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PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTING THE GLOBAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM LAND-BASED ACTIVITIES AT THE NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LEVELS OVER THE PERIOD 2007–2011
The following section reviews the progress made in addressing key land-based sources of pollution identified under the Global Programme of Action that are in line with the decision reached by Governments in Beijing to focus on nutrients, wastewater and marine litter. 1. Nutrients 28. (...) With support from partners, the Coordination Office secured funding from GEF for a project on global foundations for reducing nutrient enrichment and oxygen depletion from land-based pollution in support of the global nutrient cycle. (...) This is necessary to analyse and take cost-effective action in developing nutrient reduction strategies for the benefit of coastal areas and stakeholders.
لغة:الانكليزية
نتيجة: 238.89 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...pen&DS=UNEP/GPA/IGR.3/2&Lang=E
مصدر البيانات: ods
REALIZING ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS THROUGH POLICY CONVERGENCE AND ENHANCED REGIONAL COOPERATION
., « Eutrophication assessment and nutrient criteria development: atlas of global assessments and scenario forecasting on nutrient cycling and environmental impacts » (Global Nutrient Cycle Project, 2018). 15 Changing Sails: Accelerating Regional Actions for Sustainable Oceans in Asia and the Pacific (publication des Nations Unies, numéro de vente : E.20.II.F.15).
لغة:الفرنسية
نتيجة: 238.5 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=ESCAP/CED/2020/2&Lang=F
مصدر البيانات: ods
RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT ASSEMBLY ON 15 MARCH 2019 : 4/11.PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM LAND-BASED ACTIVITIES
Protección del medio marino frente a las actividades realizadas en tierra La Asamblea de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Medio Ambiente, Observando que los ecosistemas costeros y marinos tienen valores sociales, económicos y estratégicos con diversas funciones y beneficios para el Medio Ambiente y la vida humana, que dependen de los recursos contenidos en ellos y tomando nota, por tanto, de la necesidad de contar con ecosistemas costeros y marinos sostenibles y saludables, Observando también que las zonas costeras y marinas son muy vulnerables a la contaminación dimanante de diversas actividades realizadas en tierra, que pueden reducir la calidad del Medio Ambiente costero y marino, Haciendo notar la Declaración de Manila sobre la Aplicación del Programa de Acción Mundial para la Protección del Medio Marino frente a las Actividades Realizadas en Tierra1, aprobada en la tercera Reunión Intergubernamental de Examen de la Aplicación del Programa de Acción Mundial para la Protección del Medio Marino frente a las Actividades Realizadas en Tierra, celebrada en Manila los días 25 y 26 de enero de 20122, en la que se determinó que los nutrientes, las aguas residuales y la basura marina eran categorías prioritarias de fuentes de contaminación marina, y haciendo notar también la Declaración de Bali sobre la Protección del Medio Marino frente a las Actividades Realizadas en Tierra3, aprobada en la cuarta Reunión Intergubernamental de Examen de la Aplicación del Programa de Acción Mundial para la Protección del Medio Marino frente a las Actividades Realizadas en Tierra, celebrada en Bali (Indonesia) del 31 de octubre al 1 de noviembre de 2018, Advirtiendo de la existencia de diversas iniciativas encaminadas a hacer frente a las amenazas y los problemas en las zonas costeras y marinas que tienen su origen en actividades realizadas en tierra y pueden tener un efecto negativo en los ecosistemas costeros y marinos, Haciendo notar que los recursos costeros y marinos contribuyen significativamente a la economía, y que mantener una alta calidad del Medio Ambiente costero y marino proporciona 1 UNEP/GPA/IGR.3/6, anexo. 2 El Programa de Acción Mundial para la Protección del Medio Marino frente a las Actividades Realizadas en Tierra está siendo objeto de examen. 3 UNEP/GPA/IGR.4/5, anexo. (...) Conviene en reforzar la incorporación de la protección de los ecosistemas costeros y marinos en las políticas, en particular para abordar las amenazas ambientales causadas por el aumento de nutrientes, aguas residuales, basura marina y microplásticos en apoyo de la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible como marco para el desarrollo sostenible; 2. (...) Solicita a la Directora Ejecutiva del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente que preste asistencia técnica, con sujeción a la disponibilidad de recursos, entre otras cosas mediante los programas de mares regionales, la Alianza Mundial sobre la Basura Marina, la Iniciativa Mundial sobre las Aguas Residuales y la Alianza Mundial sobre la Gestión de los Nutrientes del Programa de Acción Mundial para la Protección del Medio Marino frente a las Actividades Realizadas en Tierra. _____________________ 4 Resolución 70/1 de la Asamblea General.
