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untitled MIGRATION AND CHILDREN: a need to fill information gaps in order to guide policy responses Eva Jespersen UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence ejespersen@unicef.org www.unicef.org/irc 2 CHILDREN AFFECTED BY MIGRATION Independent, in search of work assisted regular irregular smuggled trafficked facilitated Children left behind mother father both Children going with parent(s) Children born abroad Children migrating on their own Children affected by non family migration 3 CHILDREN LEFT BEHIND – HOW MANY – AND WHERE? Official data may grossly underestimate; Moldova – 0-14 year olds left behind by one or both Official Mo Educ Bryant methodology 96,000 68,000 150,000-270,000 (5-8%) Bryant: changes in pop stock, (est.) female migration in reproductive ages, historic fertility rates – strong assumptions about similar fertility behaviour Philippines: 3-6 million (10-20%) children left behind Indonesia: 1 million (2-3%) Thailand: ½ million (2-3%) Moldova: Concentrated in certain rural areas, small towns 4 CHILDREN LEFT BEHIND … BY MOTHER, FATHER OR BOTH UNICEF Survey, Moldova: Absent Mother Father Both 10-14 Y 14.5% 14.9% 6.6% 15-18 Y 8.5% 16.4% 3.3% 68,000 93,000 30,000 = ca 190,000 When mother or both parents leave: left with grandparents, aunts, older siblings, non family care givers or in institutions (CEE/CIS) • Philippines survey: 63 % of households w mother migrant had kin living in the household • Philippines: mother serves one or more 2 year contracts 5 Large scale migration since 1989… Out-migration of families from Poland in 2002 , STOCK 12 December 2005 MONEE Statistical Network Meeting Number of families (thousands) TOTAL 341.6 Married couples with dependent children up to 24 years of age 103.9 - parents abroad (without children) 2.2 - parents with children (but not with all of them) abroad 1.1 Mothers with dependent children up to 24 years of age 41.9 - mother abroad (without all children) 6.8 Fathers with dependent children up to 24 years of age 4.5 - father abroad (without all children) 0.9 Type of family 6 CHILDREN LEFT BEHIND … ARE OFTEN MATERIALLY BETTER OFF • IMF/Moldova: remittance > 60% of income among 40+% families • Moldova: except in cases where both parents have left • Mexico: lower infant mortality, higher birth weight • Philippines: better educational outcomes • Moldova: weak evidence that educational outcome worsens –but more children of migrants attending higher education 7 CHILDREN LEFT BEHIND … BUT ….(1) MOLDOVA • Children of migrants want to leave Worsen demographic crisis and dependency ration - Issue of role of parents in demaning services for their communities (PTA etc) • Emotional and psychological stress, worse when mother migrates • Risk behaviour; 60% of minors committing crime were in the care of grandparents or other relatives 8 CHILDREN LEFT BEHIND … BUT ….(2) PHILIPPINES (related findings for Indonesia) • Study shows children of migrants performing better on social anxiety scale and children’s loneliness scale • ’94 study failed to discover diff behaviour on sex, substance abuse for children (15-19) w one or two parents at home • Missing mom; families generally would prefer to stay intact Accumulated national experience helps inform potential migrants Longer term impact is hard to assess Certain localities are particularly hard affected 9 EMERGING RECOMMENDATIONS • Managed migration (Philippines) allow more regular home visits by mothers, migrant parents - and through one off fee allows access to social services for family (Thailand) if adequate incentives (affordable, non discrimination) • Philippines – counseling of families • To assess and address an issue it needs to be measured – immigration service statistics could capture information on children left behind by registered migrants; need for qualitative surveys; school admission data • Philippines – proposal to use teachers as ‘social workers’ in high migration areas 10 CHILDREN BROUGHT ALONG/ BORN ABROAD • Often pre-school children • Albania: high skilled leave (permanently) w families • Potentially better social and material conditions than at home but • Facing relative poverty in the host community (93,000 registered children < 14 from Myanmar) • Playing or working along-side parents w/o access to care • Conditions in host country depends on development status •Access to social services •Discrimination/social exclusion • Issue of citizenship and access to services • Albania: up to 100,000 born abroad ’89-’01 11 CHILDREN MIGRATING ON THEIR OWN Children not in school and not finding employment/ opportunities Small numbers ?
Language:English
Score: 689658.4 - https://www.un.org/development...s/unpd_om_200606_jespersen.pdf
Data Source: un
Surveys may also fail to correctly determine the survival status of parents who do not reside with the child. This may lead to overestimation of orphans if social desirability means that long absent parents are reported as dead. (...) However, the proportions of children with absent parents in a survey is not correlated with levels of reporting of dead parents, suggesting it is not large (Grassly and Timaeus, submit.). 2. (...) However, more detailed, context-specific accounts are also needed of the impact of orphanhood on children, from the illness of a parent, through the parent’s death to the child’s entry into adulthood (or death).
