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Since then, the first cryptoasset, Bitcoin, which still accounts for over 40 per cent of the total market capitalization, lost over three quarters of its valuation. (...) “Cooperation among an anonymous group protected Bitcoin during failures of decentralization.” https://aidenlab.org/bitcoin.pdf). (...) McDonald. “El Salvador’s Bitcoin Losses Are Equal to Next Bond Payment.” Bloomberg.
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Score: 1410319.5 - https://www.un.org/development...ites/45/publication/PB_135.pdf
Data Source: un
Enabling micro‑payments on IoT devices using bitcoin lightning network. In 2021 IEEE In‑ ternational Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocur‑ AUTHORS rency (ICBC), pages 1–3. (...) He https://blog.lightning.engineering/ann is currently pursuing a Ph.D. de‑ ouncement/2018/03/15/lnd-beta.html. gree in Electrical and Computer Engineering with the Florida Inter‑ [23] Bitcoin Wiki. Contract, accessed 2021‑03. https: //en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Contract. national University, Miami, United States. (...) Lightning network search and analysis en‑ ests include Bitcoin’s lightning net‑ gine, accessed 2021‑03. https://1ml.com/. work, Bitcoin and payment chan‑ [25] Bryan Vu.
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Score: 1408511.3 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...5/files/basic-html/page78.html
Data Source: un
If participants in that process are preselected, the ledger is said to be ‘permissioned.’ 20 These may also be public or private. 21 1.3.2 Permissionless shared ledgers In permissionless (public) ledgers such as Bitcoin, all participants – the nodes ‒ maintain the integrity of the 22 ledger by reaching a consensus about its state. (...) This makes blockchains, at least for the present state of the art, possibly unsuitable for real-time transactions. 25 19 Some would argue that in practice Bitcoin is basically a closed network today since the only entity that validates a transaction is effectively 1 in 20 semi-static pools. (...) As DLTs mature, many believe that there will be a full spectrum between permissioned and permissionless. 21 Public blockchains are said to be fully decentralized. 22 Bitcoin is not issued by a central authority and thus cannot be controlled, which from the reaction to Bitcoin by regulators around the world, appears to pose policy challenges. 23 Validating nodes are different than mining nodes.
Language:English
Score: 1408511.3 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page149.html
Data Source: un
Unsplash/Sigmund Preço do Bitcoin e outras criptomoedas começou a cair e mais turbulência está sendo esperada   ON: O bitcoin já existe há alguns anos, mas há dois anos ele teve um boom e agora começou a entrar numa queda e questiona-se muito se é o fim do bitcoin ou se ele veio para ficar. (...) Eu li uma matéria que falava que se o bitcoin começa a ser usado mais do que a moeda local, como moeda nacional, isso pode trazer um risco para o país? (...) A gente no estudo também percebeu que criptomoedas, e não somente o bitcoin. Bitcoin é uma das 19 mil moedas que criam criptomoedas que ativos que existem hoje.
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Score: 1405168.8 - https://news.un.org/pt/interview/2022/08/1798982
Data Source: un
In theory, the PoW consensus has a probabilistic agreement, and, only after some rounds, offers high probability security for decisions [b-Nak]. (...) Regarding risk 2, permission-less platforms usually offer economic mechanisms to mitigate the risk of users manipulating network usage by sending too many transactions or a transaction that does not terminate. (...) [b-Nak] Nakamoto, S. (2008), Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. [b-Poo] Poon, J., Dryja, T. (2016), The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments.
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Score: 1401575.8 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../tut/T-TUT-DLT-2022-MSW-E.docx
Data Source: un
Scope Geneva, Switzerland, 21 March 2017 • Blockchain in its purest sense • Storage • Relying on pure cryptography • Blockchain in the context of Bitcoin & Cryptocurrencies • Cryptographic work as a store of value and reward • Incentivised to further secure the transaction set • Security implications of such a protocol What makes a blockchain special? (...) Edge Vulnerabilities Geneva, Switzerland, 21 March 2017 • Bitcoin, per se, has never been hacked • Quality vulnerabilities still exist • Fully distributed networks are in the hands of a community • Very much an experiment What makes a blockchain special? The Net Result (2) Geneva, Switzerland, 21 March 2017 Secure More Secure Blockchain Blockchain + Cryptographic Work + Store of value Predictable Outcomes Use cases exploiting blockchain's inherent security  Secure Data Storage Geneva, Switzerland, 21 March 2017 Blockchain as a Cyber Threat Geneva, Switzerland, 21 March 2017 • The Bitcoin protocol has a virus like quality. • “It’s Impossible to Kill Bitcoin”- Former Chief of Govt-Owned Bank of China • Could a blockchain based cyber virus emerge requiring an infeasible amount of cryptographic work to neutralise it?