لغة:الإسبانية
نتيجة: 238.48 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=UNEP/EA.4/RES.11&Lang=S
مصدر البيانات: ods
MONITORING OF FOREST CONDITION IN EUROPE : SUMMARY REPORT / PREPARED BY THE COORDINATING CENTRE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE PROGRAMME ON ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON FORESTS
Information on the chemical soil composition, such as the nutrient pools of the major elements, gives insight into soil nutrient availability and acidity of the soil. (...) EB.AIR/WG.1/2000/5 page 5 1. Foliar nutrient concentrations and ratios 14. In approximately 30% of the stands, the nutrient status of the foliage can be judged to be low and/or unbalanced, taking all nutrients into account (see table 2). (...) This illustrates that in most cases only one nutrient was deficient or imbalanced compared to nitrogen. 2.
لغة:الانكليزية
نتيجة: 238.27 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...n&DS=EB.AIR/WG.1/2000/5&Lang=E
مصدر البيانات: ods
United Nations EC
There was also evidence of a link between exceedances of critical loads of nutrient nitrogen and nitrogen leaching (figure 1). (...) Notes: The x-axes show exceedances of mass balance critical loads of nutrient nitrogen (N) (ExCLnutN, NAT2000 deposition, a and b) and exceedances of empirical critical loads of nutrient N (ExCLempN, NAT2000 deposition, c and d). (...) Nitrogen is generally the growth-limiting nutrient in forest ecosystems, and the uptake of available N compounds is efficient.
لغة:الانكليزية
نتيجة: 238 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...=ECE/EB.AIR/WG.1/2012/9&Lang=E
مصدر البيانات: ods
CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS IN FOREST CONDITION : STATE OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE : SUMMARY REPORT / PREPARED BY THE COORDINATING CENTRE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE PROGRAMME ON ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON FORESTS
Along a European (deposition-) transection significant changes in nutrient contents and dry weights of spruce needles were observed; the ratio between nutrient content and dry weight indicates that N was immediately used for growth. (...) Acid rain increases foliar leaching, which results in reductions of foliar nutrient concentration and growth unless the loss is compensated by enhanced uptake of nutrients. (...) In northeastern France the nutrient development was studied in the annual rings of Q. robur.
لغة:الانكليزية
نتيجة: 237.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...n&DS=EB.AIR/WG.1/1999/9&Lang=E
مصدر البيانات: ods
POLICY-ORIENTED RECOMMENDATIONS RESULTING FROM THE COOPERATION WITH OTHER INTERGOVERNMENTAL SCIENTIFIC PANELS AND BODIES
Fragmentación; erosión del suelo; cambios en el régimen de escorrentía e infiltración; retroalimentación climática Gestión de pastizales Tipo de ganado; carga animal; régimen de rotación; alimentación suplementaria; irrigación Erosión del suelo; compactación del suelo; cambios en el contenido de nutrientes del suelo; cambios en el régimen de escorrentía e infiltración; especies invasoras; cambios en el régimen de incendios; sucesión secundaria Gestión de tierras de cultivo y agrosilvicultura Tipo de cultivo; gestión del suelo; ciclos de cosecha y barbecho; fertilizantes, plaguicidas y herbicidas; irrigación Erosión del suelo; compactación del suelo; cambios en el contenido de nutrientes del suelo; eutrofización; salinización del suelo y el agua; sedimentación; contaminación del agua; invasiones de especies; cambios en el régimen de incendios (en relación con la gestión agroforestal) Gestión de bosques nativos y plantados Intensidad de cosecha, rotación, técnicas de silvicultura; zonificación espacial Erosión del suelo; compactación del suelo; cambios en el contenido de nutrientes del suelo; cambios en el régimen de escorrentía e infiltración; salinización del agua y del suelo; cambios en la composición de las especies e invasiones de especies Extracción de recursos naturales no maderables Recolección de leña; caza; recolección de alimentos, forrajes, medicamentos y otros productos silvestres Cambios en la composición de las especies Cambios en el régimen de incendios n.a. (...) Sucesión secundaria; invasiones de especies; cambios en el régimen de incendios; cambios en el contenido de nutrientes del suelo; Extracción de recursos minerales Tipo de mina; técnicas de extracción y refinación; vertido de contaminantes; zonificación espacial Polución y contaminación del suelo; contaminación del agua ICCD/COP(14)/CST/L.6 6 GE.19-15264 Factores directos (antropógenos) Subcategorías de factores directos (antropógenos) Procesos de degradación o restauración conexos Infraestructura, industria, urbanización Presas e instalaciones hidroeléctricas; carreteras; vertido de contaminantes; irrigación Polución y contaminación del suelo; contaminación del agua; contaminantes atmosféricos Cambio climático Fenómenos meteorológicos extremos y cambios a largo plazo en la temperatura, la precipitación y la composición atmosférica n.a.
