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Model Life Tables : Lexis Plots | United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs Skip to main navigation Skip to content Welcome to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Population Search HOME COMMISSION THEMES DOCUMENTS EVENTS PUBLICATIONS ABOUT US Publications Current Publications Databases Datasets Data Booklet Manuals Population Facts Newsletter Expert Paper Series Technical Paper Series Maps Archive Extended Model Life Tables : Scatter Plots Back to Extended Model Life Tables                   Analyses of Revised UN Model Life Tables Scatter plots showing relations between different quantities in the revised UN Model Life Tables with superimposed data from 5x5 life tables from Human Mortality Database (www.mortality.org) CD East_100_5g0_45g15_f CD East_100_q0_4q1_m CD North_100_q0_4q1_m CD South_100_q0_4q1_m CD West_100_q0_4q1_m UN Chilean_100_q0_4q1_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_q0_4q1_m UN General_100_q0_4q1_m UN Latin_100_q0_4q1_m UN South_Asian_100_q0_4q1_m CD East_100_q0_4q1_f CD North_100_q0_4q1_f CD South_100_q0_4q1_f CD West_100_q0_4q1_f UN Chilean_100_q0_4q1_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_q0_4q1_f UN General_100_q0_4q1_f UN Latin_100_q0_4q1_f UN South_Asian_100_q0_4q1_f CD East_100_5q0_45q15_m CD North_100_5q0_45q15_m CD South_100_5q0_45q15_m CD West_100_5q0_45q15_m UN Chilean_100_5q0_45q15_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_5q0_45q15_m UN General_100_5q0_45q15_m UN Latin_100_5q0_45q15_m UN South_Asian_100_5q0_45q15_m CD East_100_5q0_45q15_f CD North_100_5q0_45q15_f CD South_100_5q0_45q15_f CD West_100_5q0_45q15_f UN Chilean_100_5q0_45q15_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_5q0_45q15_f UN General_100_5q0_45q15_f UN Latin_100_5q0_45q15_f UN South_Asian_100_5q0_45q15_f CD East_100_e0_e60_m CD North_100_e0_e60_m CD South_100_e0_e60_m CD West_100_e0_e60_m UN Chilean_100_e0_e60_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_e60_m UN General_100_e0_e60_m UN Latin_100_e0_e60_m UN South_Asian_100_e0_e60_m CD East_100_e0_e60_f CD North_100_e0_e60_f CD South_100_e0_e60_f CD West_100_e0_e60_f UN Chilean_100_e0_e60_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_e60_f UN General_100_e0_e60_f UN Latin_100_e0_e60_f UN South_Asian_100_e0_e60_f CD East_100_q0_45q15_m CD North_100_q0_45q15_m CD South_100_q0_45q15_m CD West_100_q0_45q15_m UN Chilean_100_q0_45q15_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_q0_45q15_m UN General_100_q0_45q15_m UN Latin_100_q0_45q15_m UN South_Asian_100_q0_45q15_m CD East_100_q0_45q15_f CD North_100_q0_45q15_f CD South_100_q0_45q15_f CD West_100_q0_45q15_f UN Chilean_100_q0_45q15_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_q0_45q15_f UN General_100_q0_45q15_f UN Latin_100_q0_45q15_f UN South_Asian_100_q0_45q15_f CD East_100_e0_5e0_m CD North_100_e0_5e0_m CD South_100_e0_5e0_m CD West_100_e0_5e0_m UN Chilean_100_e0_5e0_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_5e0_m UN General_100_e0_5e0_m UN Latin_100_e0_5e0_m UN South_Asian_100_e0_5e0_m CD East_100_e0_5e0_f CD North_100_e0_5e0_f CD South_100_e0_5e0_f CD West_100_e0_5e0_f UN Chilean_100_e0_5e0_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_5e0_f UN General_100_e0_5e0_f UN Latin_100_e0_5e0_f UN South_Asian_100_e0_5e0_f CD East_100_e0_45e15_m CD North_100_e0_45e15_m CD South_100_e0_45e15_m CD West_100_e0_45e15_m UN Chilean_100_e0_45e15_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_45e15_m UN General_100_e0_45e15_m UN Latin_100_e0_45e15_m UN South_Asian_100_e0_45e15_m CD East_100_e0_45e15_f CD