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Calculation of the probabilities of dying, q(2) and q(5) For each class of previous births, the probabilities of dying are calculated according to equations 7.1 and 7.2 by dividing the entries of column 2 of table 20 by those of column I, as shown below: e(2) = 679 = .1422 q 4,775 "(S) = 620 = .1659 q 3,737 If questions on the survival of the next-to-previous child are also posed, then the following will also be needed: 3. (...) Calculation of the probabilities of dying, q(2) and q(5) The probability of dying by age 2, q( 2), is calculated by dividing the number of women reporting a previous child who has died by the total number of women report- ing a previous child. (...) TABLE 21. ESTIMATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF DYING BY AGE 2, q(2), FOR SOLOMON ISLANDS, USING THE BRASS-MACRAE METHOD Source: W.
Language:English
Score: 694431.54 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...s/estimate/childmort/chap7.pdf
Data Source: un
If d = - D*, what is the probability the project payoff > 0 ? S VK V-K Pr ob ab ili ty f(V ) Pa yo ff : P (V ) 276.0−=−= σ KSd σ Probability = 39% 13 Alleman, Suto, & Rappoport 73 4.4 Meaning of d and D*? (...) S VK K-V Pr ob ab ili ty f(V ) Lo ss F un ct io n L( V) If d = D*, what is the probability the project payoff > 0 ? 276.0=−= σ KSd Probability = 61% Alleman, Suto, & Rappoport 75 4.4 Meaning of d and D*? Tradeoffs of Losses -2 -1 0 1 2 d Lo ss 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Pr ob ab ilit y Probability Payoff > 0 D *-D * Expected Loss Alleman, Suto, & Rappoport 76 4.4 Meaning of d and D*?
Language:English
Score: 694431.54 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...ent/rappoport-presentation.pdf
Data Source: un
The light colored bars titled “Group-Specific Probabilities” show the proportion of the labour force that could work from home. (...) The darker bars entitled “Global Probabilities” show the proportion of workers that could work from home if all countries had the same occupation-specific work from home probabilities. (...) The last column, labelled Global Probabilities, is obtained by multiplying the average of all 23 estimates of home- based work probabilities by each region’s occupational structure.
Language:English
Score: 694324.76 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...s/briefingnote/wcms_743447.pdf
Data Source: un
title of presentation 1 Biosecurity during hunting, carcass disposal and population management Vittorio Guberti FAO Consultant ISPRA, Italy  Reducing the viral load in the environment Reduced number of infected wild boar Reduced probability to indirectly introduce the virus into a pig farm (back yard/non commercial)  Reducing the probability to observe the long-distance geographical spread of the infection; JUMPS BIOSECURITY IN FOREST 2  Aim of hunting: reduce the wild boar population size and density  Aim of biosecurity during hunting: reduce the virus JUMPS;  If hunting will indirectly increase the long distance spread of the virus: hunting is counteractive in respect to ASF eradication/control;  It would be better to leave an infected dead wild boar die in the forest, rather then to take the risk of spreading the virus outside the infected forest. Biosecurity during hunting  Infected wild boar carcasses are actively searched in order to reduce the environmental load of the virus  Infected wild boar carcasses: maintain for long time the virus in the environment (NO GEOGRAPHICAL SPREAD)  The virus, through infected carcasses, overcomes the low density/absence of wild boars during certain periods of time;  Infected carcasses removal reduces the environmental load of the virus => less infected wild boars, less probability to have outbreaks in domestic animals; Reducing the environmental load of the virus: management of infected carcasses 3 Driven hunt with dogs – effective method to reduce the population density but also effective in contaminating hunting tools •Awareness •Economical incentives •Public bodies involvement (Forest workers, Army etc.) (...) All the possible infected material HAS to be confined inside the infected hunting ground Hunting shall minimize the spread of the virus outside the infected forest In general 18 Simulated situation: 10.000 ha 100 wild boar 2% weekly incidence Walking 10.000 steps (1 hour; 6 km) there is 1/18.000 probability to step on an infected scat; 3 persons walking 8 hours: 1/750 probability to step on infected material There is a weak probability, but it should be better assessed knowing n. of persons that go in the forest, how long, how often and how many of them have pigs at home; Mushroom and forest fruits Thank you
Language:English
Score: 693737.4 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...vents2017/ASF_Kaunas/10_en.pdf
Data Source: un
In developing countries, the probability of participating in the workforce increases by 7.8 per cent; in emerging, by 6.4 per cent; in ASNA, two regions with the widest gap in participation rates, the probability increases further, at 12.9 per cent. (...) In ASNA countries, it decreases the probability to participate by 6.2 percentage points; in developing countries by 4.8 percentage points; and in developed countries by 4.0 percentage points. (...) In developing countries, the probability to participate is substantially reduced by religion, a proxy indicator for more restrictive gender role conformity.
