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To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that: (a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed; (b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees: (i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law; (ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence; (iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians; (iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality; (v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law; 12 (vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used; (vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings. 3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular: (a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law; (b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected. 4.
Language:English
Score: 342827.44 - https://www.un.org/en/genocide...atrocity-crimes/Doc.20_crc.pdf
Data Source: un
Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law. 3.
Language:English
Score: 222599.22 - https://www.un.org/en/genocide...trocity-crimes/Doc.4_iccpr.pdf
Data Source: un
All States should take any lawful and appropriate action available to them to bring to justice all persons presumed responsible for an act of enforced disappearance, who are found to be within their jurisdiction or under their control. (...) No privileges, immunities or special exemptions shall be admitted in such trials, without prejudice to the provisions contained in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. 4. The persons presumed responsible for such acts shall be guaranteed fair treatment in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other relevant international agreements in force at all stages of the investigation and eventual prosecution and trial.
Language:English
Score: 590037.6 - https://www.un.org/en/genocide...20Enforced%20Disappearance.pdf
Data Source: un
Any theory which involves the claim that racial or ethnic groups are inherently superior or inferior, thus implying that some would be entitled to dominate or eliminate others, presumed to be inferior, or which bases value judgements on racial differentiation, has no scientific foundation and is contrary to the moral and ethical principles of humanity. 2.
Language:English
Score: 407244.97 - https://www.un.org/en/genocide...20and%20racial%20prejudice.pdf
Data Source: un
untitled III GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WAR OF 12 AUGUST 1949 PART I General Provisions Article 1 Respect for the Convention
Language:English
Score: 70080.66 - https://www.un.org/en/genocide...ty-crimes/Doc.32_GC-III-EN.pdf
Data Source: un
In particular: a) the procedure shall provide for an accused to be informed without delay of the particulars of the offence alleged against him and shall afford the accused before and during his trial all necessary rights and means of defence; b) no one shall be convicted of an offence except on the basis of individual penal responsibility; c) no one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under the law, at the time when it was committed; nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed; if, after the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit thereby; d) anyone charged with an offence is presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law; e) anyone charged with an offence shall have the right to be tried in his presence; f) no one shall be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt. 3.
Language:English
Score: 326096.1 - https://www.un.org/en/genocide...ity-crimes/Doc.35_AP-II-EN.pdf
Data Source: un
untitled V PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS OF 12 AUGUST 1949, AND RELATING TO THE PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS (PROTOCOL I), OF 8 JUNE 1977 Preamble
Language:English
Score: 206782.9 - https://www.un.org/en/genocide...city-crimes/Doc.34_AP-I-EN.pdf
Data Source: un
Team members were evaluating the MONUSCO Force’s ability to deliver on mandated tasks that include civilian protection, neutralizing armed groups, and providing a secure environment for those tacking the ongoing Ebola outbreak in the region.   They found that presumed ADF combatants killed more than 260 people, mostly women and children, during November and December 2019 alone.
Language:English
Score: 573846.63 - https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/01/1055741
Data Source: un
. ** Drylands The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) today released a report which said that 1 billion hectares of land, which are “presumed drylands”, are under threat from overgrazing, deforestation and climate change.  The report, which was launched at the UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Abidjan, says that all these threats lead to land degradation and desertification, reduce productivity, and threaten the food security, livelihoods and well-being of presumed dryland populations.  Presumed drylands are areas with dryland features and seasonal water shortages, but with a higher aridity index than drylands. 
Language:English
Score: 662633.4 - https://www.un.org/press/en/2022/db220513.doc.htm
Data Source: un