North_100_e0_45e15_f CD South_100_e0_45e15_f CD West_100_e0_45e15_f UN Chilean_100_e0_45e15_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_45e15_f UN General_100_e0_45e15_f UN Latin_100_e0_45e15_f UN South_Asian_100_e0_45e15_f CD East_100_g0_4g1_m CD North_100_g0_4g1_m CD South_100_g0_4g1_m CD West_100_g0_4g1_m UN Chilean_100_g0_4g1_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_g0_4g1_m UN General_100_g0_4g1_m UN Latin_100_g0_4g1_m UN South_Asian_100_g0_4g1_m CD East_100_g0_4g1_f CD North_100_g0_4g1_f CD South_100_g0_4g1_f CD West_100_g0_4g1_f UN Chilean_100_g0_4g1_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_g0_4g1_f UN General_100_g0_4g1_f UN Latin_100_g0_4g1_f UN South_Asian_100_g0_4g1_f CD East_100_5g0_45g15_m CD North_100_5g0_45g15_m CD South_100_5g0_45g15_m CD West_100_5g0_45g15_m UN Chilean_100_5g0_45g15_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_5g0_45g15_m UN General_100_5g0_45g15_m UN Latin_100_5g0_45g15_m UN South_Asian_100_5g0_45g15_m CD East_100_5g0_45g15_f CD North_100_5g0_45g15_f CD South_100_5g0_45g15_f CD West_100_5g0_45g15_f UN Chilean_100_5g0_45g15_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_5g0_45g15_f UN General_100_5g0_45g15_f UN Latin_100_5g0_45g15_f UN South_Asian_100_5g0_45g15_f CD East_100_g0_45g15_m CD North_100_g0_45g15_m CD South_100_g0_45g15_m CD West_100_g0_45g15_m UN Chilean_100_g0_45g15_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_g0_45g15_m UN General_100_g0_45g15_m UN Latin_100_g0_45g15_m UN South_Asian_100_g0_45g15_m CD East_100_g0_45g15_f CD North_100_g0_45g15_f CD South_100_g0_45g15_f CD West_100_g0_45g15_f UN Chilean_100_g0_45g15_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_g0_45g15_f UN General_100_g0_45g15_f UN Latin_100_g0_45g15_f UN South_Asian_100_g0_45g15_f CD East_100_e0_45g15_m CD North_100_e0_45g15_m CD South_100_e0_45g15_m CD West_100_e0_45g15_m UN Chilean_100_e0_45g15_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_45g15_m UN General_100_e0_45g15_m UN Latin_100_e0_45g15_m UN South_Asian_100_e0_45g15_m CD East_100_e0_45g15_f CD North_100_e0_45g15_f CD South_100_e0_45g15_f CD West_100_e0_45g15_f UN Chilean_100_e0_45g15_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_e0_45g15_f UN General_100_e0_45g15_f UN Latin_100_e0_45g15_f UN South_Asian_100_e0_45g15_f CD East_100_5g0_e0_m CD North_100_5g0_e0_m CD South_100_5g0_e0_m CD West_100_5g0_e0_m UN Chilean_100_5g0_e0_m UN Far_East_Asian_100_5g0_e0_m UN General_100_5g0_e0_m UN Latin_100_5g0_e0_m UN South_Asian_100_5g0_e0_m CD East_100_5g0_e0_f CD North_100_5g0_e0_f CD South_100_5g0_e0_f CD West_100_5g0_e0_f UN Chilean_100_5g0_e0_f UN Far_East_Asian_100_5g0_e0_f UN General_100_5g0_e0_f UN Latin_100_5g0_e0_f UN South_Asian_100_5g0_e0_f Legend: q0 - infant mortality rate 4q1 - age-specific probability of dying from age 1 to age 5 5q0 - age-specific probability of dying from birth to age 5 45q15 - age-specific probability of dying from age 15 to age 60 g0 - logit of infant mortality rate 4g1 - logit of age specific probability of dying from age 1 to 4 5g0 - logit of age-specific probability of dying from birth to age 5 45g15 - logit of age-specific probability of dying from age 15 to age 60 e0 - life expectancy at birth 5e0 - temporary life expectancy between birth and age 5, 5L0 / l0 45e15 - temporary life expectancy between ages 15 and 60, 45L15 / l15 e60 - remaining life expectancy at age 60 Note: UN-MLT 2010 is based on the Coale-Demeny (1983) and UN (1982) model life tables and was extended to cover life expectancy up to 100+ Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2012): United Nations Model Life Tables (UN-MLT 2010).
