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Improved direct mode (selection of spatial/temporal candidate without signaling, SAD competition at decoder and encoder) MB-adaptive WP Block-based pyramid prediction 16x16 DCT Directional transforms Enhanced BALF (two Wiener filters adaptively switched) Modified de-blocking filter C Software written from scratch, multiple OS JCTVC-A108 (JVC) Geometry transform prediction of MVs Decoder-side block boundary decision Refinement of MC by decoder-side estimation AC ramp prediction using DC and boundary QALF from KTA JM16.2 JCTVC-A109 (MediaTek) MB Size extension (up to 64x64) Advanced adaptive IF Decoder-side MV derivation with various adaptations Enhanced spatio-temporal direct mode Scaled motion vector prediction Enhanced intra prediction: Overlapped block, 9 modes for 16x16, context-dependent mode DCT up to 32x32 Multiple model KLT for Intra Adaptive LF: QALF with multiple filters and more granular switching Adaptive scan of transform coefficients for intra KTA2.6 JCTVC-A110 (LG) MB Size extension (up to 64x64) Inter-Intra mixed mode, partial skip Scaled MV predictor Template-based illumination compensation Modified motion vector competition Intra prediction for 32x32 Chroma-from-luma intra prediction New MDDT kernels Adaptive de-blocking filter based on Wiener filter, QALF JM 11 JCTVC-A111 (Huawei & Hisilicon) Flexible macroblock partitions: H/V/D at arbitrary positions Template-based motion derivation Template-based inter-frame DC offset Second order prediction for residual signal with directional characteristics Resample-based intra prediction Line-based intra prediction RD optimized transform for intra prediction: Separable KLT Directional transform (non-separable KLT) to the residual signal of MC prediction Adaptive frequency-weighted quantization KTA 2.6 JCTVC-A112 (RWTH Aachen) Decoder-side motion vector derivation, P and B pictures, extended to larger MB sizes, candidate-based fast search KTA2.6 JCTVC-A113 (SK telecom, Sejong Univ. & Sungkyunkwan Univ.) 32x32 MB and new partitions Tree coding for partition type Adaptive motion vector precision (down to 1/8 pel) Intra prediction of larger blocks, special coding of modes Up to 16x16 DCT MDDT QALF+HPF Modified JM 15.2 JCTVC-A114 (France Telecom, NTT, NTT DOCOMO, Panasonic, & Technicolor) Basic structure: superblocks 8x8 1/8 pel precision for motion Basic motion unit 8x8, boundary can be diplaced 2 or 4 pixels MV comp. in P 2 interpolation modes: fixed and Wiener Zero-tree coding of (differential) motion information, displacement offset etc. (...) Load balancing v2v codes as entropy coding engine. v2v codes in serial modes using primary and secondary Huffman codes KTA 2.6r1 JCTVC-A121 (Qualcomm) Extended MB Geometric partitioning Adaptive motion vector resolution (1/4 and 1/8) Switched interpolation filters with offset: 6-tap, 8-tap and 4x4 non-separable P direct mode Scaled MV prediction MDDT 16x16 transform (LLM factorization) In-loop filter (modified, merge of QALF and post filter, up to 16 filters, diamond-shaped filters to reduce overhead and complexity) KTA optimized (faster) JCTVC-A122 (NHK & Mitsubishi) MB Size extension (up to 64x64) Hierarchical motion partitions Adaptive direct vector derivation Spatio-temporal adaptive PMV decision Non-rectangular motion partition shapes New 16x16 intra prediction modes: Global plane (surface) prediction, iterative adjustment prediction 16x16 DCT Discrete Sine Transform (DST) Enhanced BALF (two Wiener filters adaptively switched) Modified de-blocking filter C Software from scratch, multiple OS (same platform as A107) JCTVC-A123 (NCTU) Parametric OBMC