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Ejercicios - Respuestas Curso introductorio a las Cuentas Ambientales (Noviembre 2016) Agriculture (ISIC A) Mining (ISIC B) Manufacturing (ISIC C) Electricity (ISIC D) Transportation (ISIC H) Households Imports Flows from the environment Total Energy from natural inputs Coal 150 150 Oil 120 120 Solar Energy products Coal Oil (conventional) Oil products Electricity Heat Energy residuals Extraction Transformation Other Total Agriculture (ISIC A) Mining (ISIC B) Manufacturing (ISIC C) Electricity (ISIC D) Transportation (ISIC H) Households Imports Flows to the environment Total Energy from natural inputs Coal 150 150 Oil 120 120 Solar Energy products--Transformation Coal Oil (conventional) Oil products Energy products--end use Coal Oil (conventional) Oil products Electricity Heat Energy residuals Extraction Transformation Other Total Notes: Coal and crude oil are supplied by the environment and used by the mining industry PHYSICAL SUPPLY TABLE FOR ENERGY: PHYSICAL USE TABLE FOR ENERGY: step 1 1
Language:English
Score: 1119793.2 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...files/ejercicio-respuestas.pdf
Data Source: un
The a common t standard me opportunity extraction in United Econ ission for tainable E r 2015 agenda s e Manage he secretar s 23rd session the potential developing no requested that port about m g a baseline, b with the aim o ECE Group s in the natur e next meeting ane has includ e is no ECE b depend on inf Partnership. en the timing o te. (...) Coal mining related activities (extraction, crushing, distribution, etc.) release some of the trapped methane. (...) There is also a need with respect to each of the fossil fuel extraction industries for a discussion of the best remediation approaches and technologies.
Language:English
Score: 1119343.1 - https://unece.org/DAM/energy/i...M/CMM_CE/ECE.ENERGY.2015.1.pdf
Data Source: un
Dušan Vucecevic, for Dragan Kolundžija   THIS TRIAL CHAMBER of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia Since 1991 ("the International Tribunal"), BEING SEISED of the "Defense Motion to Compel Discovery Pursuant to the Trial Chamber Order of March 10, 2000" filed on behalf of the accused Dragan Kolundzija on 29 March 2000 ("the Defence Request"), seeking an order for disclosure by the Office of the Prosecutor ("the Prosecution") of an unredacted version of a document entitled "Extracts of Evidence" which accompanied the indictment at confirmation, NOTING the Response to the Defence Request filed by the Prosecution on 12 April 2000, NOTING also the "Motion for leave to reply to Prosecutor’s Response to Kolundzija’s Motion to Compel Discovery Pursuant to the Trial Chamber Order of March 10, 2000" filed by the Defence for Dragan Kolundzija on 17 April 2000, NOTING that production of the document entitled "Extracts of Evidence" was discussed, without prior notice, at a status conference held before the pre-trial Judge on 28 March 2000 but that a copy of the document, as provided to the Defence, was not available to the pre-trial Judge at that time, NOTING that the Defence Request, with a copy of the "Extracts of Evidence" as provided to the Defence, was filed after the status conference, setting out with more precision the nature of the Defence Request, CONSIDERING that the "Extracts of Evidence", which appears to consist of extracts from a number of witness statements, forms part of the supporting material that accompanied the Indictment or the Amended Indictment when confirmation was sought, CONSIDERING that Rule 66 (A)(i) of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Tribunal ("the Rules") requires the Prosecution to disclose to the Defence "copies of the supporting material which accompanied the indictment when confirmation was sought", CONSIDERING therefore that the Prosecution is required to disclose to the Defence an unredacted copy of the "Extracts of Evidence", but not the individual witness statements from which the extracts are taken, other than the two witness statements that accompanied the Indictment when confirmation was sought, HEREBY GRANTS the Defence Request and ORDERS the Prosecution, by Thursday 18 May 2000, to disclose to the Defence for each accused an unredacted copy of the document entitled "Extracts of Evidence" that accompanied the Indictment or the Amended Indictment when confirmation was sought, unless the Prosecution within that time files a motion for specific protective measures for the individual witnesses named therein, stating, in respect of each witness, the relief sought and the grounds for seeking such relief.
