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It consists of mostly propane and butane, supplied until a few years ago through only: (a) Petroleum refining (covered by existing definitions and UN numbers), currently meeting 30-40 % of world demand and decreasing, and (b) Natural Gas (NG) processing (not covered by one existing UN number, which refers only to “petroleum”), currently meeting 60-70 % of world demand. (...) Today, in the context of energy transition and aiming at de-fossilisation, decarbonisation and reduction of the overall carbon footprints, the LPG industry is transforming, by including also in its product range, the same propane C3H8 and butane C4H10 products, but also those of bio/renewable/recycled origin and gradually moving away from product originating from both, petroleum refining and extraction from natural gas. (...) ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2022/53 4 Annex I Pressure temperature curves for DME, butane, propane and butane/propane mixtures
Language:English
Score: 2156827.5 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...9/ST-SG-AC.10-C.3-2022-53e.pdf
Data Source: un
PROPAN-1-OL PROPAN-1-OL Prepared at the 28th JECFA (1984), published in FNP 31/2 (1984) and in FNP 52 (1992). (...) METHOD OF ASSAY Determine the content of propan-1-ol and volatile impurities using the procedures for gas chromatography under the following conditions: Column - length: 1.8 m - diameter: 6 mm - material: steel - packing: 10% P.E.G. 400 on Chromosorb W (60/80 mesh), or equivalent Carrier gas: Helium Flow rate: 45 ml/min Detector: FID Temperatures - injection port, 150o - column: 90o - detector: 150o Inject 1 to 5 µl of sample, obtain chromatogram, and determine the content of each constituent by the method of area normalization. PROPAN-1-OL SYNONYMS DEFINITION Chemical names C.A.S. number Chemical formula Structural formula Formula weight Assay DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONAL USES CHARACTERISTICS IDENTIFICATION PURITY Colour Acidity Aldehyde and ketone Other alcohols, ethers and volatile impurities METHOD OF ASSAY
Language:English
Score: 2135843.8 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...cs/Monograph1/Additive-354.pdf
Data Source: un
Poverty Reduction Demonstration Sub-Project for Conversion From HCFC-22 to Propane at Midea Room Air-Conditioner Manufacturing Company nd Demonstration Sub-Project for Conversion Of Room Air-Conditioner Compressor Manufacturing From HCFC-22 to Propane at Guangdong Meizhi Company Context In line with the obligations of the Montreal Protocol, China has to freeze in 2013 its HCFC production and consumption at the baseline level of 2009- 2010 and by 2015 to reduce it by 10%. (...) Strategy Midea: The impact of the project is the phase-out of 240 metric tonnes of HCFC- 22, which equals to 13.2 ozone-depleting potential (ODP) tonnes, by converting a production line to propane (HC-290), a kind of hydrocarbon. This will lead to an estimated 967,490 metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. (...) The first project has helped Midea group to convert one production line manufacturing annually 200,000 split air- conditioners from HCFC-22 to propane refrigerant, which is a benign, ozone and climate friendly natural gas.
Language:English
Score: 2125022.9 - https://www.unido.org/sites/de.../files/2014-02/MPB_China_0.pdf
Data Source: un
It consists of mostly propane and butane, supplied until a few years ago through only: (a) Petroleum refining (covered by existing definitions and UN numbers), currently meeting 30-40 % of world demand and decreasing, and (b) Natural Gas (NG) processing (not covered by one existing UN number, which refers only to “petroleum”), currently meeting 60-70 % of world demand. (...) Today, in the context of energy transition and aiming at de-fossilisation, decarbonisation and reduction of the overall carbon footprints, the LPG industry is transforming, by including also in its product range, the same propane C3H8 and butane C4H10 products, but also those of bio/renewable/recycled origin and gradually moving away from product originating from both, petroleum refining and extraction from natural gas. (...) DME (UN 1033) has the same classification code as LPG (2F), the same label (2.1) and identical hazards: The vapour pressure of DME is approximately midway between that of butane and propane, almost the same as a 50/50 mix of butane and propane.
Language:English
Score: 2092063.3 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul.../ST-SG-AC.10-C.3-2022-53e.docx
Data Source: un
Compared to the currently used methods, propane-based refrigeration technology is up to 30% more energy efficient. According to the Lithuanian company, Freor, a pioneer of using R290 propane in commercial refrigeration equipment, “A propane system operates in the regime dependent on outdoor temperature, making it easier to ensure optimum electricity consumption.” (...) He expressed his hope that the propane chillers will significantly reduce the chain’s greenhouse gas footprint.
