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UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW : WRITTEN SUBMISSION BY THE LATVIA: OMBUDSMAN OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Latvia has received a recommendation to facilitate the granting of citizenship to children of non-citizen parents, provided that these children are not obtaining another nationality. In this regard, Ombudsman would like to inform that the amendments which entered into force on 1 October 2013 improved the procedure for granting citizenship, whereby children of non-citizens and stateless persons can now receive Latvian citizenship at the time of registration of their birth and upon the request of one of the parents. However, such granting of citizenship cannot be considered automatic, since the will of one parent must be taken into account. (...) Therefore, Ombudsman appeals that the legal framework be improved, so that children are granted Latvian citizenship automatically at birth, unless the parents renounce it. In conclusion, the Ombudsman would like to declare its readiness for constructive cooperation with the Latvian government in the implementation of the recommendations.
语言:中文
得分: 1004643 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...t?open&DS=A/HRC/32/NI/6&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF MIGRANTS, JORGE BUSTAMANTE : ADDENDUM
Noriko, a 13-year-old girl who was born in Japan and went to Japanese school with very good results, was forced to choose between her right to education and her parents. She decided that she wanted to continue her education in Japan, and her parents were eventually deported. (...) The Special Rapporteur met with Noriko and other children who were under the threat of deportation for themselves or their parents: they all explained that being deported would ruin their life and their education, as they were born in Japan, their native language was Japanese and they did not speak the language of their parents’ country of origin (Spanish or Filipino in many cases). (...) Some 36,000 children of those born in 2006 (3.2 per cent) had one or two foreign parents. 60. Migrant women face twofold discrimination, as foreigners and as women.
语言:中文
得分: 997389.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/17/33/ADD.3&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
RIGHTS OF THE CHILD : REPORT : ADDENDUM / SUBMITTED BY JUAN MIGUEL PETIT, SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY
._ P况厂况g厂况Z】阮置 3l一66 67-71 7Z一90 P况之窒E 10 17 18 E/CN_4/ 2004/9/Add_ 1 page 4 Introduction 1_ The Special RaPP0rteur, Iuan Miguel Petit, Visited France (PariS, St_ Etienne and Lyon) at 迂le invitation of the Government_ He had requested 迂le Visit having received information about a number of French child工en Who Were reportedly Victims of paedophilia and Pornography_ He had also received information about efforts France Was making to deal With the trafficking of child工en and child Prostitution_ The Special Rapporteur Would like to 迂lank 迂le Government of France for the Very high level of cooperation and assistance 迂ley extended to him 迂lroughout his Visit_ 2_ During 迂le ViSi[, 迂le Special Rapporteur Inet 迂le Minister for the Family (MZ邝ZSZ厂E 丕Z巨Z巨g冽巨 丕ZE Z况厉况阴艺ZZE), the Ambassador for Human Rights (况阴Z衢况SS况丕ZE冽厂 C阮况厂g巨 丕ZES 丕Z厂口艺ZS 丕ZE Z,阮口阴阴E) high一level representatives from the Ministries of Foreign AffairS, of Iustice and of Social AffairS, Labour and S0lidarity, 迂le President of 迂le Iuvenile Court (T厂ZZ衢乙儡刀况Z Z】口况厂 e刀厉况刀ZS), the President of 迂le Z~厂ZZ衢冽邝况Z 丕ZE g厂况邝丕ZE Z邝SZ况邝CE, the Ombudsman for Child工en (D巨仄"E邝SE乙儡厂E 丕ZES E邝厉况邝ZS), Police officers from 迂le Minors Brigade (B厂Zg况丕ZE 丕ZE Z况 歹厂口ZECZ艺口邝 丕ZES 阴Z邝E冽厂S) and 迂le Central office fof 迂le Repression of Human Trafficking (O游CE CE邝Z厂况Z 丕ZE 厂巨癣厂ESSZ口刀 丕ZE Z况 Z厂况ZZE 绪E占 芭Z厂ES 苑眈阴况Z刀S), 迂le French National Committee for UNICEF, 迂le President of 迂le Sub一 Commission On the Rights of 迂le Child of 迂le National Human Rights Commission (S口眈S一 C口阴阴艺SS萃口邝 ˉˉ丕Z厂口袤zS 丕Ze Z,e刀仄′况刀Z,, 丕Ze Z况 C口阴阴袤SSZ口邝 邝况Z艺口邝况ZE C口刀S脚Zz况Z艺Ve CZES CZ厂DZZS CZE Z,苑口阴阴E), and Visited a child工en,S centre in ChaInb0n, St_ Etienne_ He Inet Wi迂1 non一governmental organizations (NGOS), academics and Inedical Practiti0nerS, and Wi迂1 迂le International Criminal Police Organization (皿TERPOL) in Lyon_ He also Spoke With representatives of 迂le French Inedia and With Parents of child Victims_ 3_ Given 迂le Very Short Period of time betWeen the end of the Visit (Z9 November 2002) and 迂le deadline for Submission of documentation for the fifty一ninth Session of the Commission on Human Rights (IS December ZO0Z), a