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For example, to upgrade the blockchain which Bitcoin uses requires a Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) design document for introducing new features since Bitcoin has no formal structure. See Anceaume, E et al (2016) Safety Analysis of Bitcoin Improvement Proposals, available at https:// goo. gl/ MO3JBb . 104 Although there is no consensus on terminology, the various types of ‘forks’ that are generally possible have been classified by the Bitcoin community into forks, hard forks, soft forks, software fork or git fork. (...) A git fork is when one or more developers temporarily develop a codebase separately from other developers. See Bitcoin (2016) Hard Fork, Hard-Forking Change, available at https:// bitcoin. org/ en/ glossary/ hard- fork.
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Score: 1498547.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page159.html
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They are noted or discussed briefly but are generally beyond the scope of this paper and will not be detailed in depth. 37 Mappo (2019) Blockchain Governance 101, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2XYLLgP 38 Hsieh, Y; Vergne, J & Wang, S (2018) The Internal and External Governance of Blockchain-based Organizations: Evidence from Crypto-currencies, available at http:// bit .ly/ 32zdKHn 39 See the Bitcoin Core ‘Bitcoin Improvement Proposals’ voting process. (...) See also WhaleCalls (2017) Fact or FUD — ’BlockStream , Inc is the main force behind Bitcoin (and taken over)’, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2Urfyhl 40 Individuals have been passed the torch of leadership from a founder or foundations created by interested stakeholders may influence funding and development efforts. See Van Wirdum, A (2016) Who Funds Bitcoin Core Development? How the Industry Supports Bitcoin's 'Reference Client', https:// bit .ly/ 2tTcPlf; Lopp, J (2016) Who Controls Bitcoin Core?
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Score: 1498547.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page64.html
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Get Started Link Blockchain Explained A Reuters visual guide to this emerging technology with a growing number of possible uses Visit the site Link Live Demo: Blockchain Concepts See how blockchain works Visit the site Link Trust Disrupted: Bitcoin and the Blockchain Watch this series of videos spanning the history of bitcoin to analyzing its future Visit the site Link Blockchains Vs Databases The difference? (...) Read guides in Ethereum, a global, open-source platform for decentralized applications Link 30 August 2019 The History of Ethereum Read through a digital history book about the movement we today know as Ethereum Bitcoin Link 12 November 2018 A Brief History of Bitcoin Go through 10 years of highs and lows, of controversy and success. Link 30 August 2019 How Bitcoin Works in 5 Minutes Understand the digital ledger, where every participant has a copy, avoiding centralized control Link 30 August 2019 How Bitcoin Works: Under the Hood Have a clearer idea of what it really means to own, send, or mine bitcoins Use Cases Link The Potential of Blockchain in Social Impact How much of it is hype and how much of it is reality?
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Score: 1496324.8 - https://www.unicef.org/innovation/blockchain-learning-hub
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REPORT ON THE MEETING OF THE OPEN-ENDED INTERGOVERNMENTAL WORKING GROUP ON ASSET RECOVERY HELD IN VIENNA ON 29 AND 30 MAY 2019
Moreover, some speakers noted that the expert meetings held in Addis Ababa offered an informal platform for asset recovery experts and practitioners to discuss and find viable avenues for asset return and brought together different expertise. (...) Finally, the speaker offered solutions to some of the challenges faced in the 1MDB case, including the need for beneficial ownership transparency, laws to protect whistle-blowers and the importance of tracing and targeting stolen assets. 52. (...) Based on the analysed information, the note also offered some important practical considerations relevant to those issues for the attention of the Working Group. 56.
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Score: 1492327.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...DS=CAC/COSP/WG.2/2019/6&Lang=E
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Specific blockchain solutions for IoT also offers opportunities in the smart city context. Finance The financial sector is the sector most impacted by blockchain technology. The concept of blockchain was brought to the forefront with the cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. It is also understandable that economic issues have continued to be the motor behind many of the developments of the most crucial blockchain products and services in society today. The cryptocurrencies enable the transfer of money in real time without any intermediaries. Initial coin offering (ICO) models facilitate the initial financing of business without the intervention of any bank.
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Score: 1492124.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page39.html
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From cryptocurrencies to CBDCs By Chaesub Lee, Director, Telecommunication Standardization Bureau, ITU Money as we know it is transforming. Digital currency offers promising ways to make transactions more secure and cost-effective. (...) What digital money can do for cities Bitcoin, blockchain, tokens are terms that cities have a responsibility to help residents understand them, interpreting technological complexity and explaining it in plain language, as well as driving financial literacy. (...) While many used to argue that Bitcoin itself is not a branch of AI, the majority of folks agreed, that it is at least the longest-standing independent artificial life (AL) that owns itself.
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Score: 1491932.8 - https://www.itu.int/hub/category/blockchain/feed/
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 Page 73 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 73 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies P. 73 229 For public, permissionless (trustless) blockchains like Bitcoin where the use of nodes on the blockchain are publicly used to verify transactions is a core feature, security of its blockchain – and not the vaults bitcoins are stored in - is ensured by syntactic rules and computational barriers to mining. (...) Edinburgh School of Law Research Paper No. 2018/43, available at https:// ssrn .com/ abstract = 3297052 245 European Securities and Markets Authority (2019) Advice: Initial Coin Offerings and Crypto-Assets, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2CXSjFc 246 Cointelegraph (2019) Insured Cryptocurrency Custody Services and Their Potential Impact: The Key to Institutional Investment Growth?
