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1.1 Targeted client communication 1.4 Personal health tracking 1.7 Client fi nancial transactions 1.5 Citizen based reporting 1.6 On-demand information services to clients 1.2 Untargeted client communication 1.3 Client to client communication 1.1.1 Transmit health event alerts to specifi c population group(s) 1.1.2 Transmit targeted health information to client based on health status or demographics 1.1.3 Transmit targeted alerts and reminders to client(s) 1.1.4 Transmit diagnostics result, or availability of result, to clients 1.4.1 Access by client to own medical records 1.4.2 Self monitoring of health or diagnostic data by client 1.4.3 Active data capture/documentation by client 1.7.1 Transmit or manage out of pocket payments by client 1.7.2 Transmit or manage vouchers to client for health services 1.7.3 Transmit or manage incentives to clients for health services 1.5.1 Reporting of health system feedback by clients 1.5.2 Reporting of public health events by client 1.6.1 Client look-up of health information 1.2.1 Transmit untargeted health information to an undefi ned population 1.2.2 Transmit untargeted health event alerts to undefi ned group 1.3.1 Peer group for clients 1.0 Clients 2.1 Client identifi cation and registration 2.5 Healthcare provider communication 2.6 Referral coordination 2.7 Health worker activity planning and scheduling 2.8 Healthcare provider training 2.9 Prescription and medication management 2.10 Laboratory and Diagnostics Imaging Manangement 2.2 Client health records 2.3 Healthcare provider decision support 2.4 Telemedicine 2.1.1 Verify client unique identity 2.1.2 Enrol client for health services/clinical care plan 2.5.1 Communication from healthcare provider to supervisor 2.5.2 Communication and performance feedback to healthcare provider 2.5.3 Transmit routine news and workfl ow notifi cations to healthcare provider(s) 2.5.4 Transmit non-routine health event alerts to healthcare providers 2.5.5 Peer group for healthcare providers 2.6.1 Coordinate emergency response and transport 2.6.2 Manage referrals between points of service within health sector 2.6.3 Manage referrals between health and other sectors 2.7.1 Identify clients in need of services 2.7.2 Schedule healthcare provider's activities 2.8.1 Provide training content to healthcare provider(s) 2.8.2 Assess capacity of healthcare provider 2.9.1 Transmit or track prescription orders 2.9.2 Track client's medication consumption 2.9.3 Report adverse drug eff ects 2.10.1 Transmit diagnostic result to healthcare provider 2.10.2 Transmit and track diagnostic orders 2.10.3 Capture diagnostic results from digital devices 2.10.4 Track biological specimens 2.2.1 Longitudinal tracking of client’s health status and services received 2.2.2 Manage client’s structured clinical records 2.2.3 Manage client’s unstructured clinical records 2.2.4 Routine health indicator data collection and management 2.3.1 Provide prompts and alerts based according to protocol 2.3.2 Provide checklist according to protocol 2.3.3 Screen clients by risk or other health status 2.4.1 Consultations between remote client and healthcare provider 2.4.2 Remote monitoring of client health or diagnostic data by provider 2.4.3 Transmission of medical data to healtcare provider 2.4.4 Consultations for case management between healthcare providers 2.0 Healthcare Providers 3.1 Human resource management 3.4 Civil Registration and Vital Statistic 3.6 Equipment and asset management 3.7 Facility management 3.5 Health fi nancing 3.2 Supply chain management 3.3 Public health event notifi cation 3.1.1 List health workforce cadres and related identifi cation information 3.1.2 Monitor performance of healthcare provider(s) 3.1.3 Manage certifi cation/ registration of healthcare provider(s) 3.1.4 Record training credentials of healthcare provider(s) 3.4.1 Notify birth event 3.4.2 Register birth event 3.4.3 Certify birth event 3.4.4 Notify death event 3.4.5 Register death event 3.4.6 Certify death event 3.6.1 Monitor status of health equipment 3.6.2 Track regulation and licensing of medical equipment 3.7.1 List health facilities and related information 3.7.2 Assess health facilities 3.5.1 Register and verify client insurance membership 3.5.2 Track insurance billing and claims submission 3.5.3 Track and manage insurance reimbursement 3.5.4 Transmit routine payroll payment to healthcare provider(s) 3.5.5 Transmit or manage incentives to healthcare provider(s) 3.5.6 Manage budget and expenditures 3.2.1 Manage inventory and distribution of health commodities 3.2.2 Notify stock levels of health commodities 3.2.3 Monitor cold-chain sensitive commodities 3.2.4 Register licensed drugs and health commodities 3.2.5 Manage procurementof commodities 3.2.6 Report counterfeit or substandard drugs by clients 3.3.1 Notifi cation of public health events from point of diagnosis 3.0 Health System Managers 4.1 Data collection, management, and use 4.3 Location mapping 4.4 Data exchange and interoperability 4.2 Data coding 4.1.1 Non routine data collection and management 4.1.2 Data storage and aggregation 4.1.3 Data synthesis and visualization 4.1.4 Automated analysis of data to generate new information or predictions on future events 4.3.1 Map location of health facilities/structures 4.3.2 Map location of health events 4.3.3 Map location of clients and households 4.3.4 Map location of healthcare provider(s) 4.4.1 Data exchange across systems 4.2.1 Parse unstructured data into structured data 4.2.2 Merge, de-duplicate, and curate coded datasets or terminologies 4.2.3 Classify disease codes 4.0 Data Services Classification of Digital Health Interventions v 1.0 A shared language to describe the uses of digital technology for health Dr.