Language:English
Score: 2034388.3 - https://www.unido.org/stories/freezing-climate-change
Data Source: un
It is natural, ozone friendly, energy efficient and has very low global warming potential but there was some resistance to introducing the substance, mainly because propane is highly flammable. However, a UNIDO pilot project at the Midea air-conditioning company , involving the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the China Household Electrical Appliances Association, showed that propane was safe enough, as well as energy efficient, and in 2016 other companies started to use it instead of HCFC-based refrigerant. (...) She remembers, “Since the propane refrigerant is flammable and explosive, strict safety requirements were put forward for the compressors’ production and testing, and the configuration plan of production line and laboratory site selection had to be repeatedly evaluated.” (...) Chang Hong is another company that has converted from HCFC to propane. CHEN Wenjuan has been general manager of the sales department since 2014, with a focus on overseas sales.
Language:English
Score: 1928596.9 - https://www.unido.org/stories/...-making-air-conditioning-safer
Data Source: un
In order to convince others, the Ministry encouraged the manufacturers to research propane themselves.  Slowly, other companies began to accept that not only was propane sufficiently safe, but it was energy efficient. (...) The project successfully promoted the use of propane as a suitable alternative to HCFCs. Following the success of the demonstration project, the government, with UNIDO’s assistance, is now incentivizing enterprises to convert to propane in a manner which is market-orientated. (...) In 2016, the largest air conditioner manufacturers began promoting  propane conversions. While Zhifeng acknowledged it will still take time, he believed that with joint effort and persistence, propane would be marketed and promoted successfully in the air conditioning sector.  
Language:English
Score: 1786953.7 - https://www.unido.org/news/pro...suasion-air-conditioning-china
Data Source: un
Midea, China’s largest exporter of air conditioners, has been working with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) for over 10 years to transition away from using HCFC-22, an environmentally harmful refrigerant and, instead, manufacture products using propane (R-290), a natural substance. In 2020, UNIDO presented Midea with an award for its outstanding contribution to environmental protection. (...) The availability of Midea's R290 split air conditioners is set to shake up the European market, driving a transition that will help reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on the continent.   The European Commission is expected to encourage the use of cost-effective, technically feasible, energy-efficient and reliable alternatives to fluorinated greenhouse gases with high global warming potential when it revises its Regulation on fluorinated greenhouse gases (the F-gas Regulation) by the end of 2021. The Cooling Emissions and Policy Synthesis Report , published by the UN Environment Programme and the International Energy Agency, showed that, globally, up to 460 billion tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions could be cut over the next four decades by making air conditioners twice as efficient as they are now.
Language:English
Score: 1777824.2 - https://www.unido.org/news/ene...r-conditioners-now-sale-europe
Data Source: un
Aujourd’hui, dans le contexte de la transition énergétique et en vue de la défossilisation, de la décarbonisation et de la réduction de l’empreinte carbone globale, l’industrie du GPL se transforme en incluant dans sa gamme de produits, outre les mêmes produits propane C3H8 et butane C4H10, ceux d’origine biologique, renouvelable ou recyclée, et en s’éloignant progressivement des produits issus à la fois du raffinage du pétrole et de l’extraction du gaz naturel. (...) Le DME (No ONU 1033) a le même code de classement que le GPL (2F), la même étiquette (2.1) et il présente des risques identiques : La pression de vapeur du DME se situe à peu près à mi-chemin entre celles du butane et du propane, soit presque la même que celle d’un mélange 50/50 de butane et de propane. (...) Annexe I Courbes pression-température pour le DME, le butane, le propane et les mélanges butane/propane GE. 22-13852 (F) 051022 051022 2 GE.22-13852 GE.22-13852 3
Language:English
Score: 1760011.7 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul.../ST-SG-AC.10-C.3-2022-53f.docx
Data Source: un
Le DME (No ONU 1033) a le même code de classement que le GPL (2F), la même étiquette (2.1) et il présente des risques identiques : • La pression de vapeur du DME se situe à peu près à mi-chemin entre celles du butane et du propane, soit presque la même que celle d’un mélange 50/50 de butane et de propane. Il a pour effet de réduire la pression de vapeur des mélanges riches en propane et d’augmenter la pression de vapeur des mélanges riches en butane, mais seulement dans de faibles proportions lorsqu’il est ajouté à la masse maximale de XX %1 fixée dans la présente proposition ; • Des calculs ont été effectués sur la capacité de débit requise pour les soupapes de sécurité (soupapes de décharge). (...) ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2022/53 GE.22-13852 5 Annexe I Courbes pression-température pour le DME, le butane, le propane et les mélanges butane/propane
Language:English
Score: 1760011.7 - https://unece.org/sites/defaul...0/ST-SG-AC.10-C.3-2022-53f.pdf
Data Source: un