Home

Results 21 - 30 of 107,717 for parents. Search took 2.201 seconds.  
Sort by date/Sort by relevance
“eBaby“) which started to operate in April 2016 enables parents to register their newborns and submit requests for parental allowances as early as in maternity wards. (...) Notifications on process steps that are completed are delivered to parents via SMS and email, and all the documents issued including a health insurance card, are delivered at parents’ home address free of charge and at no cost. Newborn registration is simple and at no cost. Parents’ only obligation is to present a valid ID card and agree on the baby’s name.
Language:English
Score: 678556.1 - https://publicadministration.u...nt/Compendium/CompendiumID/640
Data Source: un
Martin Evans UNICEF Economic & Social Policy Analysis, HQ Research Associate: Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics mcevans@unicef.org 2 The Wellbeing of Future Generations is in part determined by our treatment of this generation of children UNICEF commissioned LSE Systematic Review of evidence on intergenerational transmission of poverty and well-being Identify proven (evidence-based) intergenerational transmission (IGT) mechanisms of poverty and well-being in both developed and less developed countries Demonstrated evidence of the roles of health, education and income 2 Health Mechanisms with demonstrated evidence of Inter-generational transmission Genetics Parental quality Income Maternal nutrition Mother’s education Maternal health knowledge Maternal stress 3 Evidence and studies for health Parenting variable Mechanism Country Maternal Genetics and physiology BMI Anemia status Mother's Birth weight Assortativ e mating US Parental behaviour (smoking) Teratogenesis Income (SES) Maternal stress Maternal stress US Income Maternal nutrition Household labor supply Family structure Residential mobility Health care Insurance Birth Weight Mother's Birth weight Cross- country US Uruguay Parenting variable Mechanism Country Maternal BMI Anemia status Maternal participation in literacy programs Health knowledge Ghana Income Health knowledge Nutritional Lev el of sanitation Cross- country Mexico Mortality Genetics and physiology 4 Education mechanisms with demonstrated evidence of inter-generational transmission Genetics Nurture Parental quality Income (Credit constraints) Maternal health knowledge Family structure 5 Evidence and studies for education 6 Type of Mechanism: Evidence-proven Suggested Refuted Evidence and studies for education (cont.) 7 Type of Mechanism: Evidence-proven Suggested Refuted What do the cross-country comparisons tell us? 1.Countries differ significantly in the extent to which parental economic status is related to the labour market success of their children in adulthood 2.Many developing countries have low or medium levels of intergenerational inequality 3.Intergenerational mobility patterns change over the lifetime of an individual and over time. 4.Generational cycles are common at both sides of the income distribution 5.Income mobility has limitations as an indicator of social welfare. 6 .Equality of opportunityHigher mobility Lower mobility Intergenerational Mobility Several mechanisms operate together Comparable estimates of the intergenerational correlations between father and son earnings Inter-generational Income Mobility Source: Corak (2012) 8 Presenter Presentation Notes The role of income in intergenerational transmission is demonstrated but often income, health and education interact to produce effects for the next generation.
Language:English
Score: 678556.1 - https://sdgs.un.org/sites/defa...es/statements/3577capstone.pdf
Data Source: un
It seeks to discuss how parenting decisions impacting the global fertility decline with the aim of identifying policy measures and best practices available worldwide. (...) As a result, increasing fertility rates has become a main objective for family policies.6 Family policies have a positive impact on parental decisions to bear children. Family policies such as parental leaves, financial provisions, flexible working arrangements, among others, are all useful tools that have led to a short term increase in fertility rates. (...) The event seeks to: o Discuss the connection between parenting decisions and fertility. o Shed light on experiences of countries in providing family policies to parents and how that impacts their fertility decisions. o Identify policies/best practices and come up with recommendations for policymaking.
Language:English
Score: 677122.36 - https://www.un.org/development...desa_pd_2022_cpd55_cn_difi.pdf
Data Source: un
Until 2012, there was no universal, paid parental-leave scheme in Australia. Yet, many employers provided paid parental leave for various periods, because it was seen as a way for firms to attract and retain the best workers. In 2012, the Government introduced a universal parental-leave scheme consisting of 18 weeks of leave paid at the minimum wage. (...) The availability of government-funded paid parental leave has shifted the balance in family payments in favour of working mothers.