Language:English
Score: 1119250.3 - https://www.icty.org/x/cases/s...rica/tdec/en/00511DE512798.htm
Data Source: un
Bureau of Statistics, work unit of the Policy Integration Department ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations About the ILO Topics Regions Meetings and events Publications Research Labour standards Statistics and databases Français | Español | FAQs | Contact us     Home page Introduction to occupational classifications   ISCO-08   Structure, definitions and correspondence tables     Eurostat Discussion Forum   ISCO-88   Structure & Definitions Alphabetical Index   ISCO-68   Major, Minor and Unit Groups Publication   ISCO-58   Major, Minor and Unit Groups Publication   Web Discussion Join Web Discussion   Papers and articles       2147 MINING ENGINEERS, METALLURGISTS AND RELATED PROFESSIONALS   Mining engineers, metallurgists and related professionals conduct research, design and develop and maintain commercial- scale methods of extracting metals from their ores, or minerals, water, oil or gas from the earth and of developing new alloys, ceramic and other materials, or study and advise on technological aspects of particular materials, products or processes. Tasks include: (a) conducting research and advising on, designing and developing new or improved methods to deal with engineering aspects of mining and oil, gas or water extraction; (b) determining most suitable methods of efficient mining and extraction, types of machinery to be used, planning layout and directing construction of shafts and tunnels; (c) determining drilling site and devising methods of controlling the flow of water, oil or gas from wells; (d) planning and directing storage, initial treatment and transportation of water, oil or gas; (e) establishing safety standards and procedures and first-aid facilities, especially underground; (f) conducting research, developing methods of extracting metals from their ores and advising on their application; (g) investigating properties of metals and alloys, developing new alloys and advising on and supervising technical aspects of metal and alloy manufacture and processing; (h) studying and advising on technological aspects of particular materials or processes; (i) maintaining technical liaison and consultancy with other relevant specialists in particular with geologists and geophysicists; (j) preparing scientific papers and reports; (k) performing related tasks; (l) supervising other workers. Examples of the occupations classified here: Engineer, mining Engineer, mining/coal Engineer, mining/metal Engineer, mining/petroleum and natural gas Metallurgist, extractive Technologist, extractive     ^ top    Updated 10 August 2004, by VA.
Language:English
Score: 1117341 - www.ilo.org/public/engl...reau/stat/isco/isco88/2147.htm
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DSD :: Sustainable Development Topics :: Mining Skip to main links | Skip to another Sustainable Development Topic | Skip to secondary links | Skip to content Links to UN bodies [an error occurred while processing this directive] Links to site map [an error occurred while processing this directive] UN Economic and Social Development Division for Sustainable Development Main Links [an error occurred while processing this directive] SD topics > Mining Links to Sustainable Development Topics by Alphabetical Order [an error occurred while processing this directive] 2010/2011 CSD Topics [an error occurred while processing this directive] Mining Secondary Links [an error occurred while processing this directive] DSD's YouTube Channel on Mining & Sustainable Development Minerals are essential for modern living, and mining is still the primary method of their extraction. To date, it appears that the main constraints to sustainability in the mining sector derive from the ever-increasing demand for mined resources, the consumption of resources (mostly energy and water) needed to extract and process metals, and the increasing pollution generated by the extraction process. (...) Growth of Construction Minerals Extraction In the 20th century, the extraction of construction minerals grew by a factor of 34, while that of ores and industrial minerals by a factor of 27. (...) Environmental, Social & Economic Impacts While the sustainability of extractive industries varies, these operations generally remain associated with a range of environmental and social impacts negatively affecting local communities.
Language:English
Score: 1117341 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/susdevtopics/sdt_mining.shtml
Data Source: un
Bureau of Statistics, work unit of the Policy Integration Department ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations About the ILO Topics Regions Meetings and events Publications Research Labour standards Statistics and databases Français | Español | FAQs | Contact us     Home page Introduction to occupational classifications   ISCO-08   Structure, definitions and correspondence tables     Eurostat Discussion Forum   ISCO-88   Structure & Definitions Alphabetical Index   ISCO-68   Major, Minor and Unit Groups Publication   ISCO-58   Major, Minor and Unit Groups Publication   Web Discussion Join Web Discussion   Papers and articles       2147 MINING ENGINEERS, METALLURGISTS AND RELATED PROFESSIONALS   Mining engineers, metallurgists and related professionals conduct research, design and develop and maintain commercial- scale methods of extracting metals from their ores, or minerals, water, oil or gas from the earth and of developing new alloys, ceramic and other materials, or study and advise on technological aspects of particular materials, products or processes. Tasks include: (a) conducting research and advising on, designing and developing new or improved methods to deal with engineering aspects of mining and oil, gas or water extraction; (b) determining most suitable methods of efficient mining and extraction, types of machinery to be used, planning layout and directing construction of shafts and tunnels; (c) determining drilling site and devising methods of controlling the flow of water, oil or gas from wells; (d) planning and directing storage, initial treatment and transportation of water, oil or gas; (e) establishing safety standards and procedures and first-aid facilities, especially underground; (f) conducting research, developing methods of extracting metals from their ores and advising on their application; (g) investigating properties of metals and alloys, developing new alloys and advising on and supervising technical aspects of metal and alloy manufacture and processing; (h) studying and advising on technological aspects of particular materials or processes; (i) maintaining technical liaison and consultancy with other relevant specialists in particular with geologists and geophysicists; (j) preparing scientific papers and reports; (k) performing related tasks; (l) supervising other workers. Examples of the occupations classified here: Engineer, mining Engineer, mining/coal Engineer, mining/metal Engineer, mining/petroleum and natural gas Metallurgist, extractive Technologist, extractive     ^ top    Updated 10 August 2004, by VA.