Language:English
Score: 693737.4 - https://www.ilo.org/beirut/med...WCMS_566891/lang--en/index.htm
Data Source: un
An outbreak is defined as a cluster of at least 2 or more suspect / probable / lab-confirmed[footnoteRef:2] COVID-19 cases linked in place and time . (...) Note that an outbreak is defined cluster of at least 2 or more suspect / probable / lab-confirmed[footnoteRef:4] cases linked in place and time. (...) · Share bathroom facilities with any suspect/probable/confirmed COVID-19 cases? · Share dining facilities with any suspect/probable/confirmed COVID-19 cases?
Language:English
Score: 692862.65 - https://www.un.org/sites/un2.u...rus_outbreakreportingform.docx
Data Source: un
BOEING PROPRIETARY 6 18% Probability One-stop 8:05 Hrs A Y Z B 58% Probability One-stop 8:05 Hrs 42% Probability One-stop 8:55 Hrs 71% Probability Non-stop 6:35 Hrs Note: Based on probability of business preference 11% Probability One-stop 8:55 Hrs • GMAS forecasts probability of passenger choice for all worldwide known O&D paths • GMAS models how passengers choose flights • Passengers prefer: • Shortest elapsed times • Least number of stops • Efficient connections (Alliance) • Online connections • Time-of-day schedules • Business travelers are schedule sensitive, while leisure travelers are relatively more price sensitive • GMAS does not model for frequent-flyer attraction, bonus offers, marketing tactics, sales promotions and new market stimulations Copyright © 2014 Boeing.
Language:English
Score: 692862.65 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...scar/Documents/S4-Andjorin.pdf
Data Source: un
Figure I The Classification Process (a) General signal processes (b) Example of Probability of Environmental Approval (PREA). UNFC does not currently specify probabilities to determine E axis categories. (...) Many terms can be used with modifiers, such as “high”, “low”, “very” that alter the assigned probability as shown in the table below. Table 4 The effect of modifiers on the term probability Modifier Term Median % IQR Very high probability 91 5.4 Very probable 85 8.9 High probability 81 10.1 Probable 69 13.0 Moderate probability 52 18.5 Low probability 16 14.5 Very low probability 6 5.7 65. (...) Verbal Description Range of Probability High ≥ 80 Medium ≥ 50 to 80 Low < 50 67.
Language:English
Score: 691708.6 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...01/ECE_ENERGY_GE.3_2020_3e.pdf
Data Source: un
Both pages consist of an upper panel showing the average number of children ever born (average parity), the average number of children surviving, the reported proportions dead and the estimates of the probability of dying by age x, q(x), yielded by the different versions of the Brass method using all available mortality models. (...) The lower panel of each page presents three sets of estimates: q(l), that is, the probability of dying between birth and exact age 1, also known as infant mortality; 4ql, the probability of dying between exact ages I and 5, termed "child mortality" in the Guide; and q(5), the probability of dying between birth and exact age 5, also called "under-five mortality". (...) For a further discussion on choice of model life table and interpretation of the esti- mates, see chapter VI of the Guide. Although QFIVE probably provides more information than is strictly necessary for the esti- mation of child mortality, this feature gives it added flexibility and should make it possible to meet the needs of most users. 17 Example of the first page of the printed output: IlIPUT DATA FOI BAIGLlDESH, 1974 IE'l'lOSPEC'lIVE SUIVEY mSEIFS EllUJlERATIOK DATE: lIAR 1974 ------- -------- ------- --------- Age Group Klllber IlImber of HUlber of of of Children Children iiolen iiolen Ever Born Surviving -------- -------- ----- ------- 15-19 3014706. 1160919. 945554. 20-24 2653155. 4901382. 3903998. 25-29 2607009. 9085852. 7147897. 30-34 2015663. 9910256. 7649060. 35-39 1771680. 10384001. 7893833. 40-44 1479575. 9164329. 6749306. 45-49 1135129. 6905673. 4946129. 18 Example of the second page of the printed output: IIDIIIC'l ESmATIOI OF EARLY AGE lIOiTWTY FOR WGLAD~, 1974 RmOSPECTIV!
