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 Page 9 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 9 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies P. 9 1 Acronyms and Abbreviations This report uses the following abbreviations: 2FA Two factor Authentication ABFT Asynchronous Byzantine fault Tolerance ADR Alternative Dispute Resolution Altcoin Alternative Coin AML Anti-Money Laundering BaaS Blockchain-as-a-Service BFT Byzantine fault Tolerance BIP Bitcoin Improvement Proposal CBDC Central Bank Digital Currency C&S Clearing and Settlement DAG Directed Acylic Graph DAO Decentralized autonomous organization DApps Decentralized Applications Ddos Distributed Denial of Service DeFi Decentralized Finance DFC Digital Fiat Currency DFS Digital Financial Services DEX Decentralized Exchange DL Distributed Ledger DLT Distributed Ledger Technology ERC-20 Ethereum Request for Comment 20 EVM Ethereum Virtual Machine FinTech Financial Technology FATF Financial Action Task Force ICO Initial Coin Offering ID Identity IoT Internet of Things KYC Know Your Customer POC Proof of Concept POET Proof of Elapsed Time POS Proof of Stake POW Proof of Work RCL Ripple Consensus Ledger RegTech Regulatory Technology SC Smart contract SEC Securities and Exchange Commission SegWit Segregated Witness SWIFT Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication TPS Transactions Per Second AML/CFT Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies 7     4     5     6     7     8     9     10     11     12     13     14          
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Score: 1484118.4 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...es/files/basic-html/page9.html
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These schemes promote and sell send money, including via bitcoin, and are promised investment opportunities to consumers which are not monetary support at some time in the future from the licensed by the appropriate regulator. (...) These schemes usually end, or Further, MMM offers and online school to learn how to collapse when there is insufficient new capital paid in to promote a MMM scheme. sustain pay outs to existing investors. (...) It was later revealed that consumers were harm caused by UDIS is much greater, with the potential being misled and any return on investment was offered to adversely affect the health of the financial system. solely because of later investments by new consumers who were similarly duped, and not paid by actual com- UDIS Examples: panies which had purchased marketing services from An example of an ongoing, international UDIS is the the promoter.
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Score: 1480347.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...es/files/basic-html/page9.html
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The smallest change of input, even a single bit, will result in a completely different output digest. 6.28 hybrid permission: a combination of permissionless and permissioned accessibility. 6.29 immutable [b-ISO/TC 307]: property of blockchain and distributed ledger systems that ledger records can only be added, but not removed or modified, and are designed not to allow changes to historical data over time. 6.30 incentive mechanism [b-ISO/TC 307]: method of offering reward for some activities concerned with the operation of a distributed ledger system. (...) A service provider is a component that offers a DLT based service to other parties by means of the service interfaces it provides. (...) [b-BHG] Blockchain Hub, Glossary, https://blockchainhub.net/blockchain-glossary/. [b-BTG] Blockchain, Bitcoin glossary, https://support.blockchain.com/hc/en- us/articles/213276463-Bitcoin-terms-glossary.
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Score: 1477148.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/f...usgroups/dlt/Documents/d11.pdf
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 Page 54 - Trends in Telecommunication Reform 2016           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 54 - Trends in Telecommunication Reform 2016 P. 54 Box 1.18: Key lessons: meXBT, Mexico, 2014 • mexBT received funding in bitcoin from Seedcoin, an incubator, to develop a trading platform. Seedcoin’s strong knowledge of bitcoin benefited mexBT. In very nascent markets, it is important to select partners that have a strong market knowledge, as this can determine the success of the start-up. • Governments can promote the development of the digital currencies market by implementing adequate regulation. (...) In the UK, 116 to about USD 150 000 (after bitcoin’s precipitate Nesta, an innovation charity, supports businesses drop in value the next year, that value was closer seeking first-phase investments of between GBP to USD 62 000) .
