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Similarly, experiences in setting up financial markets in LDCs and their impact on domestic resources mobilization could provide a valuable insight in , and shed light on an area that so far has been largely overlooked. At the micro level, the issue of developing domestic markets as a means for increasing the competitiveness of LDCs products in their own markets deserves attention. Appropriate strategies, policies and programmes, including for capacity-building, the creation of a business- Issues paper for 17 February ECOSOC high-level segment preparatory roundtable A: “Mobilizing domestic resources, capacity-building and national policy measures for the creation of an enabling environment for poverty eradication in the context of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2001- 2010” - 3 - friendly environment, nurturing of the domestic private sector and a commensurate increase in its share of the domestic market are issues that the RT meeting may wish to explore, with guidance from best practices and lessons learned in LDCs.
Language:English
Score: 1109742.8 - https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/m...s%20paper%20-%20RTA%20REV1.pdf
Data Source: un
This can present a strong barrier for NGV market development. For these countries, focusing on specific pilot projects in selected segments of the transport sector (such as water transport) is more beneficial. 22. (...) It is recommended that the energy mix in all of the project countries be evaluated to provide the basis for a life cycle comparison of electric vehicles and NGVs; (b) Each project country should consider a comprehensive development programme for an NGV market, including different segments of the transport sector: private cars, buses, light commercial vehicles (LCVs), heavy trucks, construction and communal machinery, agricultural and quarry machinery, railway transport, and water transport. (...) The regulatory authorities in the project countries can introduce the following changes: • Make a comprehensive analysis of the transport and energy sectors and specify the fuel potential of every segment of the transport sector • Understand the perspectives of the power mix over the long term • Develop a comprehensive programme for development of an NGV market with an infrastructure layout based on potential demand • Initiate simplification of technical regulations for CNG filling stations • Develop a system for monitoring turnover of CNG cylinders • Implement a programme for popularization of NGVs among the general public.
Language:English
Score: 1108709.1 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...19%20Gas%20Transport_Reccs.pdf
Data Source: un
Most of the commitments permit the supply of public voice services, either immediate or phased-in, in at least one market segment. However, two of the 61 governments commit to voice only over closed user groups in all market segments. (...) NEW ZEALAND Commits to open markets for all basic telecommunication services for all market segments (local, long-distance and international). (...) VENEZUELA Commits to open markets for facilities based voice telephone services in all market segments (local, long distance and international) as of November 2000.
Language:English
Score: 1108643 - https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres97_e/bt-summ3.htm
Data Source: un
Category of Licenses Under Converged Category of Licenses Under Converged Licensing Framework (contLicensing Framework (cont……)) 23 Other License Categories in the New Other License Categories in the New Licensing FrameworkLicensing Framework • Postal Services Licence: Authorises the provision of postal services • Courier Service licence: Give the authorization to provide courier services • Frequency Spectrum User Licence: Authorizes the Licensee to use frequency spectrum resource and own radio communication station(s) • Installation and Maintenance Licence: Authorises the installation and maintenance of electronic communication equipment and network. • Importation and Distribution Licence: Authorises Importation and distribution of electronic communication equipment. • Type-Approval: Authorizes the electronic communication equipment to operate in the United Republic of Tanzania. • Numbering: Authorizes the use of scarce resources of numbers. 24 Market SegmentMarket Segmentationation • The four licence categories mentioned in the converged licensing framework are further subdivided into four market segments to reflect and focus their corresponding markets as follows: • International Market Segment: Licensee is authorized to offer services from one or more of the four category licences to International market. • National Market segment: Licensee is authorized to provide services National wide. • Regional Market segment: Licensee authorized to provider service in an administrative region. • District Market segment: Licensee authorized to provide services in an administrative district. 25 Important Issues Considered in Implementing Important Issues Considered in Implementing the licensing frameworkthe licensing framework 1. (...) (i) Increased Number of Operators as at 30/9/2006 S/N Type of Licence Market Segment Number of Licence Issued International 3 National 3 International 3 National 3 International 6 National 17 National Television / Radio 4 / 5 Regional Television / Radio 5 / 7 District Television / Radio 27 / 35 Community Television / Radio 2 / 6 4. (...) ) - TCRA Views on the Next Generation Networks (NGN) Communication Sector Overview Establishment of TCRA Functions of TCRA TCRA Vision TCRA Mission Introduction of the Converged Licensing Framework in Tanzania Objectives of the Converged Licensing Framework The Converged Licensing Framework Principles Other License Categories in the New Licensing Framework Market Segmentation Lessons of Experience Lessons of Experience (cont…) Lessons of Experience (cont…) Lessons of Experience (cont…) Lessons of Experience (cont…) Appreciation
Language:English
Score: 1108119.9 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...00610/presentations/npr-p2.pdf
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NEW ZEALAND Commits to open markets for all basic telecommunication services for all market segments (local, long-distance and international). (...) VENEZUELA Commits to open markets for facilities based voice telephone services in all market segments (local, long distance and international) as of November 2000. (...) These commitments permit competition the supply of public voice services, either immediate or phased-in, in at least one market segment, except for one, which commits to voice only over closed user groups in all market segments.
