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Although several rate control methods are suggested in test model documents, none is specified in H.263+. (...) Annex G: PB-frame mode The PB-frame mode increases significantly the coding efficiency by doubling the video frame rate with only a moderate increase in bit rate. This is achieved by coding two source pictures as one PB-frame. (...) Each thread is coded independently. Obviously, the frame rate within one thread is much lower than the overall frame rate: half in case of two threads, a third in case of three threads and so on.
Language:English
Score: 1244879.9 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...video-site/9804_Tam/q15d17.doc
Data Source: un
We hope these ideas will be used in the discussion on how to arrive at a useful framework for assessing computational efficiency. 2 On the Accuracy of Coding and Complexity Measurements 2.1 Coding Efficiency For coding efficiency, the ultimate design goal is subjective quality vs. bit rate. However, for simplicity reasons, objective quality (PSNR) has been a frequently used quality measure when designing previous video compression standards. Even if PSNR is not a perfect measure of subjective quality, it has been accepted as a usable quality measure since it is much simpler and significantly less time consuming than subjective measurements. 2.2 Computational Efficiency When it comes to computational efficiency, a good complexity measure is even more difficult to define. However, considering the importance of computational efficiency for some applications, we believe that It is better with a non-perfect complexity measure than no complexity measure Consequently, we should try to establish a framework that is simple enough to be useful, and not focus too much on the fact that we will not achieve a perfect method for complexity measurements. 3 The Proponent Should Provide All Results For coding efficiency it is a well-established procedure that the proponent of a specific compression tool should prepare results that will make his proposal look as favorable as possible with respect to: · Objective quality (PSNR) vs bit rate. · Subjective quality vs bit rate (video demo).
Language:English
Score: 1244589.3 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...eo-site/0510_Nic/VCEG-AA07.doc
Data Source: un
Women receive the new test only if it is associated with better outcomes relative to the status quo. published studies of infection rates among antenatal care attendees and assumed that the same rates apply to women who do not have access to antenatal care. (...) To estimate the prevalence of active syphilis (that is, the cases that require treatment during pregnancy), we relied on 65 Table 3 | Incremental congenital syphilis cases averted, stillbirths averted and adjusted lives saved in sub-Saharan Africa with a hypothetical new antenatal syphilis screening diagnostic compared with the status quo Test Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) Return rate (%) Treatment rate (%) Congenital syphilis cases averted (SD) Stillbirths averted (SD) Adjusted lives saved (SD)* Proportion of adjusted lives saved (%)† Status quo: laboratory-based RPR 86 72 60 70 Advanced/moderate infrastructure‡ 1 More sensitive test 95 72 60 70 7,400 (11,100) 6,000 (7,900) 5,900 (7,500) 1 2 More specific test 86 85 60 70 600 (9,000) 500 (6,800) 1,700 (6,600) 3 Perfect test 100 100 60 70 11,200 (12,600) 9,000 (9,800) 11,500 (9,400) 2 4 Perfect treatment 86 72 60 100 28,500 (18,500) 22,900 (13,700) 21,400 (13,300) 5 5 Faster test§ 86 72 100 70 44,000 (22,700) 35,400 (17,700) 33,100 (17,300) 7 6 Faster test and perfect treatment rate 86 72 100 100 90,400 (46,500) 72,700 (31,000) 68,100 (30,600) 15 7 Faster test, perfect test and perfect treatment rate 100 100 100 100 115,600 (51,100) 93,000 (35,800) 94,300 (35,200) 20 Minimal infrastructure‡ 8 Laboratory-based RPR test 86 72 60 70 109,800 (48,700) 88,300 (35,100) 82,600 (34,500) 18 9 Less sensitive test 75 72 60 70 95,700 (51,400) 77,000 (34,800) 71,500 (34,400) 15 10 Less specific test 86 65 60 70 109,800 (53,200) 88,300 (41,000) 81,500 (40,500) 18 11 Less sensitive and specific test, faster test and perfect treatment rate 75 65 100 100 297,300 (136,300) 239,100 (92,000) 217,500 (91,000) 47 12 Perfect test 100 100 60 70 138,100 (66,400) 111,100 (46,600) 112,100 (45,800) 24 13 Perfect treatment 86 72 60 100 184,400 (94,100) 148,300 (59,600) 138,800 (58,900) 30 14 Faster test§ 86 72 100 70 225,900 (105,100) 181,700 (76,300) 170,000 (75,300) 37 15 Faster test and perfect treatment rate 86 72 100 100 350,300 (150,200) 281,800 (117,900) 263,700 (116,600) 57 16 Faster test, perfect test and perfect treatment rate 100 100 100 100 417,900 (202,800) 336,100 (144,400) 334,000 (142,500) 72 No infrastructure‡ 17 Laboratory-based