KTA 2.4r1 JCTVC-A124 Samsung & BBC Flexible block structure (coding unit, prediction unit, transform unit), quad-tree based Asymmetric partitions such as 1/4:3/4 Signaling of motion pred. choice DCT based interpolation filter High accuracy motion (1/12 bit refinement) New intra pred methods: Arbitrary direction intra prediction, color comp. corr. pred. for intra, pixel-based template matching, combined intra prediction (ADI with local mean) Integer DCT NxN (up to 64x64 used) Rotational DCT “Logical transform” with a wavelet-like tree for larger blocks IBDI Loop filtering: de-blocking, extreme correction, band correction, content adaptive dynamic range, ALF re-using CU partitions Syntax-based CABAC, coding engine similar to JPEG annex D Adaptive coefficient scanning (hor/vert/diag) C/C++ built from scratch (not object oriented) JCTVC-A125 (BBC & Samsung; A124 without some or slightly modified tools) No asymm. Partitions No pixel-based template matching IBDI De-blocking Coding Unit - Based ALF Same as A124 JCTVC-A126 (Renesas) Intra vector prediction by block matching Intra repetitive pixel replenishment based on template matching KTA JCTVC-A127 (ETRI) Extended MB size 32x32 Intra prediction mode 32x32, intra prediction 16x16 with directions Recursive intra prediction, pre-filter at boundaries before prediction, post filter after prediction Up to 32x32 MDDT Simplified deblocking filter, only boundary pixels Enhanced QALF KTA2.3 Page: 10 Date Saved: 2010-04-23
Language:English
Score: 692444.1 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...10_04_A_Dresden/JCTVC-A203.doc
Data Source: un
Introduction to H.264 Intra prediction H.264 FRExt uses several types of spatial predictions such as the 16 ´ 16, 8 ´ 8, 4 ´ 4 Green blocks, 16 ´ 16 Red block and 16 ´ 16 Blue block predictions. (...) The 16 ´ 16 block prediction makes use of four different prediction methods, viz. the vertical, horizontal, DC and planar modes. (...) Each prediction direction uses the previously-decoded block boundary pixels to predict the pixels in the 4 ´ 4 block.
Language:English
Score: 691810.64 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...te/2005_07_Poznan/JVT-P016.doc
Data Source: un
Mode 0 is ‘DC-prediction’ (see below). The other modes represent directions of predictions as indicated below. 3.5.1 Mode 0: DC prediction Generally all pixels are predicted by (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)//8. (...) A block may therefore always be predicted in this mode. 3.5.2 Mode 1: This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (A+B)/2 e is predicted by B b,i are predicted by (B+C)/2 f,m are predicted by C c,j are predicted by (C+D)/2 d,g,h,k,l,n,o,p are predicted by D 3.5.3 Mode 2: Vertical prediction If A,B,C,D are inside the picture, a,e,i,m are predicted by A, b,f,j,n by B etc. 3.5.4 Mode 3: Diagonal prediction This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I are inside the picture. This is a 'diagonal' prediction. m is predicted by: (H+2G+F)//4 i,n are predicted by (G+2F+E)//4 e,j,o are predicted by (F+2E+I)//4 a,f,k,p are predicted by (E+2I+A)//4 b,g,l are predicted by (I+2A+B)//4 c,h are predicted by (A+2B+C)//4 d is predicted by (B+2C+D)//4 3.5.5 Mode 4:Horizontal prediction If E,F,G,H are inside the picture, a,b,c,d are predicted by E, e,f,g,h by F etc. 3.5.6 Mode 5: This mode is used only if all E,F,G,H are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (E+F)/2 b is predicted by F c,e are predicted by (F+G)/2 f,d are predicted by G i,g are predicted by (G+H)/2 h,j,k,l,m,n,o,p are predicted by H 3.5.7 Prediction of chroma blocks For chroma prediction there is only one mode.