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Score: 1491932.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page73.html
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For example, for permissioned ledgers replacing 92 centralized intermediaries, the cost-benefit in using blockchain is somewhat ameliorated by the need to trust permissioned authors rather than relying solely on the nodes who offer the guarantee of ledger integrity. 93 The issues are said to be thus: The more trusted parties per node that are needed, so too does the compromisable 'surface area' of a distributed network increase. (...) The ability then to upgrade the cryptographic techniques used for ‘old’ transactions should be considered in DLT designs. 5.4 Fragmentation in DLTs DLT-based solutions intrinsically rely upon multiple users for achieving critical mass: Nodes need more nodes to distribute the data, to do the validations of the blocks in the process of being added, and to do the processing 90 Hertig, A (2016) The Blockchain Created by Ethereum's Fork is Forking Now, available at http:// www. coindesk. com/ ethereum- classic- blockchain- fork- ddos- attacks/ . 91 For public, permissionless (trustless) blockchains like Bitcoin where the use of nodes on the blockchain are publicly used to verify transactions is a core feature, security of its blockchain – and not the vaults bitcoins are stored in - is ensured by syntactic rules and computational barriers to mining.
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Score: 1491932.8 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page158.html
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Risks: • Use of the transaction assurance, for example By deliberately launching transaction malleability insurance of custodians attacks on multiple exchanges at once, perhaps using • There may be a need to distinguish between per- software deliberately designed to create mutant missioned and permissionless DLTs in that respect, transactions could cause short-term problems for in particular, specific governance issues with per- the market as any uncertainty or doubt about market missionless DLTs, which makes them less suitable stability will have an effect on market prices, espe- to the processing of financial instruments, at least cially with such an illiquid, volatile asset class. in their current form. 161 • Central Bank DLT prototypes have used the BFT Mitigation and Recommendations: consensus protocol to ensure finality of pay- Cost-based prevention, e.g. consensus algorithms ments. 162 make it expensive to perpetrate this attack. 8.3.2 Issue: Changes In The Order Of 8.3.3 Issue: Accuracy of Oracle Input/Output Transactions Data Dimensions Affected: Consensus, Data Model Dimension Affected: Data Model Specific Threat: Transaction (Data) Malleability Specific Threat: Oracles are compromised A transaction (data) malleability attack lets some- Blockchain applications are unable to directly access one change the unique ID of a Bitcoin transaction and retrieve information from sources outside of the before it is confirmed on the Bitcoin network, making blockchain. (...) The founder of Mt. environment, using an oracle introduces both a trust- 164 Gox claimed that transaction malleability was a ed intermediary and trusted data source with the primary cause of the spectacular heist of USD 473 possibility both will be provided from a single, cen- million of Bitcoin stolen from the exchange. The tralized source. 165 claim was analyzed and separately confirmed as a problem in the Bitcoin protocol, currently fixed in Vulnerabilities: 166 a soft fork and in the SegWit solution (which is still Corrupted data is seeded into/out of DLTs via inse- 167 not fully adopted within the Bitcoin network) as cure oracles 168 well as the Lightning Network. 169 While oracles generally provide critical input and output capabilities for data on a DL, they are also the Vulnerability: weakest link as they are not secure. They may give The vulnerability lies mainly with DL protocols rise to greater opportunity for liability and damag- such as Bitcoin (and Litecoin) which use transac- es if faulty data is used and there are losses, which 170 tion identification (‘TXID’) in the process of send- could precipitate a damage claim. 173 ing funds, meaning that instead of withdrawing a Oracles require trust both regarding the ora- value from an account, the Bitcoin protocol points cle itself (as a trusted intermediary to a blockchain to a prior input (the ‘deposit’) which is the source application) as well as from the data sources them- of where an address received funds to match to the selves.
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Score: 1490749.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page30.html
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See http:// bit .ly/ 2M116uY 283 Moos, M (2019) Largest Bitcoin Mining Pools Gutted as Bitmain Reels, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2XZ2q3R 284 The top four Bitcoin-mining operations had more than 53%of the system’s average mining capacity per week. (...) See Nakamoto (2011); Nesbit, M (2018) Vertcoin (VTC) Was Successfully 51% Attacked, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2Hpr09s 286 Nakamoto, S (2011) Bitcoin: A Peer to Peer Cash System, available at http:// bit .ly/ 32Bje4n 287 Nambiampurath, R (2019) Cryptocurrency Exchanges Are the Biggest Targets of 51% Attacks, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2XWhP4T 288 Moos, M (2018) Explained: 51 Percent Attacks on Bitcoin and Other Crypto-currencies, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2XWip2z 289 Eyal I & Sirer E (2018) Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2JG7Xsp 290 Gola, Y (2018) Vertcoin Hit by 51% Attack, Allegedly Lost $100,000 in Double Spending, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2SpcQsu; Nesbit, M (2018) Vertcoin (VTC) Was Successfully 51% Attacked, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2Hpr09s 291 Hertig, A (2018) Blockchain’s Once-Feared 51% Attack Is Now Becoming Regular, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2Ltb0WJ 292 Eyal I & Sirer E (2018) Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2JG7Xsp 293 Or even an innocent mining pool. 294 If there are such rewards. 295 By reusing a transaction input in Bitcoin. 296 The further back in the chain a block is, the more likely it is finalized and unlikely to be superseded by a longer chain. 297 Others have calculated the security level of 6 confirmation blocks has been calculated as 99.99% if the attacker controls 8% of the hashing power. (...) See Bamert, T & Decker, C et al. (2013) Have a Snack, Pay with Bitcoins, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2WbT3h1 Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies 73     70     71     72     73     74     75     76     77     78     79     80          
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Score: 1488788.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page75.html
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