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Pension systems will have to become less sensitive to demographic and other societal changes. However, in policy terms, it is not the demographic old-age dependency ratio that matters for the sustainability of pensions, but the economic dependency ratio. (...) These figures show the difficulty to maintain the sustainability of pensions systems through employment growth and migration without any further policy action. For those member-States having an economic dependency ratio much higher than the EU average (i.e. (...) Inversely, those member-States that are found already below the EU average level of the economic dependency ratio, may look for higher employment levels either by a better utilisation of their workforce or, in the case of low labour reserves, by developing a more active immigration policy.
Language:English
Score: 758052.4 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...vents/pdf/expert/2/fotakis.pdf
Data Source: un
This publication argues that without strong action at the highest political level in Commodity-dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs), these countries will remain trapped for centuries. It demonstrates how technology and innovation could lead the way to economic and structural transformation in CDDCs, helping to diversify economies and lessen dependence on the commodity sector and, in turn, strengthen productivity growth. Enabling CDDCs to escape from the commodity dependence trap requires stronger cooperation between CDDCs and their trading and development partners with regard to technological acquisition and domestication.
Language:English
Score: 756535.64 - https://shop.un.org/books/commod-dev-rpt-2021-94866
Data Source: un
This publication argues that without strong action at the highest political level in Commodity-dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs), these countries will remain trapped for centuries. It demonstrates how technology and innovation could lead the way to economic and structural transformation in CDDCs, helping to diversify economies and lessen dependence on the commodity sector and, in turn, strengthen productivity growth. Enabling CDDCs to escape from the commodity dependence trap requires stronger cooperation between CDDCs and their trading and development partners with regard to technological acquisition and domestication.
Language:English
Score: 756535.64 - https://shop.un.org/node/94866
Data Source: un
Prezentacja programu PowerPoint Population Ageing and Social Security in Europe Agnieszka Chłoń-Domińczak Institute of Statistics and Demography Warsaw School of Economics UNITED NATIONS EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON CHANGING POPULATION AGE STRUCTURES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs United Nations Secretariat New York 13-14, October 2016 OUTLINE • Demographic change in Europe • Measuring ageing and consequences of ageing • Adequacy and sustainability of penison systems in Europe • Life course matters: Gender Pension Gap • Conclusions DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN EUROPE • „The new demography of Europe” is driven by the lowest fertility levels combine with the continious incerases of life expectancy • Population ageing leads to changes in the size and the age structure of population in European countries – According to the Eurostat the total population size between 2013 and 2060 will fall in half of the EU countries – The number of people in retirement age will be increasing, while the population in productive age will decline – Europe is the only continent where the number of people in working age is projected to decline PROJECTIONS OF CHANGE IN THE TOTAL POPULATION Source: Ageing Report 2015 (European Commission DG ECFIN, 2015) CHANGES IN THE AGE STRUCTURE OF THE EUROPEAN POPULATION EU 28 population by age groups and sex Relative change in the working age population by age groups in EU 28 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 20-34 35-49 50-64 2065, change from 2015 (%) 2045, change from 2015 (%) 2025, change from 2015 (%) Source: Ageing Report 2015 (European Commission DG ECFIN, 2015) (left), own calculations based on Europop 2013 projection (right) CHANGE IN THE SELECTED AGE GROUPS OF POPULATION BY COUNTRY Working age (20-64) Elderly (65 and above) Source: Ageing Report 2015 (European Commission DG ECFIN, 2015) HOW TO MEASURE DEPENDENCY? • With rising life expectancy, including healthy life expectancy, traditional measures of depedency do not capture actual life course choices – Not all younger and older people are inactive and – Considerable share of people in the working age population are inactive and economically dependent on others • Age-specific economic behaviour depends on institutions: the education system, labour market policy as well as pension arrangements • Intergenerational transfers, particularly those received by younger and older people can vary significantly HOW TO MEASURE DEPENDENCY? (...) ECONOMIC APPROACH Name Definition: Demographic dependency ratio The population in age groups 0- 19 years and 65+ years in relation to the population aged 20-64 Share of non- employed population in total population Non-employed population measured as total population less those that are employed (measured in full-time equivalent) divided by total population Net public transfers to non- working age population relative to total labour income Net public transfers (public transfer inflows – public transfer outflows) for people in age groups (0-19) and (65 and over) divided by total labour income of people in all ages Estimates of demographic and economic