LETTER DATED 1 NOVEMBER 2022 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Here is another example of the substitution of concepts and meanings. For many
years, Western ideologists and politicians have been telling the world there was no
alternative to democracy. (...) What is that supposed to mean, for crying out loud? What kind of world
are we living in?
(...) What is that?
What does it mean? Indeed, some people may like it, some not.
PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT : INFORMATION PRESENTED BY THE NORTHERN IRELAND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The expression “cultural life” is an explicit reference to culture as a living
process, historical, dynamic and evolving, with a past, a present and a future.’7 It stresses
that culture should not be seen ‘as a series of isolated manifestations or hermetic
compartments, but as an interactive process, whereby individuals and communities, while
preserving their specificities and purposes, give expression to the culture of humanity.’8
There is however no real reflection in the General Comment of the particular challenges
1 Marc Howard Ross, Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict (Cambridge University Press 2007) 2,
who draws upon Geertz’s definition of culture as “an historically transmitted pattern of meanings
embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of
which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and their attitudes toward
life” (Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays (Basic Books 1973) 89).
3 Seyla Behabib, The Claims of Culture: Equality, Diversity in the Global Era (Princeton University
Press 2002) 5.
4 Ross (2007) op. cit., 2.
5 See generally Ross (2007), op. cit.
6 Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: General Comment No. 21: Article 15(1)(a) The
Right of Everyone to Take Part in Cultural Life (21 Dec. 2009) UN Doc. (...) The right to enjoy one’s own culture in Article 27 of the ICCPR is a right conferred
on those belonging to ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities, the protection of which ‘is
directed towards ensuring the survival and continued development of the cultural, religious
and social identity of the minorities concerned thus enriching the fabric of society as a
whole’.34 During the drafting of Article 27, it had been noted that a negative formulation
seemed to imply ‘that the obligations of States would be limited to permitting the free
exercise of the rights of minorities.’35 However, Special Rapporteur Capotorti, in his report
on Article 27 was of the view that ‘the right granted to members of minority groups to
enjoy their own culture would lose much of its meaning if no assistance from the
Governments concerned was forthcoming’ 36 and therefore concluded that the
implementation of the rights in question did in fact call for ‘active and sustained
intervention by States.’37
12. (...) The former highlights the importance of
cultural human rights in ensuring the flourishing of diversity (Article 5); the need to ensure
access to means of expression and dissemination (Article 6); cultural heritage as ‘the
wellspring of creativity’ (Article 7) and the need to recognise cultural goods and services
‘as vectors of identity, values and meaning, which must not be treated as mere commodities
or consumer goods (Article 8).’
LETTER DATED 2010/11/03 FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES OF SWITZERLAND, INDONESIA, SOUTH AFRICA AND MEXICO TO THE UNITED NATIONS ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
9 Mariteuw Chimère Diaw 及 David Blomley 和 Guillaume Lescuyer ： “Elusive meanings:
decentralization, conservation and local democracy”,德班研讨会上提交的主旨论文。
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR IN THE FIELD OF CULTURAL RIGHTS, FARIDA SHAHEED : ADDENDUM
GE.13-11800 (C) 130313 150313
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF ON HIS MISSION TO BANGLADESH : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The term “secularism” can carry different meanings, which often leads to confusing
discussions. (...) While condemning such threats and acts of violence committed in the name of religion and
pledging to bring perpetrators to justice, government representatives at the same time have
publicly admonished online activists who have expressed critical views on religion, in
particular Islam, warning them “not to cross the limits” in their criticism of religion,
without specifying what this cryptic warning is supposed to mean, thereby sending unclear
messages to society in general and law enforcement agencies in particular. (...) In addition to changing one’s own religion, the term “conversion” can also mean
“to persuade others to change”.
61. Trying to convert others likewise falls within freedom of religion or belief, as long
as that persuasion is free from any coercion.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON FREEDOM OF RELIGION OR BELIEF ON HIS MISSION TO LEBANON : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The term is used, depending on the specific context, to convey
different meanings: sharing power among different communities, in particular Christians,
Sunnis and Shias; building trust on the basis of respect for each community’s vital
interests; respecting religious sensitivities by avoiding unnecessary provocations; or
being aware of particular challenges, not least the demographic challenges that might
undermine the existing system of coexistence.
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE ENJOYMENT OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS BY OLDER PERSONS ON HER MISSION TO NAMIBIA :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
In developing countries,
chronological time seems to have less or no importance in determining old age, while other
socially constructed meanings of age are more significant such as the roles assigned to
7. (...) With
improvements in services and improved access, a large number of young people migrated
to urban areas in search of these services and for employment opportunities.10 The majority
of older persons still live in rural areas.
5 Lebenswelt (lifeworld) is a concept used in philosophy and the social sciences, meaning the world “as
lived” prior to reflective re-presentation or analysis.
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE ENJOYMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH ALBINISM ON THE EXPERT WORKSHOP ON WITCHCRAFT AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Manifestations of witchcraft beliefs and practices ................................................................ 5
B. The meaning of “witchcraft” ................................................................................................ 7
III. (...) A/HRC/37/57/Add.2
B. The meaning of “witchcraft”
19. Rev. Samuel Waje Kunhiyop explained that witchcraft was generally believed to be
the supernatural ability to perform acts of evil, including pain, sickness, misfortune and
death. (...) In his experience, Robert Priest noted that witchcraft had multiple meanings in
different settings. For example, in Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and South
Africa, the words for witchcraft included amchawi, ndoki and umthakathi, each of which
referred to an evil individual who possessed mysterious power that could cause
misfortunes, harm or death in others.
HUMAN RIGHTS AND INDIGENOUS ISSUES : REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE, RODOLFO STAVENHAGEN : ADDENDUM
There is a continuing
controversy regarding the interpretation of the text in its two distinct language versions, English
and Maori, which has led to disputed meanings of the notion of “sovereignty” in the Treaty. To
this day there is no agreement on a commonly understood meaning of the Treaty text.
8. During most of the nineteenth and part of the twentieth century Governments paid little
attention to the Treaty of Waitangi. (...) On the other hand,
some New Zealanders appear to approve of the view of “One law for all” (that is, no more
special laws on Maori rights, understood as meaning Government should stop the alleged
“pampering” of Maori).
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE RIGHT OF EVERYONE TO THE ENJOYMENT OF THE HIGHEST ATTAINABLE STANDARD OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, PAUL HUNT : ADDENDUM
In this context, “integrated” has two
meanings. First, so far as possible, an intervention for one disease should be designed in
such a way that it can also be used as a vehicle for one or more interventions in relation to
one or more other diseases.