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Now, we brie ly explain LN’s Bitcoin transactions below as speci ied by BOLT #3. (...) Both nodes can Funding Transaction Output: This is a P2WSH out‑ offer each other HTLCs with update_add_htlc messages. put with a witness script: 2 2 The sender of the payment irst updates the commitment OP_CHECKMULTISIG. (...) However, this is not the preferred way to close a non‑timelocked output which both nodes can spend, channel in LN and is only recommended to be done when the commitment transaction’s fee can be changed for the counterparty is not responding. faster mining. 4. Offered HTLC Outputs: This is a P2WSH output for the 3.3.2 BOLT #3: Bitcoin transaction and script HTLCs that are offered to the remote node.
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Score: 1956226.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...5/files/basic-html/page69.html
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Once the puzzle has been solved, a new Bitcoin is issued, and its presence is announced to Bitcoin users – nodes - on the Bitcoin blockchain. (...) The purpose of the blockchain is to track Bitcoin spending, specifically to prevent ‘double spending’ of the same Bitcoin. (...) In order to incentivize people to do the mining, and to have Bitcoin transactions validated, they pay successful miners by offering them newly-created Bitcoin when they finish validating a block of transactions and adding it to the blockchain.
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Score: 1914609.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page148.html
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The big cryptocurrency global brands include Bitcoin, Litecoin, XRP, Dash, Lisk and Monero, but Bitcoin leads the pack in Africa. (...) Industry experts believe that cryptocurrency will be around for years. That Bitcoin users can send money to just about anywhere there is an internet connection for relatively small fees and with no third-party interference is an advantage that standard government-issued currencies cannot offer.  (...) Countries such as Bangladesh, Ecuador and Kyrgyzstan believe the risks outweigh the gains and have banned Bitcoin as well as initial coin offerings or ICOs, which are used by start-ups to evade the demand for capital by banks and other financing institutions.  
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Score: 1909665.6 - https://www.un.org/africarenew...e-next-frontier-cryptocurrency
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HARNESSING BLOCKCHAIN FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES
Similar moments in past technological revolutions offered windows of opportunity for some developing countries to catch up and for others to forge ahead. (...) Through initial coin offerings, a team of developers sells tokens to finance the development of a solution. Usually, a share of the tokens is distributed to the development team and initial investors. After the bitcoin price bust in 2017, initial coin offerings were scrutinized by regulators in the United States of America, and some of the initial coin offerings were considered to breach securities regulations.21 23.
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Score: 1822341.2 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=E/CN.16/2021/3&Lang=E
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European Securities and Markets Authority (2019) Advice: Initial Coin Offerings and Crypto- Assets, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2CXSjFc 253 As noted by the European Securities and Markets Authority, ESMA See European Securities and Markets Authority (2019) Advice: Initial Coin Offerings and Crypto-Assets , available at https:// bit .ly/ 2CXSjFc, these requirements may also apply in relation to the initial recording of securities in a book-entry system (notary service), providing and maintaining securities accounts at the top tier level (central maintenance service), or providing, maintaining or operating securities accounts in relation to the settlement service, establishing CSD links, collateral management. 254 European Securities and Markets Authority (2019) Advice: Initial Coin Offerings and Crypto-Assets , available at https:// bit .ly/ 2CXSjFc 255 Rocco, G (2018) Emptied IOTA Wallets: Hackers Steal Millions Using Malicious Seed Generators, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2SmVlsI 256 Binance (2019) Binance Launches DEX Testnet for the New Era of Peer-to-Peer Cryptocurrency Trading, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2XZJke2 257 It has online order matching, versus offline matching in centralized exchanges. 258 Novikov, I (2018) Why Are Crypto Exchanges Hacked So Often? (...) Ludwin, A (2015) How Anonymous is Bitcoin? A Backgrounder for Policymakers, available at https:// goo .gl/ DJnIvP. 271 This also depends on the blockchain design. (...) Bitcoin cash reaches 61 transactions per second (tps).
