems that Africa faces today: 3 Lessons from history Industrial policy crucial – government need to intervene to support local production and local producers to enhance ◦ Market access ◦ Access to Technology ◦ Access to Finance Understanding and coordination between government and private sector is crucial 4 Market access All countries have protected domestic producers to develop industries Cost initially higher not because of inefficiency but because of lack of experience Concerns against protection ◦ Tariff measures If domestic producers are unable to develop capacities, prices of imports will go up Domestic producers will take advantage and charge higher prices ◦ Non tariff measures Higher prices due to less competition Possibilities of shortages Legitimate concerns but not insurmountable Successful countries which have used protection have also intervened to specifically manage prices and costs Tariff policy has been part of a coordinated strategy to avoid the pitfalls ◦ Care has been taken for example to ensure that productive capacities develop to avoid shortages ◦ Care has also been taken to monitor and manage the cost and price differential between the local industry and foreign competitors. Market access: questions for this Forum Not whether to enhance market access but how to do so in ◦ Highly competitive segment of the market where most African countries are already present ◦ Value added segments where they are not currently present ◦ Regional markets ◦ International donor funded market How the private sector needs to respond and contribute as partners in the development of an efficient industry
Language:English
Score: 1012880.4 - https://www.unido.org/sites/de...ccess_02032018%20Bonn.pptx.pdf
Data Source: un
This requires a separation of the relevant product market from the relevant geographical market in accordance with the Law against Restraints of Competition. The services which are sufficiently similar for the informed consumer to regard them as substitutable are considered to be part of the same relevant product market. Hence the description of the subject matter of the licence has to be tailored to the markets defined in this ____________________ 2 Telecommunications Act in this text refers to the German Telecommunications Act of July, 25 1996 - 3 - ITU-D/1/005-E sense. (...) These include especially transmission lines which consist of the uplink from the satellite earth station (ground segment) and the mobile terminal equipment respectively to the space segment and of the downlink, ie the connection from the space segment to the satellite earth station and the mobile terminal equipment respectively. 13.
Language:English
Score: 1010756.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/stud...002/SG1/Documents/1998/005.pdf
Data Source: un
Informal interactive dialogue on commodity markets | General Assembly of the United Nations Welcome to the United Nations. (...) Mogens Lykketoft, President of the 70 th Session of the General Assembly  10.10 – 11.10am Segment I: Recent developments in commodities markets and the debt impact and long term structural constraints to diversify commodity economies Moderator: Ambassador Dian Triansyah Djani, Permanent Representative of Indonesia to the United Nations in New York Keynote Speakers: Mr. (...) Vinicius Pinheiro, ILO Special Representative to the United Nations in New York  4.00 – 5.00pm Interventions by Member States  5.00 – 5.30pm Closing Segment Presentation of Summary Find full programme here: Programme: Informal interactive dialogue on commodity markets 31 March 2016 CONCEPT NOTE: Informal interactive dialogue on commodity markets 13 May 2016 PROGRAMME: Informal interactive dialogue on commodity markets Quick Links News UN Journal Webcast Key Documents Charter of the United Nations Rules of Procedure Resolutions Related Sites General Assembly General Assembly Affairs Protocol Resources Documents Search Delegate’s Handbook Media Arrangements Copyright | Terms of Use | Privacy Notice | Site Index | Fraud Alert | Help | Contact Us UN Web Services Section, Department of Public Information , United Nations https://www.googletagmanager.com/gtag/js?
Language:English
Score: 1006166.6 - https://www.un.org/pga/70/even...dialogue-on-commodity-markets/
Data Source: un
The extension of this initiative to other countries could be considered by ECOSOC. • We recognized that a central aspect of creating an enabling environment in LDCs is that there can be no peace without development and no development without peace. • Development partners can and must do more to support the national efforts by LDCs. • The UN system itself can maintain focus on better coordination of the peacemaking and peacekeeping activities with emergency relief, peace building and development efforts in a seamless, multidimensional and long term approach. • Other crucial elements for the LDCs emerging from conflict include capacity building to design and implement reconstruction plans and policy, appropriate funding for post-conflict transition, and enhanced coordination among partners in post-conflict reconstruction. • We also considered trade and market access preferences for LDCs. There has been clear increase in market access schemes for the LDCs, although the need for further improvement is also recognized. (...) I am very pleased with the interactive and lively debate we had on the wide range of issues relevant to the theme of the high- level segment. Your ideas and recommendations will provide a major input to the high- level segment, to the report of the Secretary-General and will be compiled into a book. (...) NGOs have a crucial role in this year’s high- level segment. .
Language:English
Score: 1003458.8 - https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/m...asi%20closing%2018%20march.pdf
Data Source: un
Microsoft Word - 180gr99 Decision of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 180 of February 16, 1999 on the Procedure for Regulating the Admission and Use of Global Mobile Personal Satellite Communication Systems on the Telecommunications Market of Russia For the purposes of stepping up the cooperation and partnership relations of Russian operator and industrial companies in implementing the international projects oriented to the promotion of the new kind of services, i.e. global mobile personal satellite communication systems and providing further development of interrelated communications network of the Russian Federation on the basis of new technologies the Government of the Russian Federation hereby resolves: 1. To recognize a possibility in principle of the use on the Russia's telecommunications market of the communication services provided by the global mobile personal satellite communication systems in compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation on condition that Russian operator companies be set up with the exclusive right to provide the communication services of respective systems on the territory of the Russian Federation. 2. The exclusive right to the provision of confidential communication services within the global mobile personal satellite communication systems used on Russia's telecommunications market shall be granted to a special Russian operator responsible for setting up and developing a special federal confidential communication subsystem. 3.
Language:English
Score: 1002717.9 - https://www.wto.org/english/th.../rus_e/WTACCRUS33A1_LEG_37.pdf
Data Source: un