Language:English
Score: 691549.3 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...o-site/0104_Aus/VCEG-M81d0.doc
Data Source: un
Mode 0 is ‘DC-prediction’ (see below). The other modes represent directions of predictions as indicated below. 3.5.1 Mode 0: DC prediction Generally all pixels are predicted by (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)//8. (...) A block may therefore always be predicted in this mode. 3.5.2 Mode 1: This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (A+B)/2 e is predicted by B b,i are predicted by (B+C)/2 f,m are predicted by C c,j are predicted by (C+D)/2 d,g,h,k,l,n,o,p are predicted by D 3.5.3 Mode 2: Vertical prediction If A,B,C,D are inside the picture, a,e,i,m are predicted by A, b,f,j,n by B etc. 3.5.4 Mode 3: Diagonal prediction This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I are inside the picture. This is a 'diagonal' prediction. m is predicted by: (H+2G+F)//4 i,n are predicted by (G+2F+E)//4 e,j,o are predicted by (F+2E+I)//4 a,f,k,p are predicted by (E+2I+A)//4 b,g,l are predicted by (I+2A+B)//4 c,h are predicted by (A+2B+C)//4 d is predicted by (B+2C+D)//4 3.5.5 Mode 4:Horizontal prediction If E,F,G,H are inside the picture, a,b,c,d are predicted by E, e,f,g,h by F etc. 3.5.6 Mode 5: This mode is used only if all E,F,G,H are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (E+F)/2 b is predicted by F c,e are predicted by (F+G)/2 f,d are predicted by G i,g are predicted by (G+H)/2 h,j,k,l,m,n,o,p are predicted by H 3.5.7 Prediction of chroma blocks For chroma prediction there is only one mode.
Language:English
Score: 691549.3 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...site/h26L/older_tml/tml7d0.doc
Data Source: un
(Temporally) scaled MV prediction 2.1.4. Other prediction methods 2.2. Motion partitioning 2.2.1. (...) Combined spatial/temporal prediction 4. Intra prediction 4.1. Directional prediction 4.1.1. (...) Pre and post filtering 4.2. Plane prediction 4.3. Pyramid/interleaved prediction 4.4.
Language:English
Score: 691507.23 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...10_04_A_Dresden/JCTVC-A202.doc
Data Source: un
Mode 0 is ‘DC-prediction’ (see below). The other modes represent directions of predictions as indicated below. 2.4.1 Mode 0: DC prediction Generally all pixels are predicted by (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)//8. (...) A block may therefore always be predicted in this mode. 2.4.2 Mode 1: This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (A+B)/2 e is predicted by B b,i are predicted by (B+C)/2 f,m are predicted by C c,j are predicted by (C+D)/2 d,g,h,k,l,n,o,p are predicted by D 2.4.3 Mode 2: Vertical prediction If A,B,C,D are inside the picture, a,e,i,m are predicted by A, b,f,j,n by B etc. 2.4.4 Mode 3: Diagonal prediction This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I are inside the picture. This is a 'diagonal' prediction. m is predicted by: (H+2G+F)//4 i,n are predicted by (G+2F+E)//4 e,j,o are predicted by (F+2E+I)//4 a,f,k,p are predicted by (E+2I+A)//4 b,g,l are predicted by (I+2A+B)//4 c,h are predicted by (A+2B+C)//4 d is predicted by (B+2C+D)//4 2.4.5 Mode 4:Horizontal prediction If E,F,G,H are inside the picture, a,b,c,d are predicted by E, e,f,g,h by F etc. 2.4.6 Mode 5: This mode is used only if all E,F,G,H are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (E+F)/2 b is predicted by F c,e are predicted by (F+G)/2 f,d are predicted by G i,g are predicted by (G+H)/2 h,j,k,l,m,n,o,p are predicted by H 2.4.7 Prediction of chroma blocks For chroma prediction there is only one mode.
Language:English
Score: 691421.88 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...o-site/0101_Eib/VCEG-L45d0.doc
Data Source: un
Partly because of these advances, the needs of the users of weather services have simultaneously diversified to encompass “environmental” prediction products such as air quality and hydrological predictions. (...) Two closely related initiatives, the WWRP Polar Prediction Project and the WCRP Polar Climate Predictability Initiative (PCPI), aim to contribute to GIPPS. (...) The Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project Forecasting for the sub-seasonal time range has so far received much less attention than medium range and seasonal prediction as it has long been considered a “predictability desert.”