dependency in selected EU countries 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 SE FR DK FI UK LT IT DE NL LV BE AT LU CY HU BG SI SK D e p e n d e n cy r at io p e r 1 0 0 o f re le va n t u n it Demographic dependency ratio Share of inactive population in total population Public transfers to non-working age populaton relative to total labour income Source: AGENTA Project Policy Brief No 3 MEASURING THE ECONOMIC AND FISCAL CHALLENGES OF POPULATION AGEING DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND PUBLIC EXPENDITURE IN THE PAST TWO DECADES IN EUROPE • Population ageing in Europe has already lead to a rising share of older people in the past 20 years. • The cross country comparison shows that in 2014 countries that have on average older populations have also higher public spending • At the same time, many EU countries introduced various reforms that had an impact on their public expenditure levels. Projected increase in dependency ratios Relation between the demographic change and government expenditure 1995-2014 Fiscal adjustment Fiscal pressure Not significant Very high RO SK PL HU SI BG High DE LU CZ PT AT Medium CY EE ES EL NL IT LV Low UK FI LT DK Lowest FR SE IE Source: AGENTA Project Policy Brief No 3 MEASURING THE ECONOMIC AND FISCAL CHALLENGES OF POPULATION AGEING SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEMS IN EUROPE • All EU countries have well developed social security systems • These are mostly mandatory, pay-as-you-go or with mixed financing schemes. • The type of pension provision varies from (the most popular) defined benefit schemes, through various types of point systems to (notional) defined contributions. • The average pension spending in the EU countries in 2013 was 11.2% of GDP, ranging from 7.2% of GDP in Latvia to 16.2% of GDP in Greece EU AND NATIONAL LEVEL PENSION POLICIES • The development of social protection policies is the responsibility of each Member State • Since 2003 in the area of pensions, this is supported by the “soft policy tool”, that is open method of coordination process (OMC) that supplement the legislative and financial instruments of social policy – Used to support the definition, implementation and evaluation of their social policies – Helps to develop mutual cooperation – Based on common objectives and indicators • In the area of pensions, the OMC objectives include guaranteeing adequate and sustainable pension systems.
Language:English
Score: 755885.06 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...gnieszka%20Chlon-Dominczak.pdf
Data Source: un
PANEL 2: OVERCOMING DEPENDENCE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION The moderator, Ms. (...) She noted that 85 per cent of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are commodity dependent. She added that commodity dependence is a persistent challenge, as it takes an average of 190 years for a CDDC to halve the gap between their share of commodities in total merchandise exports to that of a non-commodity dependent economy. (...) In the discussion that followed, one delegate noted that commodity dependence has a high degree of path dependence, where strong commodity exports tended to monopolize investment and policy attention.
Language:English
Score: 755851.37 - https://www.un.org/pga/76/wp-c...022/04/Commodities-Summary.pdf
Data Source: un
As a result, many commodity-dependent developing countries get a tiny share of the value of the final good derived from the primary commodity that they produce. (...) KEY FACTS ON COMMODITIES • The share in global consumption of non-food commodities, manufactures and services is projected to increase from 87% in 2010 to 91% in 2030. • Commodity policies are directly associated with several SDGs, including the following: SDG 2 (achieving food security), SDG 7 (achieving energy security), SDG 9 (adding value to commodities), SDG 12 (ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns), SDG 14 (conserving and sustainably using the oceans, seas and marine resources), and SDG 15 (protecting, restoring and promoting sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably managing forests, combating desertification, halting and reversing land degradation and halting biodiversity loss). • The link between commodity dependence and human development is a highly relevant aspect of development policy since 64% of developing countries are commodity-export-dependent and 45% are commodity-import-dependent. • Commodity dependence is particularly prevalent among the group of least developed countries (LDCs), where 79% were commodity-export- dependent and 56% were commodity-import- dependent over the sample period. • At the global level, although the value of output of the primary food sector is projected to increase by nearly 35% between 2010 and 2030, its economic importance could diminish from 2.5% to 2.1% of total production value, with the non-food and crude oil sectors increasing their shares significantly. • The use of restrictions on the export of commodities drastically increased during the recent commodity price boom. (...) The panellists will be invited to discuss how commodity-dependent countries can design policies that promote productivity, diversification, value addition and value-chain development, promoting inclusive growth and enabling the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 11:40 - 12:30 PLENARY SEGMENT 12:30 – 13:00 LAUNCH OF UNCTAD REPORT ON THE STATE OF COMMODITY DEPENDENCE 15:00 - 16:00 INTERACTIVE PANEL 2 Moving up the commodity value chain Commodity trade is characterized by long and complex value chains in which producers are generally stuck at the entry level.