RPR test 86 72 60 70 167,800 (82,400) 135,000 (55,600) 126,300 (55,200) 27 18 Less sensitive test 75 72 60 70 146,400 (66,900) 117,700 (46,200) 109,300 (45,900) 24 19 Less specific test 86 65 60 70 167,800 (75,600) 135,000 (50,800) 124,600 (50,300) 27 20 Less sensitive and specific test, faster test and perfect treatment rate 75 65 100 100 417,900 (197,600) 336,100 (138,000) 306,100 (136,800) 66 21 Perfect test 100 100 60 70 205,600 (92,700) 165,400 (65,700) 165,700 (64,600) 36 22 Perfect treatment 86 72 60 100 267,400 (122,500) 215,000 (85,600) 201,300 (85,000) 44 23 Faster test§ 86 72 100 70 322,700 (161,600) 259,500 (103,800) 242,900 (102,900) 53 24 Faster test and perfect treatment rate 86 72 100 100 488,600 (218,900) 392,900 (161,200) 367,800 (159,800) 80 25 Faster test, perfect test and perfect treatment rate 100 100 100 100 578,600 (266,500) 465,400 (181,000) 461,500 (178,700) 100 *Adjusted lives saved are the sum of stillbirths averted and lives saved due to a reduction in the harm associated with treatment, and therefore include the impact of treatment harm. (...) For syphilis, new tests are defined by sensitivity, specificity, infrastructure requirements (advanced/moderate, minimal or no health- care infrastructure), patient return rate (60 or 100%) and RPR-positive treatment rate (70 or 100%).
Language:English
Score: 1167448.2 - https://www.who.int/tdr/public...tions/documents/sti-nature.pdf
Data Source: un
ITU-T ICTs & Climate Change   عربي   |   中文   |   Español   |   Français   |   Русский     Advanced Search   Home : ITU-T Home : ITU-T and Climate Change     Review of Mobile Handset Eco-Rating Schemes This report provides with an overview of eco-rating schemes developed by the mobile handset industry to communicate the sustainability performance of their products to consumers. It shows that there is no scheme that could be considered a perfect view of sustainability; however, each does attempt to provide a broad perspective of the sustainability impact of the manufacture, use and disposal of a mobile handset. Based on this study, areas that eco-rating schemes should consider as best practice are identified.
Language:English
Score: 1146301.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/clim...echange/report-eco-rating.html
Data Source: un
The upper bound of the PPP index, derived in the paper in the realm of perfect targeting, provides a means to assess the targeting efficiency of government programmes. (...) Thus, we have obtained the maximum attainable values of λ under the situation of perfect targeting. In practice, it is not possible to attain perfect targeting because it is difficult to obtain accurately people’s income or consumption. (...) The index value of perfect targeting for Thailand was far greater than that of perfect targeting for countries like Russia and Vietnam.
Language:English
Score: 1109359.6 - https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/m.../2005/docs/Kakwani%20paper.pdf
Data Source: un
. • Not mandated – High Deployment costs – Possible chip read errors The Chip in the Passport • Fact – 100 – 120 countries are issuing E‐Passports – Adoption rate of E‐Passports outstrips the  adoption rate for MRPs – Based on recognition of the benefits of the  cryptographically protected data in the chip • So, should E‐Passports be made mandatory? (...) Issues • Chip reading time – 8 seconds to 14 seconds in the initial days • Change in Border Control Terminal  Applications – Training issues – Don’t frighten the border guard Issues • E‐Passport verification requires – CSCA – DSC – CRL • Furthermore there can be encoding errors and  personalisation errors • We identified 28 possible outcomes of E‐ Passport validation Issues • Initial software rollout – Displayed all 28 outcomes to officer to make  decision – High training costs, unnecessary complexity • Changed to trust levels – map 28 outcomes to  trust levels – ‐1 Fraudulent document – 0 Not an E‐Passport – 1 Fully verified Issues • All E‐Passports are not equal • Verification of authenticity is not indication of  trust • More nuanced approach to trust level – ‐1 Fraudulent document – 0 Not an E‐Passport – 1 Some Issues – 2 Almost good – 3 Perfect New Requirements • Need custom mapping on a per country basis • Want flexibility in mapping based on which  border • Central control of policies Traveller profile • Possibility that traveller has E‐Passport  depends on traveller demographics at border • If you do get an e‐Passport, chances that you  have the CSCA, DSC and CRL to validate it are  small Traveller profile – In initial days, 1 of 20 travellers was e‐Passport – 1 in 10 e‐Passports could be verified using  available data – Hit rate of 1 in 200!!!!! Not an attractive  proposition – Now the hit rate is 1 in 2. More attractive  proposition What about the new requirements?