Language:English
Score: 1117341 - https://www.ilo.org/public/eng...reau/stat/isco/isco88/2147.htm
Data Source: un
Technological advances both in transportation and in the extraction of natural resources have contributed to their increased use and growth of international commodities markets. Changing global supply chains have contributed to changing patterns of trade in natural resources, especially those extracted for use as primary inputs in the production of manufactured goods. (...) (c) Ms Marie Wilke , Programme Officer, International Trade Law, ICTSD Ms Wilke picked up on Mr Steenblik’s points regarding government intervention in the trade of natural resources. She began by providing an overview of the changing landscape of natural resource trade in the last decade, emphasizing that the extraction rate was increasing rapidly due to rising demand growth as a consequence of population growth, increasing middle classes and the development of developing countries.
Language:English
Score: 1116831.25 - https://www.wto.org/english/fo..._forum12_e/session9_summ_e.doc
Data Source: un
1 On the effects of decentralization of Natural Resource Revenues on local service provision in Peru∗ Gonzalo Neyra Araoz PhD student, Maastricht School of Governance September 29, 2016 Abstract The beginning of the commodities super cycle, starting in 2003, unfurled in producing countries, especially minerals and hydrocarbons, the called extractive boom that in Peru mainly affected subnational governments which share in tax revenues from extractive industries. (...) Nevertheless, Peruvian subnational governments that 3 holding extractive industries within their territories, -mainly mining, gas and petroleum- have access to a revenue source, called Canon, linked to exploitation of natural resources, these revenues in the specialized literature are called natural resource revenues (NRR). (...) By producing districts natural resource revenues (Canon), a revenue sharing that subnational could spent discretionary have become an important source of revenue due to the substantial increased of the extractive activities revenues over the last decade.
Language:English
Score: 1115603.5 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...ents/files/12._neyra_vjifl.pdf
Data Source: un
However, appropriate extraction processes and related costs can vary considerably between sites. Lithium carbonate production based on extraction of lithium chloride brine from salt flats tends to be more economical and more environmentally benign than lithium extracted from pegmatite. 19. (...) Lithium carbonate production based on the extraction of lithium chloride brine from salt flats tends to be more economical and more environmentally benign than lithium extracted from pegmatite or other sources. 2.
Language:English
Score: 1114387.2 - https://www.un.org/esa/dsd/csd...n-America-single-spaceddoc.pdf
Data Source: un
Three main sources: Extracted in the course of zinc mining and purification Naturally released through erosion, volcanic acitivity As an impurity, present in several commodities Oil Coal Tobacco Phosphate fertilizers… Volcanoes Erosion Zinc extraction 3 1 – Extracted in the course of zinc mining and purification Cadmium is naturally present in the earth’s crust, with a high density in zinc ores Cd content is on average 0.3% of Zn content Zinc: • Production: 10 Million tons • Growth: 4% per annum • Africa is not a large source: 3% of world total zinc extraction, 1% of world total zinc refining Cadmium: • Production: 0.02 Million tons, flat for over 10 years • 1/3 (and growing) of extracted cadmium is not refined • No cadmium refining takes place in Africa 4 2 – Naturally released Cadmium is eroded through natural events: Erosion • River erosion: WHO reports 15,000 t per annum are transported by rivers into the oceans • Wind erosion: no estimates available Volcanic activity • Estimated at 1,000 t per annum • High year on year variability 5 3 – Present as an impurity in traded commodities Cadmium is a naturally occuring impurity present in many internationally traded commodities: • Phosphate fertilizers • Tobacco (and cigarettes, cigars…) • Non renewable energy sources (coal, oil, natural gas, peat) • Iron and steel, copper, lead ores and related processes • Cement 6 Where is cadmium used? (...) 