Language:English
Score: 688104.05 - https://www.un.org/development...-egm-200309-grassly_paper9.pdf
Data Source: un
In turn, a number of policies and programmes, can effectively assist parents in ensuring proper care and thus better health outcomes for their children. (...) A number of work-family balance policies, such as flexible work schedules boost parent’s capacity to be available for their children and ensure proper care. Policies and programmes promoting safe and stable family environments and positive parenting also contribute to emotional and physical well-being of children and youth.
Language:English
Score: 687940.62 - https://www.un.org/development...l-day-of-families/2016idf.html
Data Source: un
For many young adults, early marriage was replaced by prolonged periods of living with parents or cohabiting with a partner. In 2013, one half of Czech men and about one third of Czech women aged 25–29 lived with their parents. (...) Parents opting for the maximum leave period thus risk losing their jobs. (...) Very few fathers take parental leave. The Czech Republic spends more on parental-leave allowance than any other OECD country.
Language:English
Score: 686366 - https://www.un.org/development..._201511_policy_brief_no._6.pdf
Data Source: un
“eBaby“) which started to operate in April 2016 enables parents to register their newborns and submit requests for parental allowances as early as in maternity wards. (...) Notifications on process steps that are completed are delivered to parents via SMS and email, and all the documents issued including a health insurance card, are delivered at parents’ home address free of charge and at no cost. Newborn registration is simple and at no cost. Parents’ only obligation is to present a valid ID card and agree on the baby’s name.
Language:English
Score: 685037.06 - https://publicadministration.u...nt/Compendium/CompendiumID/640
Data Source: un
These include maternal and parental leave, cash transfers and tax benefits, and subsidized childcare. Maternity and parental leave The Canadian Government began providing paid maternity leave in 1971 and parental leave in 1996. Parents have the right to 15 weeks of maternity leave and 35 weeks of parental leave (which technically can be split between parents but is generally taken by mothers).
Language:English
Score: 682975.6 - https://www.un.org/development..._201511_policy_brief_no._4.pdf
Data Source: un
“eBaby“) which started to operate in April 2016 enables parents to register their newborns and submit requests for parental allowances as early as in maternity wards. (...) Notifications on process steps that are completed are delivered to parents via SMS and email, and all the documents issued including a health insurance card, are delivered at parents’ home address free of charge and at no cost. Newborn registration is simple and at no cost. Parents’ only obligation is to present a valid ID card and agree on the baby’s name.
Language:English
Score: 681781.15 - https://publicadministration.u...nt/Compendium/CompendiumID/640
Data Source: un
Technology Use and Families: Implications for Work-family Balance and Parenting Education | Family Skip to Content Welcome to the United Nations Toggle navigation Department of Economic and Social Affairs Family Search UN DESA Home About Us Issues International Day of Families Publication News Calendar Contact Us Home About Us Issues International Day of Families Publication News Calendar Contact Us Home Technology Use and Families: Implications for Work-family Balance and Parenting Education Technology Use and Families: Implications for Work-family Balance and Parenting Education 1 December 2021 This background report by Susan Walker – an Associate Professor of Family Social Science at the University of Minnesota – examines the status of technology use and its impact on families and focuses on two key contexts that offer societal support to families: work-family balance and parenting education. (...) For example, while decades of policy attention to work and family has resulted in structural strategies (e.g., flexible parental leave), this report will identify policies and practices reflecting technological realities (e.g., subsidizing employees for technology needed for home-based work).
Language:English
Score: 681645.4 - https://www.un.org/development...lance-and-parenting-education/
Data Source: un
“eBaby“) which started to operate in April 2016 enables parents to register their newborns and submit requests for parental allowances as early as in maternity wards. (...) Notifications on process steps that are completed are delivered to parents via SMS and email, and all the documents issued including a health insurance card, are delivered at parents’ home address free of charge and at no cost. Newborn registration is simple and at no cost. Parents’ only obligation is to present a valid ID card and agree on the baby’s name.
Language:English
Score: 678556.1 - https://publicadministration.u...nt/Compendium/CompendiumID/640
Data Source: un
“eBaby“) which started to operate in April 2016 enables parents to register their newborns and submit requests for parental allowances as early as in maternity wards. (...) Notifications on process steps that are completed are delivered to parents via SMS and email, and all the documents issued including a health insurance card, are delivered at parents’ home address free of charge and at no cost. Newborn registration is simple and at no cost. Parents’ only obligation is to present a valid ID card and agree on the baby’s name.
Language:English
Score: 678556.1 - https://publicadministration.u...nt/Compendium/CompendiumID/640
Data Source: un