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From cryptocurrencies to CBDCs By Chaesub Lee, Director, Telecommunication Standardization Bureau, ITU Money as we know it is transforming. Digital currency offers promising ways to make transactions more secure and cost-effective. (...) What digital money can do for cities Bitcoin, blockchain, tokens are terms that cities have a responsibility to help residents understand them, interpreting technological complexity and explaining it in plain language, as well as driving financial literacy.
Language:English
Score: 1391000.2 - https://www.itu.int/hub/tag/digital-fiat-currency/feed/
Data Source: un
Unsplash/Sigmund Preço do Bitcoin e outras criptomoedas começou a cair e mais turbulência está sendo esperada   ON: O bitcoin já existe há alguns anos, mas há dois anos ele teve um boom e agora começou a entrar numa queda e questiona-se muito se é o fim do bitcoin ou se ele veio para ficar. (...) Eu li uma matéria que falava que se o bitcoin começa a ser usado mais do que a moeda local, como moeda nacional, isso pode trazer um risco para o país? (...) A gente no estudo também percebeu que criptomoedas, e não somente o bitcoin. Bitcoin é uma das 19 mil moedas que criam criptomoedas que ativos que existem hoje.
Language:English
Score: 1390697.2 - https://news.un.org/pt/interview/2022/08/1798982
Data Source: un
Unsplash/Sigmund Preço do Bitcoin e outras criptomoedas começou a cair e mais turbulência está sendo esperada   ON: O bitcoin já existe há alguns anos, mas há dois anos ele teve um boom e agora começou a entrar numa queda e questiona-se muito se é o fim do bitcoin ou se ele veio para ficar. (...) Eu li uma matéria que falava que se o bitcoin começa a ser usado mais do que a moeda local, como moeda nacional, isso pode trazer um risco para o país? (...) A gente no estudo também percebeu que criptomoedas, e não somente o bitcoin. Bitcoin é uma das 19 mil moedas que criam criptomoedas que ativos que existem hoje.
Language:English
Score: 1390697.2 - https://news.un.org/pt/node/1798982
Data Source: un
REPORT OF THE FORTIETH MEETING OF HEADS OF NATIONAL DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, ASIA AND THE PACIFIC, HELD IN COLOMBO FROM 24 TO 27 OCTOBER 2016
Challenges relating to the emergence of the darknet and the use of bitcoins were mentioned, as was the need to undertake action in that regard at the national and international levels. (...) In many jurisdictions, bitcoins are not considered legal currency and therefore fall outside the scope of money-laundering legislation. (...) The Chair instructed the Secretariat to formulate that and other relevant topics into themes for consideration by working groups on the basis of the priorities in the region and in consultation with States represented at the Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Asia and the Pacific, as required. 40. The Philippines offered to host the Forty-first Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies, Asia and the Pacific.
Language:English
Score: 1389807.3 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=UNODC/HONLAP/40/6&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Internal gover- 2015, dozens of attacks were reported, currency nance may ameliorate or exacerbate these concerns, 217 exchanges and mining pools were primary targets on especially if there are governing bodies made of up of the Bitcoin network, with over 60% of large Bitcoin members who have the power to include or exclude 218 mining pools suffering DDoS attacks versus only 17% members. (...) Similarly, validators), such as the Bitcoin network where sever- mining pools undertaking POW could monopolize al large mining pools operate. some DLTs or change the underlying protocols. 220 Risks: Mitigation & Recommendations: An attack on a sizeable mining pool can substan- Market conduct regulators would have to consid- tially disrupt mining activity and even early detec- er whether there is a dominance of a DLT within a 221 tion and preventative measures can still result be of particular market activity. (...) Indeed, there is a trade-off between 229 While the Bitcoin client has DDoS prevention meth- replacing costly – and often risky - intermediar- ods, they are not bulletproof and mining pools and ies with cryptographic key-only access distribut- 223 exchanges typically obtain specialized DDoS mitiga- ed across nodes.
Language:English
Score: 1380513.7 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page35.html
Data Source: un
Blocks are found in the Bitcoin block chain. Blocks connect all transactions together. (...) Also called a permissionless distributed database or permissionless distributed ledger. The Bitcoin block chain is a public record of all Bitcoin transactions. (...) CPU/GPU cycles spent checking hashes). In the case of Bitcoin, with Proof of Stake, the resource that’s compared is the amount of Bitcoin a miner holds – someone holding 1% of the Bitcoin can mine 1% of the “Proof of Stake blocks”.