Language:English
Score: 691699.76 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...nuals/estimate/qfive/chap3.pdf
Data Source: un
Adjustments shown using less well- known methods Age misreporting Age misreporting (45+)  New method(s) based on:  Basic statistic: cmRx(T1,T2) computed using two censuses (at T1 and T2) and intercensal deaths between T1 and T2  A standard pattern of age misreporting  Alternative techniques to estimate magnitude of age misreporting Statistic: cmRx(T1,T2)  From previous studies (Dechter-Preston, Del Popolo, Preston-Condran-Himes) using (a) two census at T1 and T2 and intercensal deaths in (T1,T2) Behavior of key statistic cmRx(T1,T2) under different conditions  Main problems:  Unequal census completeness leads to statistic’s behavior that mimics age over(under)statement  Intercensal migration leads to statistic’s behavior that mimic age over(under)statement  Conditions :  Adjusted for relative completeness of census enumeration  Closed to migration (or adjusted for it) Age patterns and levels of age misreporting  Main idea:  Detect problem with statistic  Reconstruct true population (matrix)  Age pattern of age misreporting  Level of age misreporting  From previous studies  India (Bhat)  Latin America (Ortega)  US: Medicare records (Preston et al)  We use Costa Rica 2002 matching study (census-voting register) and estimate standard patterns of  Population age misreporting  Probability of over(under) stating age at age x  Conditional probability of over(under) stating age by 1-10 years given over(under) statement at age x  The above is referred to as “standard pattern of age misstatement”  Generates a “standard matrix” of population transfers across ages Main results from Costa Rica study  Gender differences in age misreporting: marginal  Age differences in prob. of misreporting: large  Overstatement overwhelms under statement Age patterns of age misreporting Outcome  Matrix of net “age transfers” is a standard pattern of age misreporting that we assume prevails in all countries  Observed patterns produced by identical standard but different levels of age misreporting (age specific probability of misreporting)  Standard death and population patterns of age misreporting are identical Strategy  Estimate model predicting prob of age net overstatement as a function of age  Estimate negative binomial model for conditional probability of overestimation  Generate the Costa Rican standard of age net overstatement  Allow shifts in levels of net overstatement: the shifts or magnitude of age misreporting are estimated from data Identification conditions  We can estimate both LEVELS of net overstatement of ages at death and population  BUT:  Cannot identify simultaneously population over and under statement, only net overstatement  Must assume age patterns of over (under) statement of ages at death and population are identical  Must assume that standard is appropriate for observed population METHODS TO ESTIMATE MAGNITUDE OF AGE MISREPORTING DEATH AND POPULATION  Brute force iterative procedure :  plausible but time consuming  Inverse regression based on regression models estimated in simulated population. (...) Adjust mortality rates and construction life tables from age 5 on Uncertainty  Evaluation study produces  Metapopulation====== error distributions of each candidate method under different conditions violating assumption  Can attach probability (of error) measure to each candidate method  Can use them explicitly in estimation thus generating bounds of uncertainty of target parameters THANK YOU
Language:English
Score: 691506.15 - https://www.un.org/development...mber-2016-modified_palloni.pdf
Data Source: un