Language:English
Score: 1101293.4 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...2014/Documents/9_am_Rajesh.pdf
Data Source: un
African Policy Making Needs a Reboot & Development Finance is the Perfect Example: Debt Management vs Illicit Flows. (...) Confidence was low for centuries • At independence, in 1975, the main challenge was to build Cape Verdean society’s confidence in the state-building process, its institutions and leadership, as well as in the future. • To build it, education, health and fighting poverty have been the primary tool (Table). • Adult literacy rates increased from 62.8% in 1990 to 86.7 % in 2015 growing at an average annual rate of 12.5%. (...) Development Finance is the Perfect Example: Debt Management vs Illicit flows African policy making needs a reboot!
Language:English
Score: 1100784.6 - https://www.un.org/development...2019LINK-Monday-Session2-A.pdf
Data Source: un
WTO | 2009 News items - Lamy: Africa’s North-South Corridor “perfect example” of Aid for Trade in action WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION Home   |  About WTO   |  News & events   |  Trade topics   |  WTO membership   |  Documents & resources   |  External relations Contact us   |  Site map   |  A-Z   |  Search español   français home wto news 2009 news news item WTO: 2009 NEWS ITEMS > North-South Corridor > North-South Corridor Conference Press Release > Outcomes, Conclusions and Way Forward He said the presence of the four African presidents at the Aid for Trade Conference “demonstrates political commitment. (...) “The North-South Corridor is a perfect example of Aid for Trade in action. As an organization, the WTO is about trying to level the playing field of trade rules. (...) This is essential for Africa given the low rate of intra-region trade. This places huge vulnerability on the continent and means that when crisis hits the major markets, Africa suffers more than others.
Language:English
Score: 1098186 - https://www.wto.org/english/ne...s_e/news09_e/aid_06apr09_e.htm
Data Source: un
The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF describe the current condition for measles outbreaks as a perfect storm. Why?   A number of factors are contributing to what’s being called a perfect storm . (...) Get the details Press release 27 April 2022 UNICEF and WHO warn of ‘perfect storm’ of conditions for measles outbreaks, affecting children Visit the page Article COVID-19 and the need to improve health systems A year after the world’s largest vaccine supply operation began, here’s what needs to happen next Read the story Photo Essay Come on over and get your vaccines An innovative campaign in South Africa is using a friendly phrase to boost immunization rates See the story Footer UNICEF Home What we do Research and reports Stories and features Where we work Press centre Take action About us Work for UNICEF Partner with UNICEF UNICEF Executive Board Evaluation Internal Audit and Investigations Transparency and accountability Sustainable Development Goals Related UNICEF sites UNICEF Blog UNICEF Data UNICEF Parenting Voices of Youth Global Shared Services Centre Support UNICEF ЮНИСЕФ на Русском Become a donor Social Footer Secondary Contact us Legal Footer tertiary Report fraud, abuse, wrongdoing Accessibility
Language:English
Score: 1070197 - https://www.unicef.org/stories...measles-cases-spiking-globally
Data Source: un
One is to determine an absolute rating for soil health that considers the soil in function of its deviation of an ideal soil with ideal properties (deep, fertile, well managed, having an adequate water supply, etc.), whatever the land use. The other option, more in line with the definition of soil degradation, considers a relative rating that depends on the suitability of the soil for its actual use only. As an example, a shallow slightly acid soil may be perfect for the pine forest occupying it, meaning the relative soil health is high, but would be considered as having a low marginal soil health in absolute terms because the alternatives using it for cropping for instance would be extremely limited.
Language:English
Score: 1068195.1 - https://www.fao.org/soils-port...-indicators-and-assessment/en/
Data Source: un