Language:English
Score: 672460.74 - https://www.un.org/development..._201511_policy_brief_no._2.pdf
Data Source: un
On 1 May 2018, administrative instruction ST/AI/2018/6 (Dependency status and dependency benefits) entered into force, superseding ST/AI/2016/8 and changing the conditions to receive the single parent allowance. No change was made at the time to the Applicant’s situation with respect to his single parent status, and the Applicant continued to receive the single parent allowance. 7. (...) The “excessively high” threshold to qualify for a single parent allowance in sec. 4.4 of ST/AI/2018/6, i.e., the amount of gross salary at G-1/1 in Geneva, effectively probably excludes all single parents whose children do not reside with them; c. (...) Staff rule 3.6 (b) provides in its relevant part as follows: (ii) Single parent allowance: a staff member in the Professional and higher categories and in the Field Service category recognized as a single parent shall receive a single parent allowance in the amount of 6 per cent of net base salary plus post adjustment in respect of the first dependent child, under conditions established by the Secretary-General.
Language:English
Score: 671639.2 - www.un.org/en/internalj...dt/judgments/undt-2022-057.pdf
Data Source: oaj
The children do not live with their parents. Even worse, some parents have to escape poverty by going out to work for money in other provinces. (...) The cooperation of the community and parents, by using the event created a joint solution. (...) While the parents and the community had chance to learn from teachers on how to teach children.
Language:English
Score: 670540.7 - https://publicadministration.u...nProfilev2014/mid/1170/id/4990
Data Source: un
The CRCThe CRC The CRC protects every child , The CRC protects every child , regardless of nationality regardless of nationality or immigration statusor immigration status ChildrenChildren (0(0--18)18) MIGRATIONMIGRATION Impact Impact relationshipsrelationships Migration can affect children in different forms “Affected children” is used to refer to children and young people under 18 years of age: • Migrating with their parents (children of migrants) • Migrating alone • Left behind by one or both migrating parents • Living in context affected by migration The impact of The impact of migration on childrenmigration on children Child migrantsChild migrants Children no longer living in their place of origin. Ghana 10% moving with their parents 7% have moved because of the loss of a parent 37% having been sent by parents to live with their current households 46% had migrated alone Source: Ghana LFS, 2003 Child migrantsChild migrants China has 19.81 million migrant children, nearly 20 percent of the total migrant population . (...) Official data may grossly underestimate; Moldova – 0-14 year olds left behind by one or both Official Mo Educ Bryant methodology 96,000 68,000 150,000-270,000 (5-8%) Bryant: changes in pop stock, (est.) female migration in reproductive ages, historic fertility rates – strong assumptions about similar fertility behaviour Philippines: 3-6 million (10-20%) children left behind Indonesia: 1 million (2-3%) Thailand: ½ million (2-3%) Moldova: Concentrated in certain rural areas, small towns CHILDREN LEFT BEHIND … BY MOTHER, FATHER OR BOTH UNICEF Survey, Moldova: Absent Mother Father Both 10-14 Y 14.5% 14.9% 6.6% 15-18 Y 8.5% 16.4% 3.3% 68,000 93,000 30,000 = ca 190,000 When mother or both parents leave: left with grandparents, aunts, older siblings, non family care givers or in institutions (CEE/CIS) • Philippines survey: 63 % of households w mother migrant had kin living in the household • Philippines: mother serves one or more 2 year contracts Large scale migration since 1989… Out-migration of families from Poland in 2002 , STOCK Number of families (thousands) TOTAL 341.6 Married couples with dependent children up to 24 years of age 103.9 - parents abroad (without children) 2.2 - parents with children (but not with all of them) abroad 1.1 Mothers with dependent children up to 24 years of age 41.9 - mother abroad (without all children) 6.8 Fathers with dependent children up to 24 years of age 4.5 - father abroad (without all children) 0.9 Type of family CHILDREN LEFT BEHIND … ARE OFTEN MATERIALLY BETTER OFF • IMF/Moldova: remittance > 60% of income among 40+% families • Moldova: except in cases where both parents have left • Mexico: lower infant mortality, higher birth weight • Moldova: weak evidence that educational outcome worsens –but more children of migrants attending higher education EMERGING RECOMMENDATIONS • Managed migration (Philippines) allow more regular home visits by mothers, migrant parents - and through one off fee allows access to social services for family (Thailand) if adequate incentives (affordable, non discrimination) • Philippines – counseling of families • To assess and address an issue it needs to be measured – immigration service statistics could capture information on children left behind by registered migrants; need for qualitative surveys; school admission data • Philippines – proposal to use teachers as ‘social workers’ in high migration areas CHILDREN BORN ABROAD /BROUGHT ALONG • Albania: up to 100,000 born abroad ’89-’01 • Issue of citizenship and access to services • Often pre-school children • Albania: high skilled leave (permanently) w families • Potentially better social and material conditions than at home but • Facing relative poverty in the host community (93,000 registered children < 14 from Myanmar) • Playing or working along-side parents w/o access to care • Conditions in host country depends on development status – Access to social services – Discrimination/social exclusion CHILDREN MIGRATING ON THEIR OWN Children not in school and not finding employment/ opportunities Small numbers ?