Language:English
Score: 729519.87 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...ortality/mlt-scatter-plots.asp
Data Source: un
The objective Algorithm 1 Proposed dynamic resource allocation algo‑ is the RSW length control in order to achieve time‑average rithm for real‑time group broadcasting failure probability minimization subject to queue stabil‑ Initialize: ity, that is: 1: ← 0; 2: [ ] ← 0; 1 −1 3: Decision Action: ∀ [ ] ∈ min ∶ lim ∑ ( [ ]), (3) →∞ Dynamic resource allocation algorithm: =0 1 −1 4: while ≤ do // : operation time subject to lim ∑ [ ] < ∞. (4) 5: Observe [ ]; →∞ ∗ =0 6: ← ∞; 7: for [ ] ∈ do By exploring the trade‑off between utility (i.e., failure 8: ← ⋅ [ [ ]] + [ ] ⋅ [ [ ]]; ∗ probability) and latency, the Lyapunov optimization can 9: if ≤ then ∗ be used for optimizing the time‑average utility function 10: ← ; ∗ subject to stability of the queue [13, 14, 15]. (...) Ac‑ 12: end if 2 cording to [16, 17], the upper bound on the conditional 13: end for Lyapunov drift is as follows: 14: end while where is the probability that a transmitting vehicle Δ( [ ]) = [ ( [ + 1]) − ( [ ])| [ ]] and its interfering vehicles ∈ { , } select the iden‑ tical resource. (...) The pseudo‑code of our proposed method is shown in Al‑ The length of RSW effects the failure probability, , be‑ gorithm 1. From (line 1) to (line 2), the method initializes tween the transmitting vehicle and interference vehicles. the parameters.
Language:English
Score: 728678.3 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...2/files/basic-html/page98.html
Data Source: un
. · Table-based interval division similar to the M-coder · Scaled probability estimation similar to the M-coder · Byte-based output in the encoder and byte-based input in the decoder instead the bit-based input and output in the M-coder · Probability estimation Totally 40 LPS probability states are used in the coder and they are realize as a markov chain, which allows a table-driven implementation of probability estimation. We recursively define the following set of representative LPS probability states { } 39 38 2 1 0 , , , , p p p p p P L : 39 , 38 , 3 , 2 , 1 5 . 0 5 . 0 1 8 0 L = ´ = = - i p p p i i So we have 5 . 0 8 ´ = + i i p p . (...) We have the following relationships: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 3 5 . 0 7 & 7 & 7 & 3 - ³ ´ ³ >> - ´ = ´ ´ ´ = ´ >> I MI p I MI I MI i p I MI p I MI p I p I i i i i i i The first property allows us to use much less table storage for the interval subdivision, the second and the third relationships allow us to estimate the position of the most significant bit of the current interval without loop. State Probability Next_State_LPS Next_State_MPS Switch_MPS 0 0.50000 0 1 1 1 0.45850 0 2 0 2 0.42045 1 3 0 3 0.38555 2 4 0 4 0.35355 2 5 0 5 0.32421 3 6 0 6 0.29730 4 7 0 7 0.27263 5 8 0 8 0.25000 5 9 0 9 0.22925 6 10 0 10 0.21022 7 11 0 11 0.19278 8 12 0 12 0.17678 8 13 0 13 0.16210 9 14 0 14 0.14865 10 15 0 15 0.13631 10 16 0 16 0.12500 11 17 0 17 0.11463 11 18 0 18 0.10511 12 19 0 19 0.09639 12 20 0 20 