لغة:الإسبانية
نتيجة: 237.12 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...DS=ICCD/COP(14)/CST/L.6&Lang=S
مصدر البيانات: ods
GE.10-21507 Econom
(b) Issue: The gross nutrient balance for nitrogen provides insight into links between agricultural nutrient use, changes in environmental quality and the sustainable use of soil nutrient resources. (...) The indicator calculation should be based on the OECD/Eurostat national nutrient balances methodology, which takes into account all input and output matters in the farm. 20. (...) crops, pasture) from farming Nutrients (b) Gross balance between the quantities of phosphorus inputs (e.g. fertilizers, manure) into, and outputs (e.g.
لغة:الانكليزية
نتيجة: 236.66 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...ECE/CEP-CES/GE.1/2010/4&Lang=E
مصدر البيانات: ods
BALI DECLARATION
Agree to continue work on: (a) Enhancing the mainstreaming of the protection of coastal and marine ecosystems, especially from the environmental threats caused by increased nutrients, wastewater, and marine litter and microplastics; (b) Enhancing capacity-building, know-how and knowledge sharing through collaboration and partnerships involving governments, the private sector, civil society and experts at the regional and global levels in the protection of coastal and marine ecosystems from land-based activities and sources of pollution; 2. Note that the follow-up work of the Global Programme of Action should include, subject to future discussions on the form and implications: (a) Continued efforts relating to the three pollution streams – nutrients, wastewater and marine litter and microplastics from land-based sources – in support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as a framework for sustainable development; (b) Strengthening of the Global Partnership on Marine Litter, the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management and the Global Wastewater Initiative, as well as the interlinkages between the partnerships; (c) Improvement of the coordination, engagement and support of the work with Member States on land-based pollution, and fostering of linkages with the Regional Seas Programme and other relevant platforms and international initiatives for effective delivery; (d) Continued efforts to combat pollution from nutrients, wastewater, and marine litter and microplastics from land-based sources in an integrated manner, and the inclusion of the land/sea and freshwater/seawater interfaces in action plans for addressing marine litter, wastewater and nutrients; (e) Encouragement of the exchange of information, practical experiences and scientific and technical expertise through cooperative and collaborative action and partnership among governmental institutions and organizations, communities, the private sector and non-governmental organizations having relevant responsibilities and/or experience; 3.
لغة:الانكليزية
نتيجة: 236.49 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=UNEP/GPA/IGR.4/6&Lang=E
مصدر البيانات: ods
MANILA DECLARATION ON FURTHERING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GLOBAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM LAND-BASED ACTIVITIES
UNEP/GCSS.XII/INF/10 2 Annex Manila Declaration on Furthering the Implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities We, the representatives of 64 Governments and the European Commission, with the valued support and concurrence of representatives of international financial institutions, international and regional organizations, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, other stakeholders and major groups, Having met in Manila on 25 and 26 January 2012 at the third session of the Intergovernmental Review Meeting on the Implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, Recognizing that all people depend on oceans, coasts and their resources for their survival, health and well-being, and that a substantial proportion of the world’s population derives its food security and economic livelihood from the coastal environment and marine resources such as fisheries and shellfish from highly productive coastal and estuary zones, Recognizing also that marine and coastal ecosystems, in particular those of low-lying coastal areas and small island developing States, are vulnerable to rising sea levels, climate-related natural disasters and ocean acidification resulting from land-based activities, Acknowledging the large increases in the levels of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus entering the world’s environment as a result of human activity, and noting the severity of the environmental problems caused by nutrient excess, including eutrophication of coastal waters and oxygen depletion, and the associated damage to ecosystems, biodiversity and coastal water quality, Noting the rapid growth of urban areas and their impingement on coastal zones and the fact that the major threats to the health, productivity and biodiversity of the marine environment result from human activities on land, Recognizing that sewage and wastewater, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, oils (hydrocarbons), nutrients, sediments and marine litter, whether carried by rivers or discharged directly into coastal areas, take a severe toll on human health and well-being and on coastal and marine ecosystems and the food and services that they provide, Recognizing that marine litter is a problem that is global in scale and underestimated in impact; that it directly threatens coastal and marine habitats and species, economic growth, human health and safety, and social values; that a significant portion of marine litter originates from land-based activities; and that movement of litter and debris, exacerbated by storm events, has significant impacts on the marine environment, as do ship-based activities, Recognizing also that the marine environment is particularly threatened by loss of marine biodiversity and marine ecosystems through physical alterations of the coastal zone, poor land-use planning and social and economic pressures, including destruction of habitats of vital importance to maintaining ecosystem health, as well as goods and services provided by ecosystems such as coral reefs, coastal tidal flats, deltas, mangroves, seagrass beds and estuaries, Recognizing further the intrinsic value of, and links between, marine, coastal and freshwater