Short Preliminary Ilote (E/CN_4/2003/79/Add_Z) On the Visit to France Was Submitted_ TTIC Present report contains the Inore detailed findings of the Special Rapporteur as Well as information received Since his Visit_ I. (...) The Brigade explained its procedure fof dealing Wi迂1 a Ininof being used in Prostitution_ A neW laW Which came into effect in 2001 all0WS Police [O arrest Suspected clients of Prostitutes under 迂le age of l8, even Prior to Sexual activities taking Place_ PreViOuSly, Seeking Sexual Services from a Ininor Was only an offence if the Ininor Was under 迂le age of IS_ Under 迂le neW laW, if, for eXamPle, a policeman of 一woman Sees an individual acting Suspiciously around a young Person Whom 迂ley believe to be a child, of Sees 迂le child get into 迂le indiVidual,S car, they can make an arrest_ Following the arreSt, both 迂le client and the Ininor are taken to the headquartefs of 迂le Minors Brigade, Where 迂le client is detained and questioned_ Minors Who are Seen Soliciting Inay also be brought in even Where there is Ilo client, as they afe considered to be child工en in danger_ 21_ The child is Photographed and Sent to 迂le emergency Ward of the hospital Where he of She is examined and has his of her bones X一rayed to determine his/her approximate age_ If 迂le hospital confirms 迂lat the individual is under 迂le age of l8, 迂le Brigade Will continue With legal Proceedings against the detained client_ The Police are instructed to consider 迂le child as the Vlctlm_ ZZ_ The Police Will try to get precise information from tl〕e child, but Very often the child Will give false information_ AI1 educational Protection Ineasure is ordered for Inost of 迂le child工en, Which usually involves their being placed in a temporary home for a few days while decisions are Inade about [heir immediate future_ II1 September Z00l, France and Romania Signed a bilateral agreement to the effect that When France Sends a Romanian child h0Ine, the child Will be Suppofted and Inonitored f0llOWing his of her retufn and Will Ilot have to face the Same circumstances Which Inade him of her leave in 迂le first Place_ HOWeVer, the Brigade reported that tl〕e Inajority of 由ese child工en run aWay from tl〕e temporary homes before 迂ley can be returned home of Placed in an educational facility_ E/CN_4/ 2004/9/Add_ 1 page 8 23_ The Minors Brigade reported 迂lat in ZO0Z, 83 Ininors 一 68 boys and IS girls 一 Were brought [O its headquarters having been apprehended for Soliciting for Prostitution_ None of them had identity PaPerS, but it Was discovered t壬1乏廿1t 60 of 迂lem came from Romania 一 S3 boys and 7 girls_ The Inajority of tl〕e 83 child工en Were aged 16 and Over_ Non一governmental organizations 24_ The Special Rapporteur Inet Wi迂1 Several NGOS Working With Street child工en, child工en in Prostitution and young trafficking Victims_ The NGOS agreed t壬1乏廿1t there has been an increase in the number of child工en in Pr0Stituti0n, and felt 迂lat the authorities Were acknowledging 迂lat it Was a gr0Wing problem_ ZS_ Some of 迂le NGOS operate by Sending teams of educators into the Street to try to get 迂le confidence of the children by building up relationships Wi迂1 迂lem_ H0WeVer, they often discover 由at the child工en are Part of a ne[WOr1〈 and are being closely Watched, Which makes access to them difficult_ Where [hey can gain access to the children, 迂le Street Workers invite [hem [O come to tl〕e NGO offices Where the child工en can get food and basic heal迂1 care and talk to tl〕e Staff, Who encourage 迂lem to consider alternative lifestyle Options_ Once contact has been Inade With a child, Street wofkefs try to See 山em evefy day_ One NGO fepofted that between 20 and 40 child工en came to its centre every day from 迂le Squats in Which 迂ley live in 迂le Suburbs of Paris二 its Programme covered 迂le Whole city_ AS Well as Seeing child工en from West Africa and Eastern EurOPe, 迂le NGOS reported t壬1乏廿1t child工en came from India, Bangladesh and China_ 26_ The Special Rapporteur Was given information about 迂le Particular concerns of young unaccompanied Victims of trafficking, economic migrantS, and 由ose demanding asylum in France_ Studies indicate t壬1乏廿1t approximately SS Per cent of Such child工en arrive by aer0Plane, 30 Per cent by 〔rain, 20 Per cent by boat and IS Per cent on foot_ Many of 迂lese child工en travel to France having agreed to Pay to their traffickers a Price t壬1乏廿1t could amount to Inore t壬1乏廿1n 10 years of Work in EurOPe, but if they are Sent back and have to repay 迂leir debt in 迂leir country of 0rigiI1, the result Inight be a lifetime of Slavery_ of Particular concern is 迂le Situation in Which Some of 迂lese child工en find