Language:English
Score: 1108010.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...highlights_commit_exempt_e.htm
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Director, Private Sector Task Force Executive in Residence and Adjunct Associate Professor, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University http://www.who.int/workforcealliance/knowledge/en/ Disclaimer & Limitations • Views expressed are those of the authors Jeffrey Moe, Caroline Hope Griffith and Michael Merson; not necessarily those of the Global Health Workforce Alliance • Report limited – self-report data v. objective (independently verified) – descriptive v. normative or prescriptive – “health workforce innovation” is also occurring in the public sector • report focused only on private sector activity 3 IN HEALTH, THE PRIVATE SECTOR PLAYS A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN LOW INCOME MARKETS E.G. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA *52% of expenditure is on private providers when extrapolated for SSA (excluding South Africa) from most recent year available between 1995-2002 from NHA reports for Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe; 41% when other sources for an additional 13 countries are included (at average exchange rate) Source: NHA, MoH, WHR 2006, team analysis ~50 ~50 Providers Public Private 100% ~65 ~15 ~10 ~10 Private sector providers For-profit Social enterprise Nonprofit Traditional healer Public Private Health care expenditure by provider ownership Percent* $16.7B When measured on a usage basis: • Private sector providers likely comprise larger share of market due to under-reporting of non-profit and informal segments • Social enterprises, non-profit and informal segments comprise larger share of private sector due to smaller user fees and under-reporting ~50 ~5 ~5 Public Financing agent Other private Out-of- pocket 100% Private prepaid ~40 Health care expenditure by financing agent Percent $16.7B ~50 ~50 Providers Public Private 100% ~65 ~15 ~10 ~10 Private sector providers For-profit Social enterprise Nonprofit Traditional healer Public Private Health care expenditure by provider ownership Percent* $16.7B When measured on a usage basis: • Private sector providers likely comprise larger share of market due to under-reporting of non-profit and informal segments • Social enterprises, non-profit and informal segments comprise larger share of private sector due to smaller user fees and under-reporting When measured on a usage basis: • Private sector providers likely comprise larger share of market due to under-reporting of non-profit and informal segments • Social enterprises, non-profit and informal segments comprise larger share of private sector due to smaller user fees and under-reporting ~50 ~5 ~5 Public Financing agent Other private Out-of- pocket 100% Private prepaid ~40 Health care expenditure by financing agent Percent $16.7B Source: IFC 2008 Private Health Sector Context Low Income Countries • Private = non-government (NGO), faith-based (FBO), not for profit, for-profit; all non-state – Blurry lines between public and private health resources – Mistrust • Government often describes private health sector as 1) providing services targeting the middle class; 2) provides low quality, unregulated services which exploit the poor • Private sector has accused government of 1) under-investment in HC, 2) investment in broken systems, 3) malfeasance and/or corruption – Private health sector growth is potentiated AND constrained by its “enabling environment” • Legal, business, policy, HC market, technology, civil society = enabling environment • Weak institutional frameworks impede private health sector growth • HC innovators often lack business acumen, management expertise • Aid programs can create a “donor mentality”; reduce search for sustainability Enabling Environment or Innovation Eco-system Health workforce innovators: workforce innovation is often a by-product of mission Innovator’s Primary Mission Health Work- force Supply Increase effectiveness and efficiency Increase retention 31 Health Workforce Innovators (identified in 2008; MANY others not included in this report) Increase Supply Increase Efficiency and Effectiveness of Existing Workers Increase Retention Rural Technology Business Incubator– First Care Health Enterprise, Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI), African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF_ - Maridi), Touch Foundation, Healthstore Foundation/CFWShops, Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) , Health