REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT :MISSION TO PORTUGAL : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Launched in 1993, the programme provided financial support for construction,
acquisition and rental. Grants were received by municipalities, municipal public enterprises,
private social security institutions and housing or construction cooperatives. (...) Under the programme, private
landlords receive a rental supplement for a period of up to three years, assigned monthly.
36. (...) In addition, only a few neighbourhoods
in the historic centres of Lisbon and Porto have more than 10 per cent of their housing stock
devoted to short-term accommodation.
64. Short-term rentals, especially when they become the primary form of occupation of
specific neighbourhoods, can weaken community networks and the social fabric of a city,
which in turn undermines the promotion of long-term rental as an essential tenure system
for local residents.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT, ON HER MISSION TO CHILE :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Houses were built
by the private sector, while the subsidy was documented by a Government certificate. (...) In both cases, the
subsidy goes directly to the builder. Private builders are contracted to build the units. (...) To maximize profits, private sector builders choose to buy the cheapest land on
which to build.
VISIT TO NEW ZEALAND - REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT
In its Statement of Strategic Intentions for 2019–2023, the Ministry of Housing and
Urban Development does not shy away from the challenges New Zealand is facing, stating
that “the poor performance of New Zealand’s housing market is well recognized” and noting
that “much of New Zealand’s existing housing stock is old, cold and damp, particularly in
the private rental market. Poor quality housing has ongoing impacts on physical and mental
health for families and individuals.”8
23. (...) Many of these people settled far from the city centre, in the north and
south of Christchurch, meaning that people whose property had been in the red zones lost not
only their houses, but also their communities. Tenants living in rental accommodation were
particularly affected, having received no support to relocate and given that very few
affordable and accessible rentals were available in the city. (...) Property owners would
repeatedly choose people of European descent over people from other racial groups, making
access to private rental accommodation very difficult. Between January 2016 and December
2019, the New Zealand Human Rights Commission received 256 complaints regarding
discrimination in the area of land, housing and accommodation.
VISIT TO THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT
Under the Housing Benefits Act, people living in private rental accommodation can receive
a monthly cash subsidy calculated on the basis of household income, rent level, family size
28. (...) If a prospective tenant has a low income and inadequate savings
or no family members who can provide a loan, only the monthly private rental market is
accessible, which is more expensive and provides even less protection for tenants.
40. (...) In December 2017, the Government established a plan for
the promotion of rental housing registration to encourage, through tax benefits, multi-unit
homeowners to voluntarily register their homes as private rentals.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT, ON HER MISSION TO INDIA :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
state legislature and privatized public utility companies,12 as well as private institutions and
non-governmental organizations that receive substantial funds from the Government. (...) Urban local
bodies are expected to match the amount they receive, including by raising their own funds
from public-private partnerships, international capital, real estate conglomerates or other
33. (...) A/HRC/34/51/Add.1
forced evictions and enforced migration, safeguarding land and community resources in
scheduled areas and addressing land acquisition, including by private companies.41
53. As it stands, there is no national policy for rural areas beyond policies pertaining to
construction incentives and grants.
NOTE VERBALE DATED 2008/03/13 FROM THE PERMANENT MISSION OF SPAIN TO THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE AT GENEVA ADDRESSED TO THE OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
• Rents: tax incentives and other initiatives have been adopted to stimulate the rental
• Rents and vacant housing units: the above-mentioned measures aimed for the promotion
of owner and tenant rents are expected to result in a large number of vacant units
coming on to the rental market.
is in addition to the direct assistance already provided under the Housing Plan for efforts to
promote public rental housing.
Similarly, in order to increase the supply of rental housing, the conditions that owners of
empty properties must meet in order to rent them have been eased, and assistance is provided in
the amount of €6,000. (...) One of these has been the inclusion
of the property registration number in the personal income tax (IRPF) return for the preceding
year, a measure is intended to increase the number of declarations, chiefly of rentals, by
8.6 per cent (101,000 additional declarations), with declared profits increasing by 9.25 per cent.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT, RAQUEL ROLNIK : ADDENDUM
In this light, it is clear that social and affordable housing is especially scarce, waiting
lists for social rental housing have grown, homelessness rates have increased, and the
private rented sector has expanded to become the only option for many despite its insecure
tenure. In April 2012, facing a waiting list that had grown by 81 per cent (since 1997) in
England, 33 councils noted that they would be compelled to use more private rentals,
particularly to provide emergency accommodation. (...) Between May 2005 and May 2013, private rental prices
increased by 8.4 per cent in England, with the highest increase in London (11.0 per cent)
and the East (8.3 per cent), and the least in the North-East (5.2 per cent) and the East
Midlands (5.3 per cent).73
VISIT TO FRANCE :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT
country has one of the largest social housing stocks, yet social housing is scant for those
most in need, forcing the most vulnerable to turn to the lowest echelons of the private
market, often owned by “slumlords”. Discrimination against marginalized groups is
frequently reported in the private housing market. (...) Social housing rents are 40 per cent lower than on the private market, creating high
demand as private housing has become increasingly unaffordable. (...) In 2017, 9 out of 10 beneficiaries renting on the private market were
paying a monthly rent that was higher than the rent upon which the benefit had been
VISIT TO QATAR : REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF RACISM, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, XENOPHOBIA AND RELATED INTOLERANCE
At the same time, discrimination and inequality are also a
product of Qatari public and private sector policies and practices. The Government must
take urgent steps to dismantle what is in effect a quasi-caste system based on national origin.
(...) Reports the Special Rapporteur received during her visit highlighted the prevalence of
racial and ethnic profiling by police and traffic authorities, and even private security forces
working in public parks and in shopping malls across Doha. (...) National and municipal laws in Doha, including Law No. 15 of 2010 on the
prohibition of workers’ camps within family residential areas, and resolution No. 83 of
2011 of the Minister of Municipalities and Urban Planning determining family residential
areas,54 designate certain zones as “family” zones and prohibit the rental of properties in
these zones to migrant workers, which raises serious concerns of racial discrimination in
housing.55 This designation bars residential rentals by low-income workers, who, du
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT, ON HER MISSION TO CABO VERDE :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
In addition, the lack of a regulatory framework for private leasing can often facilitate tax
evasion for failing to declare rental income, which in turn reduces the country’s income.
(...) A first type is private rental accommodation; a second type, and
possibly the most common for the urban poor, is self-constructed housing units, built
incrementally in informal settlements, often located on land that has not been serviced or
included in the formal urban plans for the municipalities; a third type constitutes homes for
middle to higher income households, although not all have permits or are made of high quality
of materials, and they are usually freehold.
45. (...) A complex web of tenure arrangements exists in these neighbourhoods,
including informal rentals, occupation and conflicting or overlapping land titles, as well as
“clandestine” constructions and homes made from tin.