ecosystems and human well-being and the need for integrated watershed and coastal management in efforts to achieve the effective sustainable management of land-based activities, including the incorporation of the value of ecosystem services into planning processes, Acknowledging that the Global Programme of Action is an effective tool for integrating environmental concerns into development planning and strategies at the international, regional and national levels and that, as such, it contributes substantially to the attainment of internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, Recognizing the lack of capacity in terms of science and technology and the need to integrate research, education and extension advisory services, in particular those of developing countries, as tools to build capacity to sustain the ability to address land-based activities that affect the marine environment, Recognizing also the importance of the existing regional seas conventions and action plans in tackling the accelerating degradation of the world’s oceans and coastal areas by engaging concerned UNEP/GCSS.XII/INF/10 3 countries in comprehensive and specific actions on land-based sources and activities, and through integrated coastal zone management, among other things, Recognizing further the important contributions of the regional seas programmes, the Global Environment Facility and international financial institutions in implementing the Global Programme of Action, Recognizing the achievements in the implementation of the Global Programme of Action over the period 2007–2011 and, in particular, the contribution of the Global Programme of Action Coordination Office in the Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems Branch of the United Nations Environment Programme’s Division of Environmental Policy Implementation, Recognizing also the importance of improved coastal water quality and the need for improved monitoring to identify threats to the marine environment at the regional, national and local levels, as encouraged by the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socio-economic Aspects, Recognizing further that litter does not belong to the sea and therefore emphasizing the relevance of the Honolulu Commitment and the Honolulu Strategy of the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference, Recognizing the significant progress made by some countries in building both human and institutional capacity and developing legislative frameworks, environmental policies and market-based instruments in the context of a proper regulatory framework that protects public interests for the sustainable management of fisheries, marine resources and the coastal environment, Emphasizing the need to support and enhance developing countries’ capacity to manage marine and coastal ecosystems in a sustainable manner in the context of the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity-building, Acknowledging the important contribution of multi-stakeholder partnerships, including public-private partnerships and United Nations inter-agency partnerships in the implementation of the Global Programme of Action and of intergovernmental commitments to advance action on the Millennium Development Goals, Stressing the importance of marine and coastal ecosystems and biodiversity to the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, given their role in identifying and addressing the underlying drivers of marine and coastal ecosystem loss and destruction and improving the sustainable management of coastal and marine areas, Recalling the 2009 Manado Declaration,1 decision SS.XI/7 of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme on oceans and other global initiatives to tackle marine and coastal ecosystem loss and destruction and the need to achieve long-term conservation, management and sustainable use of marine living resources and coastal habitats to, among other things, increase climate resiliency, achieve global food security and reduce poverty, Acknowledging the importance of the upcoming United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20 to 22 June 2012, 1. (...) Decide actively to engage ourselves and step up our efforts to develop guidance, strategies or policies on the sustainable use of nutrients so as to improve nutrient use efficiency with attendant economic benefits for all stakeholders, including farmers, and to mitigate negative 1 International Institute for Sustainable Development, World Ocean Conference Bulletin, final issue, vol. 162, No. 5, 18 May 2009. (...) Decide that the Global Programme of Action Coordination Office should over the period 2012–2016 focus its work on nutrients, litter and wastewater as the three priority source categories for the Programme, using global multi-stakeholder partnerships, and request the Coordination Office to develop its activity plan on the basis of the following strategic directions: (a) Supporting the further development of the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management and associated regional and national stakeholder partnerships, in addition to their activities, including assessments agreed upon by the partnership, and sharing best practices using extension and advisory services for policymakers and farmers; (b) Working with all stakeholders concerned to find innovative solutions and initiatives to the problem of marine litter, including by sharing best practices, technical information about capacity-building and legal, policy, community-based, economic and market-based means of preventing, reducing and managing marine litter, and working to establish a global partnership on marine litter; (c) Supporting the further development of a global partnership on wastewater and sharing among stakeholders information, lessons learned and best practices for wastewater management, including technologies that do not adversely affect the environment and biodiversity, and resource reduction, reuse and recycling approaches for the purposes of protecting the environment, improving sanitation and human health, combating climate change and ensuring nutrient benefits so as to prompt coordinated action, and encouraging new investments in wastewater management that meet these objectives; 6.
لغة:الانكليزية
نتيجة: 236.31 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...DS=UNEP/GCSS.XII/INF/10&Lang=E
مصدر البيانات: ods