Careers of America, Aga Khan School of Nursing, AMREF E- Learning Program - Kenya. (...) Leadership, Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSA) Gaps ID local and international talent to lead Training to close KSA gaps & build business plans Match Funders to Plans Foundation, government, individual, private equity and banks fund plans they choose Baselines set which allow assessments of health outcomes, quality, access Health Workforce Incubators: Stimulate private health sector markets for ideas, talent and capital HWI Health Workforce Incubators NOTE: Incubator = event, process or location ▪ Promote public/private dialogue – Advocate “whole market” approach with active and coordinated private & public roles in HRH responses – Country Coord. & Facilitation – Public Private Partnerships – Develop enabling environment ▪ Amplify patient perspective and overhaul regulation to balance patient safety with innovation – Bring patient voice into regulation of professionals – Patients supported to make informed decisions – Build “right-touch” regulation ▪ Curate global health workforce innovations – e.g. Center for Health Market Innovations, International Partnership for Innovative HC Delivery ▪ Leverage productivity through use of technology – Base staffing models around telemedicine – Assume email and telephone consultations • Match training and staffing to actual systems of care – Train for care outside hospitals, clinical leadership, continuous improvement, research – Increase vocational training and apprenticeships for specific processes within care pathway Increase evidence, accountability, training and access to funding – Funders support or require independent evidence gathering – Private sector: internal accountability – Incubators: scale local activities OR replicate global innovation, training for innovator managers, funding 1 2 3 6 5 4 Private Health Sector and HRH Crisis: Recommendations Thank you Diapositive numéro 1 Disclaimer & Limitations IN HEALTH, THE PRIVATE SECTOR PLAYS A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN LOW INCOME MARKETS E.G.
Language:English
Score: 1106208 - https://www.who.int/workforcea...012/presentation_Jeff-PSTF.pdf
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Microsoft PowerPoint - Session 3_Competition Law Principles in the European Union (Doyle).ppt 1 Session 3: Competition Policy and European Regulation Training on Competition and Changing Market Conditions: Impact on ICT Regulation Addis Ababa, 6th – 9th November, 2007 By Dr Chris Doyle Warwick Business School & Consultant World Bank 2 Case study: The application of ex ante regulation in the EU – present and future 3 The current framework: Key Regulatory Directives (2002) Framework Directive Outlines principles and objectives Authorisation Directive Licensing regime – light-handed Access Directive Interconnection etc Universal Service Directive Social objectives and protecting certain end users 4 Framework Directive Provisions for dealing with NRAs and their tasks Article 7 procedures for SMP notifications, harmonisation and coordination Commission right of veto where NRA defines different relevant market and designates SMP and there is a “barrier to the single market” or “serious doubts” about compatibility with Community law and objectives of NRA (Article 8) Introduces SMP concept Market definition procedure NRA to identify markets guided by Commission Recommendation Market analysis procedure NRA to assess competition in market and identify SMP operators taking utmost account of Commission Guidelines 5 Significant Market Power “…there is not effective competition, i.e. in markets where there are one or more undertakings with significant market power” (Recital 27 Framework Directive) “An undertaking shall be deemed to have significant market power if, either individually or jointly with others, it enjoys a position equivalent to dominance, that is to say a position of economic strength affording it the power to behave to an appreciable extent independently of competitors, customers and ultimately consumers.” (Article 14(2) Framework Directive) (emphasis added) “Where a national regulatory authority determines that a relevant market is not effectively competitive, it shall identify undertakings with significant market power on that market” (Article 16(4) Framework Directive) (emphasis added) 6 Recommended markets 2002 Retail 1. (...) Voice call termination, mobile 17. National market for international roaming on mobile 18. Broadcasting transmission services 7 Recommended markets 2007 (proposed) Retail 1.