Language:English
Score: 690506.45 - https://public.wmo.int/en/reso...rch-programme-10-year-vision-0
Data Source: un
Mode 0 is ‘DC-prediction’ (see below). The other modes represent directions of predictions as indicated below. 3.4.1 Mode 0: DC prediction Generally all pixels are predicted by (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)//8. (...) A block may therefore always be predicted in this mode. 3.4.2 Mode 1: This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (A+B)/2 e is predicted by B b,i are predicted by (B+C)/2 f,m are predicted by C c,j are predicted by (C+D)/2 d,g,h,k,l,n,o,p are predicted by D 3.4.3 Mode 2: Vertical prediction If A,B,C,D are inside the picture, a,e,i,m are predicted by A, b,f,j,n by B etc. 3.4.4 Mode 3: Diagonal prediction This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I are inside the picture. This is a 'diagonal' prediction. m is predicted by: (H+2G+F)//4 i,n are predicted by (G+2F+E)//4 e,j,o are predicted by (F+2E+I)//4 a,f,k,p are predicted by (E+2I+A)//4 b,g,l are predicted by (I+2A+B)//4 c,h are predicted by (A+2B+C)//4 d is predicted by (B+2C+D)//4 3.4.5 Mode 4:Horizontal prediction If E,F,G,H are inside the picture, a,b,c,d are predicted by E, e,f,g,h by F etc. 3.4.6 Mode 5: This mode is used only if all E,F,G,H are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (E+F)/2 b is predicted by F c,e are predicted by (F+G)/2 f,d are predicted by G i,g are predicted by (G+H)/2 h,j,k,l,m,n,o,p are predicted by H 3.4.7 Prediction of chroma blocks For chroma prediction there is only one mode.
Language:English
Score: 690495.26 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...deo-site/0008_Por/q15k59d1.doc
Data Source: un
Mode 0 is ‘DC-prediction’ (see below). The other modes represent directions of predictions as indicated below. 3.4.1 Mode 0: DC prediction Generally all pixels are predicted by (A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H)//8. (...) A block may therefore always be predicted in this mode. 3.4.2 Mode 1: This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (A+B)/2 e is predicted by B b,i are predicted by (B+C)/2 f,m are predicted by C c,j are predicted by (C+D)/2 d,g,h,k,l,n,o,p are predicted by D 3.4.3 Mode 2: Vertical prediction If A,B,C,D are inside the picture, a,e,i,m are predicted by A, b,f,j,n by B etc. 3.4.4 Mode 3: Diagonal prediction This mode is used only if all A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I are inside the picture. This is a 'diagonal' prediction. m is predicted by: (H+2G+F)//4 i,n are predicted by (G+2F+E)//4 e,j,o are predicted by (F+2E+I)//4 a,f,k,p are predicted by (E+2I+A)//4 b,g,l are predicted by (I+2A+B)//4 c,h are predicted by (A+2B+C)//4 d is predicted by (B+2C+D)//4 3.4.5 Mode 4:Horizontal prediction If E,F,G,H are inside the picture, a,b,c,d are predicted by E, e,f,g,h by F etc. 3.4.6 Mode 5: This mode is used only if all E,F,G,H are inside the picture. a is predicted by: (E+F)/2 b is predicted by F c,e are predicted by (F+G)/2 f,d are predicted by G i,g are predicted by (G+H)/2 h,j,k,l,m,n,o,p are predicted by H 3.4.7 Prediction of chroma blocks For chroma prediction there is only one mode.
Language:English
Score: 690495.26 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...site/h26L/older_tml/tml5d1.doc
Data Source: un
The MBTYPE field indicates whether there is direct-mode prediction, forward prediction, backward prediction, or bi-directional prediction. (...) Backward prediction means prediction from the same macroblock in the next lower layer (zero motion vector). (...) Forward prediction denotes prediction from the corresponding macroblock in the next lower layer (zero motion vector).
Language:English
Score: 690336 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...deo-site/9702_Nic/lbc97018.doc
Data Source: un