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Score: 1812526 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page74.html
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Blockchain thus only While DLT designs lend themselves to a tamper-evi- addresses a record’s authenticity by confirming the dent motif, as noted above, the nascent DLT ecosys- party or parties submitting a record, the time and tem also offers a rich attack source for directly date of its submission, and the contents of the record stealing value – as tokens - from ‘wallets’, disrupting at the time of submission, and not the reliability or the use of a DL, and potentially changing data on a accuracy of the records contained in the blockchain. (...) There have been very high-profile intrusions transaction, the network will and must validate it. into the ‘exchanges’ that store crypto-currencies, That is, as long as the correct protocols are utilized, resulting in huge loses for owners of these values. 131 the data inputted will be accepted by the nodes on But while Bitcoin storage facilities have been com- a blockchain. promised, there are no reports to date of the Bitcoin This is the DLT incarnation of the unfortunate blockchain itself being compromised. (...) There were however 3 forks of the of an individual participant on a blockchain show- original Bitcoin blockchain called BitCoin Cash, Bit- ing their users an altered version of their data whilst Coin Gold and BitCoin SV, which some believe qualify simultaneously showing the unedited (genuine) ver- as a compromise. sion to the other participant nodes on the blockchain Although the data on a blockchain is said to network. 132 be secure, and any data input authenticated, the While integration of IoT devices with DLTs show DLT does not address the reliability or accuracy of great promise – especially in the agricultural value Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies 23     20     21     22     23     24     25     26     27     28     29     30          
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Score: 1793366 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page25.html
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 Page 70 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 70 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies P. 70 160 In many jurisdictions and following BIS leads, FMIs must maintain certain standards with respect to risk management and operations, have adequate safeguards and procedures to protect the confidentiality of trading information, have procedures that identify and address conflicts of interest, require minimum governance standards for boards of directors, designate a chief compliance officer, and disseminate pricing and valuation information. 161 European Securities and Markets Authority (2019) Advice: Initial Coin Offerings and Crypto-Assets , available at https:// bit .ly/ 2CXSjFc 162 See examples thereof in ITU-T Focus Group Digital Currency including Digital Fiat Currency (2019) Reference Architecture and Use Cases Report, available at www .itu .int 163 Coindesk (2015) What the 'Bitcoin Bug' Means: A Guide to Transaction Malleability, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2O3cpW4 164 This is similar to but not ‘double spending. van Wirdum, A (2015)The Who, What, Why and How of the Ongoing Transaction Malleability Attack, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2xRZc7I 165 ibid. (...) Gox hacked followed the following sequence: (i) the attacker deposits Bitcoins in a Mt. Gox wallet; (ii) the attacker requests withdrawal of the coins and the exchange initiates a transaction; (iii) the attacker modifies the TXID and the transaction is included in the blockchain; (iv) After the attacker receives the coins, the attacker complains to the exchange that the coins were not received; (v) After the exchanged searches but cannot find the exact transaction ID, the exchange reissues another send 166 Bitcoin News (2015) Transaction Malleability: MtGox’s Latest Woes, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2GkwHnN 167 See BIP 66, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2SxoLVn ; Bitcoin Transaction Malleability, available at 167 http:// bit .ly/ 2SrbZaD and also BIP 141, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2LpCVal 168 BitDegree (2019) What is SegWit and How it Works Explained, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2YgzSHc 169 StackExchange (2018) Why Was Transaction Malleability Fix Required for Lightning Network?, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2XXIbnd 170 Ambcrypto (2018) SegWit Fixed the Transaction Malleability Problem on Bitcoin and Litecoin, says Bitcoin Proponent, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2GiJ1VI; See also Zcash, available at http:// bit .ly/ 30I8dg5 171 In essence, the recipient of funds (such as from an exchange) complains to the sender that a transaction had not occurred and requests a resend of the funds.
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Score: 1787415.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page70.html
Data Source: un
This is being applied in the crypto currency realm with Zcash, an emerging decentralized and open-source cryptocurrency that competes with Bitcoin and which purports to offer privacy and selective transparency of transactions. 84 There is also R3’s Corda blockchain technology ‒ supported by over 70 banks and insurance companies worldwide – that shuns, in its design, global sharing of data such that only those parties with a legitimate need to know can see the data placed within an agreement on the blockchain. 85 Digital Asset Holdings has also announced a ‘fingerprinting’ model to address privacy concerns: Though these fingerprints with blockchain data are shared amongst all users of a given blockchain, only trusted parties will be able to decipher them. 86 And, for smart contracts, Hawk has been announced: It is a decentralized smart contract system that does not store financial transactions in the clear on the blockchain, retaining transactional privacy from the public’s view. 87 5.3 Security of DLTs There have been very high-profile intrusions into the ‘vaults’ that store Bitcoins, resulting in huge loses for Bitcoin holders. But while Bitcoin storage facilities have been compromised, there are no reports to date of 88 the Bitcoin blockchain itself being compromised. 89 79 For discussions of these potential tradeoffs and concerns, see Kosba, A et al (2016) Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart Contracts, available at https:// eprint. iacr. org/ 2015/ 675. pdf; Greenspan, G (2016a) Blockchains vs Centralized Databases, available at https:// goo. gl/ gKfoym ; and R3 (2016) Introducing R3 Corda™: A Distributed Ledger Designed for Financial Services, available at https:// goo. gl/ IgD1uO ; and Deloitte (2016) Blockchain: Enigma. (...) page= 0a. 85 R3 (2016) ibid 86 Leising, M (2016) Blythe Masters Unveils Fix for Blockchain Privacy Concerns, available at https:// goo. gl/ KblSLm. 87 Kosba et al (2016) ibid 88 Reuters (2016) Bitcoin worth $72 million stolen from Bitfinex exchange in Hong Kong, available at http:// reut. rs/ 2atByqe. 89 Compromised in the sense that data on the blockchain was altered without consensus of all the user nodes in the blockchain. 137     152     153     154     155     156     157     158     159     160     161     162          
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Score: 1763412.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page157.html
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Based on the discussions on the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches, we offer possible directions for research for the future of privacy based payment channel networks. Keywords – Bitcoin, blockchain, lightning network, payment channel network, routing protocols 1. (...) Besides, the ef iciency of payment routing within Bitcoin, new cryptocurrencies that offer new capabilities the PCN with a large number of users is tackled.
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Score: 1747935.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...1/files/basic-html/page51.html
Data Source: un
Based on the discussions on the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches, we offer possible directions for research for the future of privacy based payment channel networks. Keywords – Bitcoin, blockchain, lightning network, payment channel network, routing protocols 1. (...) Besides, the ef iciency of payment routing within Bitcoin, new cryptocurrencies that offer new capabilities the PCN with a large number of users is tackled.
Language:English
Score: 1747935.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...1/files/basic-html/page51.html
Data Source: un