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Block Hectares - This number refers to the total hectares to be treated in the block. Canopy Cover - Choices include: <50% 51-75% >75% Tree Composition - Choices include: >50% preferred species <50% preferred species Ownership - This variable will be tracked for record keeping purposes only. (...) Survey Type (optional) - Choices include: Aerial Ground Photo Block Boundaries (optional) - Choices include: Distinct Indistinct If one or all sides of the block can be distinguished from adjacent non-treated areas, mark Distinct. (...) Presence of Fungus or Virus - Choices include: None Limited Widespread Unknown Comments - Explain “other” if marked in any of the previous sections.
Language:English
Score: 1215499.7 - https://www.fao.org/forestry/6...7d1c04314b4b5c324789bd26eb.pdf
Data Source: un
Strengthening Transparency Disciplines in Trade (2013) Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (2014ff.) and The Trade Effect of Regulatory Differences (2016) Voluntary Environmental and Organic Standards in Agriculture (2015) … and many others  various angles to better understand NTMs and their trade effects OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate 2 Context (1): IRC in OECD work OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate 3 Context (2): Dimensions of an IRC Framework Regulatory areas Product & production requirements (“rules”) Conformity assessment procedures (CAPs) Regulatory status Different preferences for new regulations Heterogeneity in regulatory stock Co- operative actions Upstream cross- border coherence Convergence Equivalence, mutual recognition Confidence building Dissemination of information to stakeholders Trade cost reductions Specification costs Conformity assessment costs Information costs Trade cost effects Fixed vs variable costs Impact on large firms vs SMEs Intensive vs extensive margin Choice vs price effects OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate 4 Context (3): Tackling conformity assessment costs Regulatory areas Product & production requirements (“rules”) Conformity assessment procedures (CAPs) Regulatory status Different preferences for new regulations Heterogeneity in regulatory stock Co- operative actions Upstream cross- border coherence Convergence Equivalence, mutual recognition Confidence building Dissemination of information to stakeholders Trade cost reductions Specification costs Conformity assessment costs Information costs Trade cost effects Fixed vs variable costs Impact on large firms vs SMEs Intensive vs extensive margin Choice vs price effects • Methods for testing, examination and inspection, incl. sample sizes, documentation • Purpose: provide objective measurement of product characteristics • Significance of (scientific) evidence – Less related to countries’ “preferences” – Analogous to “horizontal” rules with limited domestic costs due to deviation • Harmonisation or mutual recognition – Potentially develop “conversion” of results OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate 6 Conformity assessment procedures (CAPs) a) CA-methods (the WHAT) • Conformity assessment systems as a risk management tool • Domestic costs due to reduced confidence, more market surveillance etc. – Expected damage from non-compliant imports – “Perceived certainty-equivalent” damage, function of • Perceived probability of non-compliance • Estimated damage of non-compliant products • Risk aversion • Increasing trade costs – More restricted choice for suppliers – Shipment of samples to importing country for testing etc. – Possible duplication of testing • Balance trade costs and non-compliance risk – markets with low potential damage: allow for flexible and least-cost CAPs – in markets with high potential damage: maintain control – Reduce damage potential through co-ordinated market surveillance and information exchange OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate 7 Conformity assessment procedures (CAPs) b) CA-systems (the WHO) OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate 8 Net benefits of switching to less restrictive conformity assessment systems Ts/ps Tc Tt Tc/pc Tt/pt Ts Accepting test results from exporting country, but require certificates by importing country's body Accepting certificates (and test results) from exporting country Accepting SDoCs Wig = Ti - pi*Dg Accept SDoCs Accept certificates Accept test results Least-Acceptance Dg • Does not require changes in regulations – Addresses regulatory stock • Reduces conformity assessment costs in GVCs – Streamlining the administrative process for market admission • Requires establishing conformity assessment infrastructure – Shift costs to market surveillance, enforcement?