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Score: 1474112.5 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page54.html
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LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE DIGITAL ECONOMY – DIGITAL ASSETS
More recently, the advent of distributed ledger technology (DLT) has allowed digital assets to exist in decentralized systems, where the use of consensus mechanisms offers a guarantee of singularity and addresses the so-called “double spend” problem.11 While digital assets supported by DLT are currently attracting significant attention globally, the principle of technology neutrality would suggest that such assets should not be the sole focus of discussion. 9. (...) In a 2015 decision, the Tokyo District Court confirmed that Bitcoin could not be classified as a “thing” for the purposes of the Civil Code. 22 16. (...) As noted by the Secretariat in its note on legal issues related to the digital economy (A/CN.9/1012, para. 29), possible future work on warehouse receipts and railway consignment notes offers an opportunity for the Commission to consider digital assets in concrete settings, particularly those in the form of asset-backed tokens.
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Score: 1472200 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=A/CN.9/1012/ADD.3&Lang=E
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 Page 77 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 77 - FIGI: Security Aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies P. 77 323 Stack Exchange (2013) What Happens if Your Bitcoin Client Generates An Address Identical to Another Person's? (...) See Bamert, T & Decker, C et al. (2013) Have a Snack, Pay with Bitcoins, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2WbT3h1 330 Karame, G & Androulaki, E (2012) Two Bitcoins at the Price of One? Double-Spending Attacks on 330 Fast Payments in Bitcoin, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2xWalEI; See also Podolanko, J & Ming, J et al. (2017) Countering Double -Spend Attacks on Bitcoin Fast-Pay Transactions, available at http:// bit .ly/ 32wX0AR 331 Karame, G & Androulki, E, et al. (2015) Forwarding Double-Spending Attempts in the Network, available at https:// bit .ly/ 2FhKiMI 332 GAP600 (2019) GAP600 Platform, available at http:// bit .ly/ 2YaKTdm 333 For a list of SC security tools.
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Score: 1468856.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...s/files/basic-html/page77.html
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The on‑chain transaction fee for this trans‑ action is deducted from the IoT device’s Bitcoin address 1. OpenChannelRequest since it requested the channel opening. (...) The process channel from its Bitcoin address starts with the LN gateway asking for a signature from the 6. (...) We incorporate the IoT device in the Bitcoin address to the 3-of-3 multisignature address it process for signature generation.
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Score: 1468856.1 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...5/files/basic-html/page71.html
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As was shown with the emergence of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, regulators were unable to quickly respond to the Bitcoin phenomenon as it gained traction in many markets. As such, in a more visceral reaction than a considered policy approach, some countries placed restrictions or bans on the use of Bitcoin and/or the trading thereof. Of course, DLTs are not Bitcoin, and although innovation and application of new technologies continues generally and use of DLTs continues unabated, there is still concern within enterprises as to the impact DLTs may have on general compliance. A 2016 survey by consulting group Accenture indicated that regulatory and compliance concerns are delaying application of DLTs by many entities. 110 Besides the policy issues – that is, how far (if at all) can DLTs be implemented in specific sectors ‒ there are also open legal issues to consider. 111 6.2 Regulatory and policy responses to DLT DLTs have prompted varying responses by regulators. Bitcoin, the first DLT, was met with a mixed response by many regulators.
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Score: 1467802.7 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page160.html
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In theory, the PoW consensus has a probabilistic agreement, and, only after some rounds, offers high probability security for decisions [b-Nak]. (...) Regarding risk 2, permission-less platforms usually offer economic mechanisms to mitigate the risk of users manipulating network usage by sending too many transactions or a transaction that does not terminate. (...) [b-Nak] Nakamoto, S. (2008), Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. [b-Poo] Poon, J., Dryja, T. (2016), The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments.
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Score: 1466389.4 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it...b/tut/T-TUT-DLT-2022-PDF-E.pdf
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NOTE 1 – Through the exploitation of identification, data capture, processing and communication capabilities, the IoT makes full use of things to offer services to all kinds of applications, whilst ensuring that security and privacy requirements are fulfilled. (...) Some of the blockchains are reliant on the exchange of cryptocurrencies with anonymous users on a public network (e.g. Bitcoin [b-1], Ethereum [b-2]); and others are for business and working on permissioned network (e.g. (...) Due to the computational resources needed, the miners in the PoW consensus based blockchains (such as Bitcoin and parts of Ethereum) consume huge electric power each year.
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Score: 1465573.1 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it...fg/T-FG-DPM-2019-3.5-PDF-E.pdf
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