themselves When 迂ley first arrive in France and are held in 4石Waiting areaS,, in French airpofts_ II1 迂lese 4石Waiting areaS,,, Which are Ilot considefed to be on French territOry, the child工en are reportedly in a legal Vacuum and are 4石Inaintained,, rather than 4瀹detained,,, and Subject to 迂le Same law as is applied to adults_ Many child工en Without Proper Papers are immediately Sent back to the countries from Which it is believed 迂ley caIne, Whereas Others can be 4瀹Inaintained,, in the 4瀹Waiting 乏廿工re乏廿1S,, for up to four days before being taken before a court_ 27_ Following his Inission to France, 迂le Special Rapporteur Was given 迂le testimonies of tWO Chinese boys aged 14 and IS Who arrived in Paris in Ia_nuary and March Z003, reSPectiVely, and are n0W being assisted by NGOS_ T丑eir testimonies are given in the f0ll0Wing Paragraphs_ 28_ Child 4瀹Y_M_,,二 4石I arrived Wi迂1 four Other Chinese 一 迂lree girls and one boy aged between 16 and 18_ We Were Put in a room and the next day the Police told us 迂lat We Would be Sent back to Singapore_ We didn,t Want that a_nd We cried because PreViOuSly, in 迂le Waiting area, We Were told that in Singap0re, We Would be Sent to jail_ II1 迂le little car, on 迂le 29_ E/CN_4/2004/9/Add_ 1 Page 9 road [O 迂le aer0Plane, We hung On and resisted by Sh0u[ing, and finally [he aeroplane left Wi迂lout us_ The Police Put us in a little room Wi迂lout any Windows_ It Was the Inorning_ The Police Slapped us all, even the girls_ We Stayed Without eating and d工inking until 迂le evening_ At around 2 in the In0rI1iI1g, the Police Sent us back to the little r00In, Where We Stayed for tWO dayS_,, Following 迂lis 0rdeal, the child工en Were taken before a court_ Before Speaking to 迂le judge, the boy Inet a Chinese girl Who had been born in France and Who told him to tell 迂le judge that She Was his cousin_ He did 迂lis and Was 迂len released_ He Was taken to a hostel and then taken care of by an NGO_ 30_ Child 4石W,,二 4石I Was born in 1987 in Quing Tian_ My Parents are farmers_ Ihad to leave School When I Was 13 and Start Working because Iny Parents Were Poor and could Ilot continue to Pay for Iny Schooling_ They Sent Ine to Work in the town of Wenzhou in a Sewing Workshop_ IW0rked 迂lere for nearly 迂lree yearS, Seven days a Week from 6 in 迂le morning until 10 in 迂le evening_ I Was Paid 400 yen Per m0n迂1, of Which only 100 yen (about IS euros) came directly [O Ine_ T丑C rest Went to Iny Parents_ My boss Suggested that I go [O France because Icould earn Inore there_ I agreed because [here Was Ilo reason to Stay in China_ My boss Organized Iny trip and paid for Iny air ticket_ Once I arrived in France, one of his friends Would find Work for Ine_ 4石I arrived at Roissy一charles de Gaulle airport in March Z003, early One Inorning_ Id0n,t1〈n0W Which airline I flew Wi迂1 of 迂le number of Iny flight, Only that I left Beijing and travelled to Guinea, Where I changed aeroplanes before arriving in Paris_ Ihad been given a Passport but Id0n,t1〈n0W if 迂lere Was a Visa in it as Id0n,t1〈n0W What 迂ley look like_ The police took Iny Passpoft and I didn,t get it back_ 4石When I arriVed, 迂le Police asked Ine, 迂lrough an in[erPre[er, Whethef I Wanted [O return to China_ Irefused_ TTIC interpreter left_ TWO Policemen tried to Put Ine on an aeroplane_ IWaS handcuffed to one of 迂le P0licemen, and Ibit one of them on the arm_ Three Other policemen arrived and the five of 迂lem beat and Slapped Ine On the bac1〈, chest and face_ This lasted for about IS Ininutes in a corridor Without Windows Which Was close to the aeroplane_ 4瀹Still handcuffed, I Was taken to a Police Station Where I Stayed for two hours_ Three o迂ler foreigners Were also 迂lere_ I Was Slapped Several times by the Police_ Then 迂ley took Ine to a doctor Who asked Ine Where IWaS hurt_ He examined Iny face and hands and Wrote a certificate that 迂le Police kept_ T丑en I Was taken back to 迂le Police Station_ Another interpreter came and asked Ine What had happened_ I told him and he asked Ine to Sign Some迂ling but I didn,t understand What it Was_ II1 the evening I Was taken to a hospital and examined by a doctor_ OI1 Iny return, I Was locked up in a room wi山 about 100 othefs_ We wefe So Inany t壬1乏廿1t it was not possible to lie down to Sleep_ T0 go to the t0ilet, We had to form a group Wi迂1 enough People 迂lat the Police Would agree to accompany us_ I Stayed in this room for five days_ IWaS only all0Wed out 0nce, E/CN_4/ 2004/9/Add_ 1 page 10 on 迂le four由 day, to be Presented to a judge, Who refused to release Ine_ After five dayS, I Was transferred to a room Wi迂1 five bedS, but Which already had Seven of eight other Chinese there_ The Police again tried to get Ine On to an aeroplane to China but didn,t have time to get all of us On it_ Eventually Only Six of Iny compatriots Were Put On 迂le airplane_ 4石After 12 days in the SWaiting z0ne, I Was Presented to ano迂ler judge Who released Ine because IWaS a Ininor_ When the interpreter told Ine IWaS free to go Ileft Straightway Without going back to 迂le “Waiting z0ne, to collect Iny things_ I Went to Paris On foot and Slept for Inany nights in 迂le Streets_ Ihad a few dollars for food_ Some Chinese I Inet told Ine about an association Which could help Ine and S0 I arrived at 迂leir reception Place_,, III. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY AND CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE 31_ The Special Rapporteur Inet Wi迂1 迂le National Police Division for 迂le Repression of Attacks against Persons and Property Which has a Staff of five dealing With Particular offences against Ininor Victims_ The Division Inainly Works on offences committed abrOad, Particularly 迂lose relating to child P0rn0graPhy, and receives information from foreign Police about Suspected French Paedophiles_ With respect [O child Pornography On 迂le Interne[, if 迂le Internet Protocol (IP) add工ess can be identified, the Division Works to discover 迂le Physical add工ess of the Person inV0lVed, 迂len apprehends him of her, Searches 迂le computer and attempts to identify 迂le child(ren) involved_ Recent operations Succeeded in identifying child工en in RuSSia, 迂le United States and 迂le Ne迂1erlandS, Some of Whom had been Photographed in Professional Photo Studios_ 32_ The Division receives 迂lousands of Uniform Resource Locator (URL) electronic add工esses every year and is able to identify a feW hund工ed_ Each year, betWeen 40 and S0 arrests result from 迂le Work of 迂le Division_ Illdividuals Who log On to child pornography range from Students Who look at 迂le Pictures out of curi0Sity, to 迂lose Who regularly Seek out hard一core pornography_ NorInally, 迂le Division Will not prosecute if it finds one of two images on a c0mPuter, but Where Inany images are f0und, 迂le Person Will be Prosecuted_ 33_ The Division reported that 迂lere are approximately 1 Inillion images of child pofnogfaphy available WofldWide, and that it is Working on a pfoject Wi迂1 INTERPOL, 迂le European Police Organization (EUROPOL) and the French gendarmerie to (i) determine Which images are already kn0叉衢艮/n二 (ii) Sort 迂le images into categories二 and (iii) identify the Victims and 迂le Perpetrators_ TTIC Division reported having discovered Very Strong links between individuals involved in P0rn0graPhy, in Some cases including Inembers of 迂le judiciary_ 34_ The Minors Brigade also Works on 迂le issue of child P0rn0graPhy, but is Ilot legally emp0Wered to infiltrate paedophilia and pornography netWOrkS_ TT1e Brigade also reported doubts about 迂le existence of child Pornography 4石netWOrkS,, as Such, but agreed that Inany of 迂le adults Whom [hey had investigated for the Possession and distribution of Pornographic images had been Very Well connected Socially_ E/CN_4/ Z004/9/ Add_ 1 page 1 1 SS_ Prior to and during 迂le Visit to France, 迂le Special Rapporteur received information t壬1乏廿1t 迂le Production of child Pornography involving French child工en is often connected Wi迂1 domestic child Sexual abuse_ He received allegations that Parents and family friends are committing acts of child Sexual abuse and Sometimes making Pornographic Inaterials Out of the abuse_ 36_ II1 his Preliminary n0te, the Special Rapporteur Stated that he had been told about 迂le existence of a CD一ROM containing 8,000 Pornographic iInageS, known as 迂le 4瀹ZandV00rt,, CD, after the t0Wn in 迂le Ne迂lerlands Where it Was discovered_ A number of French Parents had reportedly Seen images of their child工en On this CD_ French au由orities examined tl〕e CD, f0rWarded it to 迂le au迂lorities of o迂ler countries 迂ley believed Were c0ncerned, but concluded that 迂le images dated back to the l970S_ H0WeVer, Some Parents contest thiS, alleging that Some of 迂le Photos contain clear evidence that 迂ley Were taken recently_ The Special Rapporteur Was advised that tl1e CD had not been officially Sent to I〕\ITERPOL fof its expeft examination and compafison Wi迂1 images in its databaSe, Which Would likely have led to a determination of 迂le age of the Photos_ II1 its response of 4 April 2003 to 迂le Special RaPP0rteur,S Preliminary n0te, tl1e Govefnment Stated 山at tl1e CD had been Sent to 1I\ITERPOL in 1998 by tl1e Dutch authofities二 h0WeVef, 1〕\ITERPOL Stated 山at it had only feceived a copy of it ffom a Swiss NGO and 山at the Dutch au迂lorities had Sent it Only to the countries they 