0.08839 13 21 0 21 0.08105 13 22 0 22 0.07433 14 23 0 23 0.06816 14 24 0 24 0.06250 15 25 0 25 0.05731 15 26 0 26 0.05256 15 27 0 27 0.04819 16 28 0 28 0.04419 16 29 0 29 0.04053 16 30 0 30 0.03716 17 31 0 31 0.03408 17 32 0 32 0.03125 17 33 0 33 0.02866 18 34 0 34 0.02628 18 35 0 35 0.02410 18 36 0 36 0.02210 18 37 0 37 0.02026 18 38 0 38 0.01858 19 39 0 39 0.01704 19 39 0 Table 1: Probability states and its transition rules for probability estimation 2 Table-based interval division First the interval I is mapped to a quantized value Q, shown as following: ( ) ( ) ( ) 15 & 4 - >> = I MI I Q . then the updated I is gotten as following (s denotes the current LPS state): ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) R I I else R I LPS if s I MI s Q RTAB R - = = >> >> - << = 3 8 7 & , and update the MI(I) lastly: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - - == << + >> = - ) ( 0 ) ( 1 & 1 3 I MI I MI I if s I MI LPS if Q State 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 132 140 148 156 164 172 180 188 196 204 212 220 228 236 244 252 1 121 128 136 143 150 158 165 172 180 187 194 202 209 216 224 231 2 111 118 124 131 138 145 151 158 165 172 178 185 192 198 205 212 3 102 108 114 120 126 133 139 145 151 157 163 170 176 182 188 194 4 93 99 105 110 116 122 127 133 139 144 150 156 161 167 173 178 5 86 91 96 101 106 112 117 122 127 132 137 143 148 153 158 163 6 78 83 88 93 98 102 107 112 117 121 126 131 136 140 145 150 7 72 76 81 85 89 94 98 103 107 111 116 120 124 129 133 137 Table 2: RTAB(Q, state) only states from 0…7 is stored because others can be gotten by shift 3 Programs Data Structure of the encoder: Unsigned short low=0, range=0xffff; Int pos=7; //MI(range)-8 Int outstanding=0; //used in the renormalization Unsigned char store; //store the byte Encoder: val denotes the input, Pseq denotes the current LPS state Int temp=(Pseq>>3); Int sel=(Pseq&7); Int rLPS=(RTAB[sel][(range>>(pos+4))&15]<<(pos-temp)); Int sLow; If( val== LPS ) { Range=rLPS; pos-=(temp+1); if((range>>pos)<256) pos--; } Else { Range-=rLPS; sLow=low+rLPS; if(sLow>pos)<256) pos--; } If(range<256) { If( ( (low&255)+range ) > 256 ) { If((low>>8)==255 ) Outstanding++; Else { If(outstanding) { outByte(store); outByte(0xff, outstanding-1); } outstanding=1; Store=low>>8; } } Else { If(outstanding) { outByte(store); outByte(0xff, outstanding-1); } outByte(low>>8); outstanding=0; } Low<<=8; Range<<=8; } Update the probability estimation Data structure of the decoder: Unsigned short sub=readByte(2); //read two bytes from the bitstream Unsigned short range=0xffff; Int pos=7; //MI(range)-8 Decoder: val denotes the output, Pseq denotes the current LPS states Int temp=(Pseq>>3); Int sel=(Pseq&7); Int rLPS=(RTAB[sel][(range>>(pos+4))&15]<<(pos-temp)); If( rLPS>sub ) { val=LPS; range=rLPS; pos-=(temp+1); if((range>>pos)<256) pos--; } Else { val=1-LPS; range-=rLPS; sub-=rLPS; If((range>>pos)<256) pos--; } If(range<256) { sub<<=8; range<<=8; sub+=ReadByte(1); //read a byte as the low byte of sub } Update the probability estimation Reference [1].