Language:English
Score: 1374970.7 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/f...ents/all/FGAI4H-F-025-A01.docx
Data Source: un
One snippet from her text: Blockchain is much more than Bitcoin. Blockchain’s  first  implementation  as  the  technology  underpinning  Bitcoin has  led  many to associate Blockchain with Bitcoin.
Language:English
Score: 1374115.8 - https://www.unicc.org/news/201...kchain-in-international-trade/
Data Source: un
Because nodes are often 10 launch of the crypto-currency Bitcoin. Bitcoin’s anonymous, there is said to be a need for ‘consen- 12 11 decentralized transaction authentication rests on sus’ between the nodes before a mined block can be blockchain approaches: It records in a digital ledger added to a chain. The veracity of the data within a every transaction made in that currency in identical new block is not checked though: just that the block copies of a ledger which are replicated – distributed itself is able to be added. 15 - amongst the currency’s users - nodes - on a chain The types of consensus mechanisms are outlined of data blocks. in Annex A, with the majority using the resource and 13 DLT is commonly used as a term of art by those power-intensive ‘proof of work’ (POW) mechanism in the technology development community as the first outlined in the Bitcoin blockchain. Many DLTs generic high-level descriptor for any distributed, are moving towards the more energy efficient Proof encrypted database and application that is shared of Stake (POS) consensus protocol and its variants. by an industry or private consortium, or which is Where the technology allows, a consensus mecha- open to the public. (...) If the process is open to everyone - 16 DLTs generally integrate a number of innovations such as with Bitcoin - then the ledger is said to be 17 which include: database (ledger) entries that can- ‘permissionless’, and the DLT has no owner.
Language:English
Score: 1372322.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page15.html
Data Source: un
 Page 42 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 42 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies P. 42 of the network with as few as 3-4 Bitcoin or Ethe- Vulnerability: reum mining operations dominating over 50-60% of Blockchain Consensus Dominance; Mining Pool the network. 284 Dominance In the case of POW, should one entity or mining Consensus Dominance, more commonly known as a pool hold 51% of the hashing power, that individu- 51% attack in POW blockchains, is a situation where al or group would have monopoly control over the a substantial amount of power - as defined by the blockchain and be able to mine blocks at a faster rate consensus protocol - is held by one entity or group than the rest of the miners in the network. (...) Depending upon the sys- porary forks (Bitcoin) or others which can create a 285 tem, the attacker could ‘choose between using it to permanent hard fork of the blockchain which can defraud people by stealing back his payments, or only be fully corrected by doing the unthinkable – using it to generate new coins.’ The most popular rolling back the blockchain to an earlier block. 286 targets of 51% attacks are crypto-currency exchang- • Failure to Reach Consensus which may lead to fail- es, where often coins are deposited and quickly ure to carry out an action or transaction, such as 287 exchanged for another currency which is immedi- requiring an amount greater than 50% of all nodes. ately sent to another address under control of the • System Dominance, where one or more actors attacker. 288 can, alone or in collusion, can dominate the net- With regard to POW-based blockchains such work and take control over transactions and award as Bitcoin, several papers claim that a 51% attack themselves new crypto-currency and mine or val- can actually be successful with as low as 25% and idate their own transactions, examples of which 33% of the hash/computing power and incidents below include Majority/51% attacks, Sybil attacks. with mining pools have confirmed the potential for • Inferior System Performance, where reaching a such abuse.
Language:English
Score: 1372322.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page42.html
Data Source: un
THURSDAY, 26 OCTOBER 2017 - 15:00
Lazer (Compliance Officer, TransferWise, Inc.), accompanying her remarks with a digital slide presentation, said that her company, which had been established seven years previously, provided cross- border money transfer services that were faster, cheaper and more convenient than those offered by banks. Headquartered in the United Kingdom, TransferWise was licensed to operate in many other countries around the world. (...) Lazer (Compliance Officer, TransferWise) said that she could not make an informed judgment of the risks associated with the potential use of virtual currencies by terrorists from the standpoint of TransferWise, as it offered only traditional international money transfer services. (...) Currency exchange platforms must be subject to anti-money-laundering regulations and any use of bitcoin for terrorist activity should be reported to the authorities.
Language:English
Score: 1368859.3 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=S/AC.40/SR.324&Lang=E
Data Source: ods