山ought Were concerned_ FurtherIn0re, 耐TERPOL Stated that it Would Support any national investigations and, if it received 迂le CD from a national law enforcement agency Wi迂1 an Official requeSt, it Would check the CD against its database_ Acc0rdingly, the Special Rapporteur Would reiterate his recommendation that 迂le Ffench police make Such an official request to I〕\ITERPOL_ 37_ Concerning child P0rnOgraPhy, the Government advised [he Special Rapporteur that legislation had been amended [O cover any representation of a child二 accOrdingly, Proceedings Inay be brought against Persons disseminating non一real images as Well as 迂le creators of Such images_ Fur迂1erm0re, the Law of 17 Iune 1998 also makes 迂le use of a telecommunication netWOrk, Such as 迂le II1ternet, to commit certain offences of a Sexual nature against child工en an aggravating circumstance_ 38_ AI1 inter一Ininisterial governmental Web Site has been developed (WWW_internet一InineurS_gOuV_fr) Which Went online in November 2001_ Internet Surfers have access to an Online reporting form and are given an e一mail add工ess_ The Web Site links 迂le Ministries of IuStice, 迂le II1teriOr, Defence and 迂le Family and f0rWardS 迂le reports to a database Which is managed by 迂le Central Office for the Fight against Criminality Connected With Information Technology and Communication (O新ZCE CE邝Z厂况Z 丕ZE Z况 ZMZZE CE邝Z厂E Z况 C厂Z阴Z邝况Z艺Z巨 ZZ巨E 况冽x zEC汐工邝口Z口之窒萃ES CZE Z ,萃邝仄′口厂阴况z艺口邝 Ez CZE Z况 C口阴阴眈邝萃C况z艺口邝)_ Many reports are transmitted to 皿TERPOL, When the Web Sites are based abrOad, and to the Public Prosecutor Who has jurisdiction When the acts Which constitute a criminal Offence are committed On national territory_ Cases forwarded to the Government of France 39_ AS examples of 迂le kind of concerns brought to the attention of the Special Rapporteur and raised With the Government of France, [hree cases are Outlined belOW_ E/CN_4/ 2004/9/Add_ 1 page 12 C况SE Z 一 C胯工ZZ丕Z麒檀 40_ OI1 26 April ZO0Z, tl〕e Special Rapporteur Wrote to tl〕e Government of France concerning 迂le Situation of child S, born in l998, Wh0, accofding to information receiVed, had been the Victim of Sexual abuse and had been used in the Production of Pornographic films and photographs_ The child, S Parents Were Separated and 迂le abuse Was allegedly Perpetrated by her father Whilst exercising his Visitation rights_ II1 March l998, 迂le child Was examined by a Inedical Practitioner Who confirmed that She had been Sexually abused and in Iune 迂lat y(击乏廿工r, the Family Affairs Iudge (衢眈之窒E 况冽x 况叉贪衢况艺厂ES 仄′况阴艺Z艺况ZES) of 迂le T厂萃Z衢冽邝况Z CZE g厂况邝丕ZE 萃邝置Z况邝Ce in Paris reduced the right of access of the fa迂ler to 迂le child to one Saturday afternoon every tWO Weeks in a Supervised environment_ Whilst the Special Rapporteur appreciated 迂lat Such Ineasures had been taken in acknowledgement 迂lat the child Was at risk of Sexual abuSe, he remained concerned t壬1乏廿1t the child Was forced to Spend this time Wi迂1 her fa迂1er, reportedly against her Will_ She reportedly became Very anxious and upset before each Visit Wi迂1 him_ II1 Z00l, a pornographic Photograph Was reportedly identified as being 由at of child S by 迂le British National Crime Squad_ 41_ On 24 September ZO0Z, the Government of France replied to 迂le Special RaPP0rteur, reporting that an inquiry into 迂le allegations of Sexual abuse had been carried Out in 1998 and in l999, 迂le Z)况厂绥冽EZ 丕ZE P况厂艺S (Public Pr0SecutOr,S office) had dismissed 迂le allegations as lacking proof_ An investigation to confirm Whether 迂le child Was in fact 迂le Sa工ne child Who appeared in the Pornographic Inaterials Was under Way, and 迂le child,S father Was being heard as a Witness but Was Ilot at that time under investigation_ TTIC Government also reported t壬1乏廿1t Ilo request had been Inade by 迂le Inother to Inodify of Suppress 迂le father,S Visitation rights_ C况SE 2 一 C阮ZZ丕ZP 42_ On 31 Iuly ZO0Z, the Special Rapporteur add工essed an urgent appeal to 迂le Government of France concerning the Situation of a Woman Who had travelled to S麒潭itzerland Wi迂1 her child P, born in 1997_ The Woman had Inade a complaint against her eX一Partner, 迂le child,S father, for Sexual abuse of 迂le child_ This complaint Was dismissed despite 迂le reported confirmation of a doctor that 迂le child had been Sexually abused_ Ra迂ler 迂lan continue to hand over her child to her ex一partner in compliance With his Visitation rightS, 迂le Woman Went to SWitzerland to request political asylum_ Shortly after her depafture from France, She Was Sentenced by 迂le Criminal Court (z厂萃Z夜眈邝况Z CD厂厂ECZZD邝EZ) of Paris to One year in Prison for failing to Ina1〈e 迂le child available to its father_ An international