Language:English
Score: 727019.04 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...eo-site/0601_Ban/VCEG-AB08.doc
Data Source: un
Context modeling provides estimates of conditional probabilities of the coding symbols. Utilizing suitable context models, given inter-symbol redundancy can be exploited by switching between different probability models according to already coded symbols in the neighborhood of the current symbol to encode. 2. (...) This is extremely beneficial for symbol probabilities much greater than 0.5, which often occur with efficient context modeling. (...) The provided models serve as a probability estimation of the related bins. After encoding of each bin, the related model will be updated with the encoded binary symbol.
Language:English
Score: 726775.34 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...eo-site/0105_Por/HHI-CABAC.doc
Data Source: un
En conséquence, les conditions sont favorables à la reproduction dans les régions du Baluchistan et probablement s'améliorent dans le Batinah et le Sharqiya à Oman. (...) BAHREÏN, IRAK, ISRAËL, JORDANIE, KOWEÏT, LIBAN, QATAR, SYRIE et TURQUIE Aucun développement significatif n'est probable. PAKISTAN De petits effectifs d'adultes sont probablement présents dans le Mekran où une reproduction peut être en cours, ainsi que dans les zones de l'intérieur du Baluchistan. (...) Des prospections sont recommandées dans ces régions. 6 INDE Des adultes isolés sont probablement présents et vont se maintenir dans quelques zones du Rajasthan.
Language:English
Score: 725917.04 - https://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/common/ecg/1403/fr/DL150f.pdf
Data Source: un
Since the previous Disease Outbreak News published on 27 May 2022 , 270 new probable cases have been reported to WHO, including from four new countries. (...) There are four additional countries that have reported cases which are pending classification and are not included in the cumulative probable case count. Of the probable cases, 45 (5%) children have required transplants, and 18 (2%) deaths have been reported to WHO.   (...) Figure 1.  Distribution of probable cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children by country, as of 22 June 2022 (n=920)  Table 1.  
Language:English
Score: 725917.04 - https://www.who.int/emergencie...outbreak-news/item/2022-DON394
Data Source: un
One symbol does not dominate the probability and the UVLC code forms a poor model of the distribution near the origin. (...) The merged code is able to match the probability distribution both near the origin and asymptotically. (...) At low quantizers the performance of the UVLC coder is limited by the distribution of codeword probabilities. To achieve coding near the entropy limit in these cases, the structure of the code must be modified to enable it to more nearly match the probability distribution of symbols.
Language:English
Score: 725260.1 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...video-site/0008_Por/q15k45.doc
Data Source: un
Also, the time required to complete the exercise is shorter. 5.6 In probability sampling, the units are selected in such a way that each unit (an outlet or a product) has a known non-zero probability of selection. (...) We then go on to consider some non- probability techniques. Reasons for using non-probability sampling 5.28 No sampling frame is available. (...) So the absence of sampling frames is not a good enough excuse for not applying probability sampling. 5.29 Bias resulting from non-probability sampling is negligible.
Language:English
Score: 724864.65 - https://www.ilo.org/public/eng...d/cpi/corrections/chapter5.pdf
Data Source: un
"This Phoenician city was probably abandoned during the First Punic War (c. 250"^^ . "This Phoenician city was probably abandoned during the First Punic War (c. 250 B.C.) and as a result was not rebuilt by the Romans. (...) "HTML Summary of #21346 \n\nThis Phoenician city was probably abandoned during the First Punic War (c. 250\n\n" .
Language:English
Score: 724276.95 - https://en.unesco.org/mediaban...DFNT/mediabank-eprint-21346.nt
Data Source: un
Discarded case A suspected or probable case for which laboratory testing of lesion fluid, skin specimens or crusts by PCR and/or sequencing is negative for MPXV 3 .  Conversely, a retrospectively detected probable case for which lesion testing can no longer be adequately performed (i.e., after the crusts fall off) and no other specimen is found PCR-positive, would remain classified as a probable case. A suspected or probable case should not be discarded based on a negative result from an oropharyngeal, anal or rectal swab. 1 The person has been exposed to a probable or confirmed monkeypox case.
Language:English
Score: 723830.9 - https://www.who.int/emergencie...xes/monkeypox-outbreak-toolbox
Data Source: un