Language:English
Score: 753722.27 - https://www.un.org/pga/73/wp-c...-April-29-Concept-Note-TSF.pdf
Data Source: un
Deliverables: (a) A new edition of the REN21 ECE Renewable Energy Status Report (dependent on extra-budgetary funding); (b) A report on status of implementation of renewable energy action plans; (c) Policy and business recommendations through the organization or participation in workshops on selected local energy issues, mainly raised by the outcome of dedicated Renewable Energy Hard Talks, bringing together key stakeholders from public and private sectors. (...) Deliverables: (a) Ad hoc workshop or discussion within the annual session of the Group of Experts; written contributions on adaptive and cross-cutting policy options; (b) Organize a webinar or discussion within the annual session of the Group of Experts on IRENA’s forthcoming report on cost-effective renewable energy options for selected countries in the ECE region (dependent on budget availability); (c) Present information on policies, experiences and good practices in countries of the region during four workshops and seminars organized by relevant organizations (dependent on both regular and extra-budgetary funding for travel costs); (d) Organize Hard Talks and/ or follow-up activities in ECE countries on a demand-driven basis with the participation of key stakeholders, enhancing cross-sectoral synergies and strengthening cooperation within the UN system and with other international actors (dependent on extra-budgetary funding); (e) Promote capacity building activities on renewable energy project development and disseminate relevant material and information on projects at workshop and/ or matchmaking event(s) among developers, investors and financial institutions. (...) Deliverables: (a) Documentation and/ or case studies that supports UNFC to be applied to renewable energy sources; (b) Dissemination of good practices and policies of renewable energies with the consideration of all kind of gases within future energy systems in countries of the region; (c) Documentation on water-energy nexus challenges and possible guidelines for renewable energy development (dependent on budget availability).
Language:English
Score: 753532.4 - https://unece.org/DAM/energy/s...19/ECE_ENERGY_2019_9_Final.pdf
Data Source: un
For Dr De Schutter, the issue was farmers depending too much on markets. For Mr Lamy, better regulated trade is a solution to help feed the hungry. (...) Dr De Schutter’s case The UN rapporteur’s focus was on the dangers of trade, taking care that countries are not too dependent on exporting a limited number of products, and ensuring government have the freedom to choose their policies without “these being dictated by the international trade mechanism”. (...) Overall, Dr De Schutter described trade as a destabilizing force that creates vulnerability for countries and communities that are too dependent. International trade and WTO agreements bind countries’ hands, preventing them from dealing with the problem or forcing them to rely on the “wager” that trade will be good for them. “ ‘Excessive dependence’ is a deliberately vague term because it means that states have to make choices following democratic procedures in order to decide on their agricultural policy, what their food policy is to be, without such policies being determined by their dependence on international trade, either because they want to earn money from exports by specializing in certain export crops or because they have become dependent on international markets,” he said.  
Language:English
Score: 753493.95 - https://www.wto.org/english/fo...bates_e/debate14_summary_e.htm
Data Source: un
From the established pool of income and assets, the Registry calculates the applicant’s disposable means, according to Sections 5-8 of this policy. From the disposable means, the Registry deducts the estimated living expenses of the applicant’s family and dependents during the estimated period in which the applicant will require representation before the International Tribunal. (...) The index includes accommodation and living costs; EE represents additional monthly living expenses of the applicant, his spouse, his dependents and the persons with whom he habitually resides. These additional living expenses are expenses that are particular to the applicant, his spouse, his dependents and the persons with whom he habitually resides and are accordingly not foreseen in the AE index.
Language:English
Score: 752565.04 - https://www.icty.org/x/cases/oric/tdec/en/040618app.htm
Data Source: un
Matching estimators compare how effects differ for resource-dependent districts relative to observationally similar non-resource-dependent districts. (...) In DD estimations there is a potential problem of serial correlation, above all, in relation to the dependent variable, which can be correlated serially in positive way, and where the treatment variable, or the exposure to some policy, changes very little within the treatment unit over time. (...) A better understanding of these NRR decentralization effects is, hence, essential for adopting policy measures that support decentralization performance, particularly in resource-dependent jurisdictions. 19 Bibliography Aragón, F.
Language:English
Score: 752556.05 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...ents/files/12._neyra_vjifl.pdf
Data Source: un