arrest Warrant Was issued and She Was arrested in SWi[zerland in _Tune 2002_ Her child Was Placed in a home for children of her age_ The mo迂ler 迂len reportedly began a hunger Strike_ II1 his letter, the Special Rapporteur appealed to the Government to take all Ineasures to Protect 迂le child from Sexual abuse and to assure 迂le Inother t壬1乏廿1t Such Ineasures Were being taken_ 43_ II1 its response of 8 November ZO0Z, the Government confirmed 迂lat a complaint had been Inade in February 2002 by 迂le child,S Inother against her ex一partner for Sexual abuse of 迂le child P, but that the Inedical certificate did Ilot reveal any evidence of gynaecological trauma in the child_ TTIC Paris Minors Brigade carried Out an investigation and interviewed 迂le child,S father_ F0ll0Wing 迂1iS, 迂le child,S mo迂ler 迂len took her child to be examined by a different doctor after each Visit Wi迂1 迂le fa迂1er, but Ilo gynaecological trauma Was reported_ The complaint Was 迂len dismissed in Iuly 2000_ II1 November Z00l, 迂le Family Affairs Iudge E/CN_4/ Z004/9/ Add_ 1 page 13 Ordered the continuation of joint Parental custody of child P and Set the Visitation rights of the father at One Weekend in tWO and One Wednesday in tWO, as Well as time during tl〕e School holidays_ The Government reported that tl〕e child,S Inother refused to comply Wi迂1 由ese custodial decisions and the father 迂len filed a complaint_ 44_ The Government reported 迂lat in VieW of tl〕e inquiry carried Out by tl〕e P0lice, it considered 迂lat the allegations of Sexual abuse Were unf0unded, and that it Should be noted 迂lat tl〕e child,S Inother did Ilot appeal the judge,S decision of November 2001 but instead decided to leave France_ C况SE 置 一 C阮ZZ丕ZL 4S_ F0ll0Wing his IniSSiOI1, On 12 December 2002 tl〕e Special Rapporteur add工essed a joint urgent appeal to the Government of France, together With the Special Rapporteur On freedom of Opinion and expression_ This appeal concerned the Situation of child L, born in 1993_ According to information receiVed, the boy had been Sexually abused by his fa迂ler Since he Was 3 years Old_ Sexual abuse had reportedly been confirmed by Specialist doctors and psychiatrists in l996, Who found 迂lat the boy Was Suffering from a Sexually transmitted disease_ The boy allegedly reported 迂lat his fa迂ler and O迂ler individuals had Inade pornographic films and taken photographs of him_ According to tl〕e information receiVed, the boy had consistently Stated that he did Ilot Want to live Wi迂1 his fa迂1er, to Whom custody had been aWarded_ He Was allegedly continually emotionally and Physically abused by his father and had reportedly become Suicidal_ 46_ II1 its response of S February Z003, the Government Stated that f0ll0Wing tl〕e complaint Inade by 迂le Inother of child L against the child,S father in l996, the boy had had a medical一psychiatric examination Which had Ilot confirmed 迂lat he Was a Victim of Sexual abuse_ Acc0rdingly, tl〕e complaint against the father had been dismissed_ The mo迂ler 迂len referred 迂le case to tl〕e Family Affairs Iudge, requesting 迂lat the right of access of the fa迂ler to tl〕e child be Suspended_ This request Was rejected_ 47_ II1 l998, the Court of Appeal ruled 迂lat tl〕e boy Should reside Wi迂1 his father and gave the mo迂ler a right of access_ II1 its reply the Government Stated 迂lat the psychiatrists and Psychologists Who had examined the child believed that he had Wrongly interpreted the tender of aWkWard gestures of his father and 迂lat tl〕e In0ther, Who Was also examined by a PSychiatriSt, had convinced herself 迂lat her SOII Was being abused_ II1 Z000, tl〕e Inother again Inade a complaint against tl〕e father for Sexual abuSe, having been Sh0Wn a Photograph from a CD一ROM containing Inany pornographic images of child工en, in Which She reportedly recognized her SOII_ The Family Affairs Iudge 迂len ruled 迂lat the child Should reside Wi迂1 his In0ther, according Visitation rights in a neutral place to the fa迂ler_ This decision Was reversed later 迂lat year by tl〕e Court of ApPeal, Which Stated that Ilo neW elements had existed Which justified Overturning the Original decision to place the child Wi迂1 his father, and that an investigation had revealed 迂lat the child On tl〕e CD Was Ilot child L_ 48_ II1 all three caSeS, the Special Rapporteur has continued to receive information from the child工en, S mo迂lers as Well as NGOS Working Wi迂1 由ese families 迂lat they continued to consider that tl〕e child工en remained at risk of Sexual and/of emotional abuse_ E/CN_4/ 2004/9/Add_ 1 page 14 49_ OI1 6 May Z003, 迂le Special Rapporteur add工essed 13 neW cases to 迂le Government of France_ AS With tl〕e 迂lree cases