9 EU Cd Risk Assessment (RA) Releases to the environment: WATER AIR SOIL 10 Releases to the Environment - WATER - (source: 2007 EU Cd RA) Cadmium present as an impurity: 50% Natural sources (italics): 47% Cadmium intentionally added into products (underlined): 3.4% Releases to Water by Source (EU Risk Assessment Cd 2007) 13,1% 21,0% 0,5% 1,6% 0,4% 1,6% 1,5% 0,8% 0,1% 12,2% 47,1% Cd plating and batteries prod & recycling Cd/CdO production Other non-ferrous metals production Production of iron and steel Oil and coal combustion plants Phosphate processing Municipal incineration MSW at landfills Metals mining Other activities (cement, glass prod., traffic…) Natural sources 11 Releases to the Environment - AIR - (source: 2007 EU Cd RA) Cadmium present as an impurity: 83% Natural sources (italics): 11% Cadmium intentionally added into products (underlined): 5.8% Releases to Air by Source (EU Risk Assessment Cd 2007) 22,3% 38,8% 13,7% 2,8% 0,5% 1,2% 2,3% 7,0%0,6% 10,8% Cd alloys and batteries prod & recycling Cd/CdO production Other non-ferrous metals Production of iron and steel Oil/coal combustion plants Phosphate processing Municipal waste incineration Wood/peat incineration Other activities (cement, glass prod., traffic…) Natural sources 12 Releases to the Environment - SOIL - (source: 2007 EU Cd RA) Cadmium present as an impurity: 94% Natural sources (italics): 4% Cadmium intentionally added into products (underlined): 2.2% Releases to Soil by Source (EU Risk Assessment Cd 2007) 14,6% 62,5% 0,5% 0,9% 5,1% 8,4% 1,1% 0,2% 2,6% 4,1% Cd alloys and batteries prod & recycling Cd/CdO production Other non-ferrous metals Production of iron and steel Oil/coal combustion plants Phosphate fertilizers Municipal waste incineration Wood/peat incineration Other activities (cement, glass prod., traffic...) Natural sources 13 Findings In all releases, AIR, WATER, SOIL, ranking is identical: • Rank 1: Impurity in commodities and relevant processes (range: 95 - 50%) • Rank 2: Natural emissions (range: 47 - 4%) • Rank 3: Intentionally added into products (range: 5 - 2%) Action could primarily be aimed at commodities such as: • Phosphate fertilizers • Fossil fuels • Tobacco • Metallic Ores Action towards products with intentionally added cadmium would have no impact on overall environmental releases 14 Eu Cd Risk Assessment (RA) Human uptake: WORKERS GENERAL POPULATION: non-smokers GENERAL POPULATION: smokers 15 Human uptake - WORKERS - (source: 2007 EU Cd RA) In EUROPE: workers exposed to cadmium work mainly in: • Battery manufacturing • Metal coating • Zinc (and other non-ferrous metals) smelting • Population is small: below 1,500 In AFRICA: workers exposed to cadmium work mainly in: • Phosphate rock mining and fertilizer operations • Zinc (and other non ferrous metals) smelting • Population not evaluated, expected to be small 16 Human uptake - General Population - (source: 2007 EU Cd RA) Non- Smokers Natural sources: 75% Cadmium present as an impurity: 24% Cadmium intentionally added into products: 1.3% Non-SmokingAdultPopulation: Cduptakebysource 24,1% 74,6% 1,3% commoditieswithCdimpurities natural releases productswithCdintentionallyadded 17 Human uptake - General Population - (source: 2007 EU Cd RA) Smokers Smoking: 58% Natural sources: 31% Cadmium present as an impurity: 10% Cadmium intentionally added into products: 0.6% SmokingAdultPopulation: Cduptakebysource 10,2% 57,8% 0,6% 31,5% commoditieswithCdimpurities natural releases productswithCd intentionallyadded smoking 18 Findings Smokers: smoking contribution is 100 times greater than products with intentionally added cadmium Non smokers: natural sources are first source of uptake Action towards products with intentionally added cadmium would have no impact on overall human uptake 19 Impact of Trade in: - COMMODITIES - Trade in commodities with cadmium as an impurity: • Number one source of environmental releases in all cases, • Number two source of uptake for non-smokers • Tobacco dwarfs all other sources for smokers, Would impact trade in goods from Africa to Europe: • oil and gas, • phosphate fertilizers, • tobacco • metallic ores 20 Impact of Trade in: - GOODS w. intentionally added Cd - Such goods represent a very minor share of environmental releases and human uptake in Europe All purpose consumer rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries: • Progressively being replaced by higher power density batteries (same power, less volume) to allow for smaller and lighter appliances • No need for robustness, wide temperature range in consumer uses • At times replaced by non-rechargeable batteries (over 100 times more waste) Batteries in cordless power tools (battery replaces external cord): • Largest market in consumer Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries • In most segments, other technologies do not have the proper performance and reliability characteristics of Ni-Cd • Remark: Europe and Africa both 750 Million inh.
Language:English
Score: 1113897.4 - https://www.who.int/ifcs/docum...rums/forum6/ppt_l&c_demetz.pdf
Data Source: un