Language:English
Score: 670252.3 - https://www.un.org/development...iles/unpd_om_200606_unicef.pdf
Data Source: un
Beginning in 1992, the Government has offered 12 months of parental leave for parents who meet minimum work requirements. (...) A substantial proportion of employers have not formulated specific policies regarding parental leave, especially among small organizations. (...) This suggests that it is critically important for the Japanese Government to strengthen efforts to help working parents of small children by expanding affordable childcare services.
Language:English
Score: 668240.14 - https://www.un.org/development...201511_policy_brief_no._11.pdf
Data Source: un
Today, fertility decisions appear increasingly determined by a family’s ability to combine care and support for children with the workforce participation of both parents. Thus, the policy priority has gradually shifted towards a variety of mechanisms designed to help parents balance work and family obligations. (...) Support for families includes parental leave with a limited compensation for loss of salary, a family allowance and childcare services. A rapid increase in housing costs since the mid-1980s, borne especially by large families, is a growing concern that has so far not been addressed comprehensively, despite the introduction of a family-based housing benefit. A working parent who meets the eligibility conditions is entitled to take parental leave for up to three years after the birth of a child and return to the same or a similar position with the same employer.
Language:English
Score: 668240.14 - https://www.un.org/development..._201511_policy_brief_no._7.pdf
Data Source: un
Migration is a gendered process that impacts on the family It’s not just about the individual migrant, it’s also about family Who migrates in the household has  gender implications and impacts on the  family Husbands, wives, sons, daughters migrate leaving family behind Transnational families a common feature  of international migration Effects on families left behind may be positive or negative Studies on families left behind in Asia  reveal similarities and differences  Family Structure and Gender Roles Effects on family structure and gender roles  vary, could be positive or negative: • Migration of one or both parents, unmarried sons and  daughters • Absence of father, mother, both parents • Internationalization of families resulting from  transnational marriages Family Structure and Gender Roles Net effect: • Change in composition of migrant households and  roles within the family • Shift of care regimes • Effect on traditional notions of masculinity and  femininity and appropriate gender roles • Economic empowerment of women migrants may not  change the gender power dynamics in families left  behind Family Unity, Cohesion and Well‐being Impact on family unity, cohesion and well‐ being in migrant households varies across Asia,  between and within countries: • Effect on spousal relations • Effect on children  • Effect of computer‐mediated communication on  family cohesion • Gender and remittances • Reintegration into the family Effect on Spousal Relations • The longer the separation, the more detrimental to  the spousal relationship • Stable marriages are better able to cope with  separation • Migration does not necessarily cause marital  dissolutions, can serve as an escape route out of  troubled and abusive relationships Effect on Children Research on effect of parental absence on children  is limited and shows that impacts are mixed: • Education – Educational outcomes of children more negatively  affected by mother’s absence than father’s absence – Father’s absence can even have positive effect in  some cases • Psychological well‐being – Children of migrant fathers in some countries are  more likely to have poor psychological well‐being – In other countries, children of migrant parents had no  difference or better psychological well‐being Effect on Children • Behaviour – Young children more likely to exhibit conduct  problems than older children in some countries  – Girls are less likely to exhibit conduct problems in  most countries studied • Physical Health – Physical health of children left behind better than  children of non‐migrants in the Philippines • Identity and citizenship – For children born out of cross‐cultural relationships  or in the few countries of destination where family  reunification is possible, there are mixed impacts on  identity and citizenship issues Effect on Health of Other Family Members • Absence of husbands for long periods can lead  to widened birth intervals and can lead to  better health‐seeking behavior • Migration of children can have a positive effect  on the health of elderly parents  • Wives of migrants can experience more stress  than non‐migrants, feel vulnerable to  harassment and abuse, and feel lonely and   depressed Communication and Family Cohesion Maintaining communication among members of  transnational families important  • New media or computer mediated communication  important in maintaining and strengthening family ties  and allow mothers to continue their parenting role  more intensively  • However, it can also be used as an instrument for  control by migrant husbands of their wives left behind Gender and Remittances Remittances benefit migrant families,  important to understand the gender dimension  as gender affects: • The amount and frequency of remittances sent  home • Who the recipients are and how it is used • How relationships within families are affected Return to and Reintegration into the Family Returning and reintegrating into  home and family “requires reworking  traditional relationships between men  and women, husbands and wives,  parents and children” and carry with  them varying degrees of difficulty  depending on other factors like length  of absence.
Language:English
Score: 666932.57 - https://www.un.org/development...npdcpd46_201304_keynote_go.pdf
Data Source: un