Outlined ab0Ve, the Special Rapporteur is Ilot in a Position to judge tl〕e Inerits of each Piece of evidence presented to him concerning tl〕e facts of the caSeS, but the Similarities of Inany of the allegations 迂lat have been Presented to him have caused continuing concern about the Inanner in Which Such Situations are being dealt With by 迂le French judiciary_ S0_ II1 his letter of 6 May 2003 and in the 13 neW cases presented at that tiIne, the Special Rapporteur alluded to the enormous difficulties faced by indiVidualS, particularly m0迂1erS, Who make complaints against those they Suspect of abusing 由eir child工en in that 迂ley are 迂len at risk of Ineasures being taken against 迂lem for maldng false accusations 一 Ineasures Which in Some cases ultimately lead to 由eir losing custody of their child(ren)_ Some of these mo迂lers Pursue legal avenues until they can Ilo longer a.fford to pay for legal aSSiStance, at Which Point they believe 迂lat their only options are to continue to hand over tl〕e child to his of her alleged abuSer, of to take tl〕e child and Seek refuge abroad_ Even Some judges and laWyerS Who understand the Weaknesses of tl〕e judicial System are reported to have informally advised Some parents to take 由is course of action_ T丑ese Parents are then at risk of criminal Proceedings for 由eir actiOnS, bo由 in France and often in tl〕e country to Which 迂ley travel_ S 1_ The Special Rapporteur Was advised that tl〕e credibility of tl〕e allegations Inade by Inothers 迂lat their child工en Were being Sexually abused Was undermined by tl〕e fact 迂lat Such allegations Were invariably Inade during divorce Proceedings_ The implication is that Such allegations are being used as a Weapon to ensure that custody of tl〕e child is aWarded to the mo迂ler_ The Special Rapporteur agrees that 由is is a P0SSibility, and Was informed 迂lat there have been cases Where laWyerS have reportedly advised 由eir clients to make Such false allegations_ H0WeVer, in at least Several of tl〕e cases Presented to the Special RapP0rteur, a closer examination of Some of tl〕e reasons Why tl〕e parents Were divorcing revealed a Pattern of domestic abuse Wi迂lin the faInily, including Violence Perpetrated against the mo迂ler_ Acc0rdingly, tl〕e issue of Sexual abuse of tl〕e child Should perhaps Inore accurately be VieWed as One of the reaSOnS, if Ilot tl〕e Inain 0ne, for the divorce_ It is also important to note 迂lat in Some of tl〕e cases brought to the attention of tl〕e Special RaPP0rteur, custody arrangements had reportedly already been agreed upon in an amicable Inanner, and nei迂ler partner had any apparent Inotive for making false accusations against tl〕e o迂ler_ SZ_ II1 Several of the cases received by tl〕e Special RaPP0rteur, it Was reported that tl〕e alleged abusers had Strong ties With Inembers of tl〕e judiciary of Were individuals highly placed in the administrative System of tl〕e State Who Were in a Position to influence the Outcome of Proceedings against 迂lem二 由is Point had also been raised by tl〕e National Division for tl〕e Repression of Attacks against Persons and Property_ S3_ Since tl〕e Special RaPP0rteur, S Visit to France, Other cases have been brought to his attenti0n, but Ilot all of them have been f0rWarded to tl〕e Government_ Some had important details Inissing and 由ose involved could Ilot be contacted for clarification_ Some cases Were Ilot acted upon as tl〕e allegations did Ilot fall Wi迂lin tl〕e Special RapP0rteur,S Inandate, for example Situations of abduction of a child by One parent that Were Ilot related to Sexual eXpl0itatiOn, of cases of phySical, non一sexual mistreatment_ Where he continues to receive detailed information about cases relating to his Inandate, he Will bring these to the attention of the Government of France_ E/CN_4/ Z004/9/ Add_ 1 page IS The child,S Iˉight to be heard S4_ of Particular concern to the Special Rapporteur Were reports t壬1乏廿1t in civil cases to determine custody arrangeInentS, 迂le child has Ilo automatic right to be heard_ Al迂lough civil courts can hear 迂le child at 迂le discretion of the Presiding judge, in almost all caSeS, the child is reportedly Ilot heard_ H0WeVef, in its response of 4 April, 迂le Government Stated the following二 4石o迂ler t壬1乏廿1n 迂le child,S VieWS Which .._ can be taken into account and transmitted to the judge, it Inay also be Ordered that the child be heard by tl〕e judge Personally_ Where a Ininor SO requeStS, his hearing Inay be denied only by a Specially reasoned decision_ Specific Provisions govern 迂le Procedure of Such hearing二 under article 388一l of the Civil C0de, 迂le child Inay be accompanied by a laWyer of any Person of his choice.