Language:English
Score: 1401306.25 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/W...rkshop_Blockchain_Security.pdf
Data Source: un
Decentralized Applications: Harnessing Bitcoin's Blockchain Technology. O'Reilly Media, Inc.. Retrieved from http:// kddlab .zjgsu .edu .cn: 7200/ research/ blockchain/ OReilly .Decentralized .Applications .Harnessing .Bitcoins .Blockchain .Technology .pdf Blockchain Blockchain In addition, there are public blockchain nets (like Bitcoin, Ethereum, etc.) where everyone can join it (i.e. be part of the net activities). (...) Blockchain Exchange https:// www .nortonrosefulbright .com/ en/ knowledge/ publications/ e383ade6/ cryptocurrency -exchanges -and -custody -providers -international -regulatory -developments Blockchain Flat money Trust money Blockchain Fork https:// academy .binance .com/ blockchain/ hard -forks -and -soft -forks Blockchain Full node Validator node/complete node Blockchain Gas Cost to operate into the blockchain net Blockchain Hard cap Maximum catchment of an ICO Blockchain Hard fork Antonopoulos, Andreas (2017). Mastering Bitcoin: Programming the Open Blockchain (2 ed.).
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Score: 1401306.25 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page92.html
Data Source: un
La quantité d'énergie nécessaire pour alimenter le réseau Bitcoin est stupéfiante : Tim Berners-Lee, crédité comme l'inventeur du World Wide Web, est allé jusqu'à décrire « l'extraction de Bitcoin » comme « l'un des moyens les plus fondamentalement inutiles d’utiliser l’énergie ». (...) Ce processus nécessite tellement d'énergie que le réseau Bitcoin consommerait plus d'énergie que plusieurs pays, dont le Kazakhstan et les Pays-Bas.  (...) Un seul Tweet du milliardaire Elon Musk peut faire monter ou baisser la valeur du Bitcoin ; El Salvador a annoncé son intention de donner cours légal au Bitcoin en juin, un mois après que Beijing a annoncé une répression de l’extraction de Bitcoin ; tandis qu'une autre crypto-monnaie, Dogecoin, a également été largement échangée, avec des hausses et des baisses énormes de sa valeur (encore une fois, en partie suite aux déclarations de M.
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Score: 1399130.1 - https://news.un.org/fr/story/2021/06/1099092
Data Source: un
DRAFT REPORT : ADDENDUM : CONSIDERATION OF TOPICS BY WORKING GROUPS
In many jurisdictions bitcoins are not considered legal currency and therefore fall outside the scope of money-laundering legislation. __________________ * Available only in English, which is the working language of the subsidiary body. (...) The working group drew the following conclusions: (a) Domestic inter-agency cooperation, the ready exchange of information together with international collaboration with judicial authorities and financial intelligence units need to be encouraged so as to effectively target and disrupt the financial flows of drug-related criminal organizations in the region; (b) It is important that anti-corruption measures in place are regularly revised to ensure they are effective and support the development of an appropriate organizational culture; (c) The legislation enabling the seizure of funds and assets derived from trafficking should be reviewed and updated to respond to the changes in money-laundering practices employed by criminal organizations such as the use of informal banking systems (hawala) and the emergence of bitcoins. 4. The working group made the following recommendations: (a) Governments are encouraged to engage in international regional and subregional cooperation as an effective measure against money-laundering; (b) Governments are encouraged to enact or amend their legislation so that it complies with international standards and relevant conventions to combat the financing of the illicit drug trade; (c) Governments should ensure that the anti-corruption measures that they have put in place to maintain the integrity of their financial investigation units are regularly revised so that they are effective and support the development of an appropriate organizational culture.
Language:English
Score: 1397480.3 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...ODC/HONLAP/40/L.1/ADD.5&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Because, with a 2‑of‑2 multisigna‑ Offered HTLC ture channel, the LN gateway could send its own signa‑ - Output for the HTLC payment and spendable by the bridge if it knows the payment preimage R ture to the bridge LN node which would be enough for or the bridge LN node to be able to spend its commitment - IoT gets it back after block height w Amount: 0.9 BTC transaction. (...) SECURITY ANALYSIS was in a remote location different from that of Pi’s. For the full Bitcoin node installation, we used bitcoind [30] which is one of the implementations of the Bitcoin protocol.
Language:English
Score: 1395485 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...5/files/basic-html/page75.html
Data Source: un