Language:English
Score: 1100956.4 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...hiopia/pdf/Session_3_Doyle.pdf
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Market delineation Technical basis Economic basis SSNIP test 2. SMP assessment Presumption at 25% market share Dominant position (single or joint) 3. Remedies choice Automatically full suite Based on market failure, justified, proportionate Comparison of EU Competition Regulation 3 www.windsor-place.com5 The aims of the Directive on competition in the markets for electronic communications networks and services The focal point of the new regulatory package is to address relevant markets that are characterised by a lack of effective competition. • In particular, the Directives have aimed to resolve the conceptual distinctions between the ex ante & ex post approach to competition law. • Effective competition is defined in terms of the existence of a dominant market actor or actors with significant market power “SMP”. • Ex ante obligations only imposed if following a market analysis, the market is not effectively competitive, that is there is no single or collective dominance • The identification of relevant markets requires an economic assessment, consistent with EU competition rules of the range of services which act as competitive substitutes to certain other services.
Language:English
Score: 1100152.6 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...%20-%20EU%20SMP%20Practice.pdf
Data Source: un
Microsoft PowerPoint - Sudip Chaudhuri_IMCC_Market Access_02032018 Bonn.pptx Market Access Sudip Chaudhuri sudip@iimcal.ac.in International Business and Investment Forum on “Mobilizing investment, technology and partnership opportunities for Africa’s pharmaceutical industry” UN Campus, Bonn, 1-2 March, 2018 Situation in Africa Today High import dependence Difficulty in competing against imports Practically no protection Deficiency of technical knowledge High cost of production, including ◦ High interest rate Infrastructural problems But …. All countries when developing industries faced the same problems that Africa faces today: 3 Lessons from history Industrial policy crucial – government need to intervene to support local production and local producers to enhance ◦ Market access ◦ Access to Technology ◦ Access to Finance Understanding and coordination between government and private sector is crucial 4 Market access All countries have protected domestic producers to develop industries Cost initially higher not because of inefficiency but because of lack of experience Concerns against protection ◦ Tariff measures If domestic producers are unable to develop capacities, prices of imports will go up Domestic producers will take advantage and charge higher prices ◦ Non tariff measures Higher prices due to less competition Possibilities of shortages Legitimate concerns but not insurmountable Successful countries which have used protection have also intervened to specifically manage prices and costs Tariff policy has been part of a coordinated strategy to avoid the pitfalls ◦ Care has been taken for example to ensure that productive capacities develop to avoid shortages ◦ Care has also been taken to monitor and manage the cost and price differential between the local industry and foreign competitors. Market access: questions for this Forum Not whether to enhance market access but how to do so in ◦ Highly competitive segment of the market where most African countries are already present ◦ Value added segments where they are not currently present ◦ Regional markets ◦ International donor funded market How the private sector needs to respond and contribute as partners in the development of an efficient industry
Language:English
Score: 1099736.9 - https://www.unido.org/sites/de...ccess_02032018%20Bonn.pptx.pdf
Data Source: un
This requires a separation of the relevant product market from the relevant geographical market in accordance with the Law against Restraints of Competition. The services which are sufficiently similar for the informed consumer to regard them as substitutable are considered to be part of the same relevant product market. Hence the description of the subject matter of the licence has to be tailored to the markets defined in this ____________________ 2 Telecommunications Act in this text refers to the German Telecommunications Act of July, 25 1996 - 3 - ITU-D/1/005-E sense. (...) These include especially transmission lines which consist of the uplink from the satellite earth station (ground segment) and the mobile terminal equipment respectively to the space segment and of the downlink, ie the connection from the space segment to the satellite earth station and the mobile terminal equipment respectively. 13.
Language:English
Score: 1097832.5 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/stud...002/SG1/Documents/1998/005.pdf
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