语言:中文
得分: 988106.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...&DS=E/CN.4/2004/9/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON THE ISSUE OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN IN LAW AND IN PRACTICE
Parents have equal rights as the leave is distributed evenly between both parents. Fathers have three months’ non-transferable leave, mothers have three months and the parents then have three months to share as they wish (3:3:3). 20. (...) That was achieved by reducing the level of leave payment, but in an equal manner for both parents. The Group also commends the decision, in the post-crisis recovery, to re-establish the original level of leave pay and to gradually reduce the length of the shared months from three to two (5:5:2) in order to further reduce the divisible time frame in which women have been generally the parent to take the leave. 44.
语言:中文
得分: 987206.25 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/26/39/ADD.1&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, YAKIN ERTÜRK :ADDENDUM
As a result, she stays half of the week there and the other half with her parents, who are her main providers. This case also highlights problems emanating from residency/housing practices, discussed below. 2. (...) In a 2002 WHO study, 40 per cent of parents said that physical violence was an acceptable punishment for children, while 44 per cent of children said they would not denounce abuse, based on the belief that their parents had the authority to use violence as a form of punishment. (...) I met girls who were rape victims and who, due to mistreatment or rejection by their parents, ran away from home into the streets, where they became subject to exploitation and further abuse.
语言:中文
得分: 987206.25 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...pen&DS=A/HRC/11/6/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT : INFORMATION / SUBMITTED BY THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION OF MALAYSIA ; NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
• There is little incentive to attend school because parents and children perceive that education does not help to alleviate poverty, given that some children who have completed secondary school are unemployed. (...) SUHAKAM was made to understand that lack of consultations with teachers and parents have contributed to the opposition against the policy. (...) Lately there have been calls to implement caning as punishment for female students by some Parents Teachers Association (PTA), school administrators and teachers union.
语言:中文
得分: 986198.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...t?open&DS=A/HRC/11/NI/2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
NOTE VERBALE DATED 18 SEPTEMBER 2013 FROM THE PERMANENT MISSION OF GREECE TO THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN GENEVA ADDRESSED TO THE OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
The authorities have tried to accommodate parents whose children did not manage to attend pre-school for a justifiable reason. 3. (...) Greek language civilization courses are available for Muslim parents in an effort to enable parents to get more involved in their children’s education. 6.
语言:中文
得分: 981991.8 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...t?open&DS=A/HRC/24/G/11&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, JOY NGOZI EZEILO : ADDENDUM
Local authorities are said to take no action in such cases, while victims and parents see these practices as normal in the absence of any other alternative for earning a living. 5. (...) Rescue operations in other barangays revealed situations where parents themselves made their children perform for remote customers. (...) Additionally, minors travelling without their parents need travel clearance from DSWD and social workers posted at exit points monitor such children travelling abroad.
语言:中文
得分: 975436.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/23/48/ADD.3&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON MINORITY ISSUES, GAY MCDOUGALL : ADDENDUM
It considers that the role of parents is crucial and that change must come from within the Roma communities. 29. Article 9 (1) of the Public Education Act gives parents or guardians the right to choose the school that their child(ren) will attend. (...) If the mother cannot be found or parents do not visit a child for six months the child becomes eligible for adoption.
语言:中文
得分: 975436.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/19/56/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods
REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY, MAGDALENA SEPULVEDA CARMONA : ADDENDUM
Persons with disabilities ................................................................................. 66–69 16 D. Single parents ................................................................................................. 70–74 17 E. (...) States should recall the obligations of non-discrimination and equality which oblige them to ensure that activation policies do not represent a larger burden to certain individuals or groups in society, such as single parents and persons with disabilities. This is particularly important when individuals are required to enter the job market in times of recession and high unemployment. (...) While cuts are affecting all families with children (across all income brackets) they will have a disproportionate impact on children living in households that rely on other forms of social protection assistance, particularly those with single parents, jobless households and households with persons with disabilities.
语言:中文
得分: 975436.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=A/HRC/17/34/ADD.2&Lang=C
数据资源: ods