Language:English
Score: 1214592.3 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...sess_280317_e/oecdvonlampe.pdf
Data Source: un
As a developing country that is confronted with a multiplicity of challenges, we are happy that WTSA-08 will give focused attention to, amongst others, several issues that we are grappling with such as: • Accessibility - to achieve equitable communication for everyone • Cybersecurity - to combat spam and cyber crime and build confidence and a sense of security in the use of ICTs • Connecting the unconnected by 2015 - thus bridging the digital divide • Climate change - thus promoting the use of ICTs to combat climate change The Department of Communications Employer of choice in the Public Service and preferred place in the ICT sector for intellectual stimulation, leadership growth and national contribution 2 • Saving lives - by greater use of ICTs for disaster management • Networks of the future - deploying Next Generation Networks, especially in developing countries WTSA approves standards, based on work performed in the ITU-T Study Groups over the previous 4 years. (...) The Department of Communications Employer of choice in the Public Service and preferred place in the ICT sector for intellectual stimulation, leadership growth and national contribution 3 We are extremely happy that over 800 delegates from the 119 ITU Member States and the ITU-T Sector Members have registered to attend this WTSA-08. (...) The Department of Communications Employer of choice in the Public Service and preferred place in the ICT sector for intellectual stimulation, leadership growth and national contribution 4
Language:English
Score: 1214592.3 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../26/07/T26070000010000PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un
However, other paragraphs of the draft General Comment as framed seem to preclude choices that individuals may wish to make. In paragraph 28, the role of shared residential settings is limited to transitional, temporary residences. This rules out the possibility of a shared residential setting being a permanent residence of choice for an older person with disabilities, and being treated as such under the law in line with the right to housing. (...) The current draft GC 5 fails to adequately address the rights of older persons with disabilities to live independently and within the community in the place of residence of their choice. Failure to do so risks both limiting the rights of older persons with disabilities and excluding the particular circumstances and choices of older persons with disabilities from the implementation of the Article 19 by State Parties and the monitoring thereof by the CRPD Committee.
Language:English
Score: 1207568.7 - https://www.ohchr.org/sites/de...submission_GC_5_June_2017.docx
Data Source: un
Balanced demand of appropriate products & timely uptake of new innovative products (Partially Met): Data and experience from HICs have shaped product preferences so far, while LMICs preferences are not yet fully understood. (...) Portfolio diversity is likely to continue based on suppliers with plausible reasons to stay in the medium- to long-term (e.g. mRNA preferred, donor-funded suppliers, domestic market suppliers and others). (...) Targeted innovations and preferred product characteristics enter the market and are scaled up to meet public health needs, across both routine and new outbreak scenarios www.gavi.org THANK YOU
Language:English
Score: 1206002.9 - https://www.unicef.org/supply/...dmap-margarit-charmanta___.pdf
Data Source: un
To change your preferences, do as follows: Go to the list environment homepage and log on . In the form displayed on top of the left column, click on the 'Your preferences' link . Change your preferences . Click on 'Submit' for every option you change. You can change: your name ; if you subscribe to a list from the mailing list server web interface, the 'Name' field will automatically be filled in the members list; the language in which the Sympa web interface is displayed (you can change language on every page of the web interface; your choice will remain even though you change the interface language on another page than the 'Preferences' page); the lifetime of the cookie placed on your computer by Sympa ('Connection expiration period').
Language:English
Score: 1205377.5 - https://www.itu.int/ml/lists/help/user-pref.html
Data Source: un
This dichotomy is what set UNDP Mozambique Accelerator Lab out to explore questions around energy choices, preferences, and adoption. We focused on uptake of LPG. (...) In the choice exercise (exercise 3) this appeared especially strong. (...) Several participants justified their choice by reasoning that they were actually minimizing health care costs .
Language:English
Score: 1201835.9 - https://www.undp.org/mozambiqu...pg-among-low-income-households
Data Source: un
People might lack information what is healthy, the available accessible food does not correspond to personal preferences, or people are ‘nudged’ into food choices that are not good for them and satisfy hedonistic needs or demands induced out of interests from other food system actors, thus replacing healthier food choices or food choices that correspond better to their un-influenced preferences. (...) We are not in favor of the expression of ‘free choices’ which has a (neo)liberal connotation that hides that being well-informed and free of manipulations is the precondition of real ‘free choice’.   (...) Agency: Having the capacity to make food choices that respect the personal self-determined and well-informed preferences on what they eat and how that food is produced, processed, distributed and prepared.  
Language:English
Score: 1200113.1 - https://www.fao.org/fsnforum/zh-hans/member/kaz-fujiwara
Data Source: un
People might lack information what is healthy, the available accessible food does not correspond to personal preferences, or people are ‘nudged’ into food choices that are not good for them and satisfy hedonistic needs or demands induced out of interests from other food system actors, thus replacing healthier food choices or food choices that correspond better to their un-influenced preferences. (...) We are not in favor of the expression of ‘free choices’ which has a (neo)liberal connotation that hides that being well-informed and free of manipulations is the precondition of real ‘free choice’.   (...) Agency: Having the capacity to make food choices that respect the personal self-determined and well-informed preferences on what they eat and how that food is produced, processed, distributed and prepared.  
Language:English
Score: 1200113.1 - https://www.fao.org/fsnforum/i...hp/zh-hans/member/kaz-fujiwara
Data Source: un
However, due to the special 3 Our model abstracts from the choice between technology licensing and direct entry (i.e. the internalization issue). (...) Section 4 analyzes the foreign firm’s choice of the mode of entry (acquisition vs. de novo entry) into the host country. (...) Till section 6 (where we examine policy restrictions), we focus on the choice between full acquisition and de novo entry.
Language:English
Score: 1195589.6 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...%20Network%20Externalities.pdf
Data Source: un