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Score: 293747.31 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...WHO_Classifications_Poster.pdf
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4 Some Icons… 5 Router (layer 3, IP datagram forwarding) Network Cloud Ethernet switch (layer 2, packet forwarding) Routed Backbone p  ISPs build networks covering regions n  Regions can cover a country, sub-continent, or even global n  Each region has points of presence built by the ISP p  Routers are the infrastructure p  Physical circuits run between routers p  Easy routing configuration, operation and troubleshooting p  The dominant topology used in the Internet today 6 MPLS Backbones p  Some ISPs & Telcos use Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) p  MPLS is built on top of router infrastructure n  Replaces old ATM technology n  Tunnelling over IP network p  Main purpose is to provide VPN services n  Although these can be implemented with other tunnelling technologies such as GRE 7 Points of Presence p  PoP – Point of Presence n  Physical location of ISP’s equipment n  Sometimes called a “node” p  vPoP – virtual PoP n  To the end user, it looks like an ISP location n  In reality a back hauled access point n  Used mainly for consumer access networks p Hub/SuperPoP – large central PoP n  Links to many PoPs 8 PoP Topologies p  Core routers n  high speed trunk connections p  Distribution routers n  higher port density, aggregating network edge to the network core p  Access routers n  high port density, connecting the end users to the network p  Border routers n  connections to other providers p  Service routers n  hosting and servers p  Some functions might be handled by a single router 9 Typical PoP Design 10 Backbone link to another PoP Backbone link to another PoP Business Customer Aggregation Other ISPs Network Core ISP Services (DNS, Mail, News, FTP, WWW) Hosted Services Consumer Aggregation Other ISPs Border Service Access Access Service Network Operation Centre More Definitions p  Transit n  Carrying traffic across a network n  Usually for a fee p  Peering n  Exchanging routing information and traffic n  Usually for no fee n  Sometimes called settlement free peering p Default n  Where to send traffic when there is no explicit match in the routing table 11 Peering and Transit example 12 provider A provider F provider B A and B peer for free, but need transit arrangements with C and D to get packets to/from E and F IXP-West IXP-East provider E Backbone Provider D Backbone Provider C peering peering transit transit peering Private Interconnect 13 Provider C Provider D Autonomous System 99 Autonomous System 334 border border Public Interconnect p A location or facility where several ISPs are present and connect to each other over a common shared media p Why? n  To save money, reduce latency, improve performance p  IXP – Internet eXchange Point p NAP – Network Access Point 14 Public Interconnect p Centralised (in one facility) p Distributed (connected via WAN links) p Switched interconnect n  Ethernet (Layer 2) n  Technologies such as SRP, FDDI, ATM, Frame Relay, SMDS and even routers have been used in the past p  Each provider establishes peering relationship with other providers at IXP n  ISP border router peers with all other provider border routers 15 Public Interconnect 16 Each of these represents a border router in a different autonomous system ISP 1 ISP 2 ISP 3 ISP 6 ISP 5 ISP 4 IXP ISPs participating in Internet p Bringing all pieces together, ISPs: n  Build multiple PoPs in a distributed network n  Build redundant backbones n  Have redundant external connectivity n  Obtain transit from upstream providers n  Get free peering from local providers at IXPs 17 Example ISP Backbone Design 18 Network Core PoP 1 PoP 4 PoP 3 PoP 2 IXP ISP Peer ISP Peer ISP Peer ISP Peer Backbone Links Upstream1 Upstream 2 Upstream1 Upstream 2 IP Addressing Where to get address space and who from 19 IP Addressing Basics p  Internet uses two types of addressing: n  IPv6 – the new IP protocol n  IPv4 – legacy IP protocol p  Internet uses classless routing n  Routers must be CIDR capable p  Classless InterDomain Routing n  No routing assumptions made based on the address block n  Engineers talk in terms of prefix length n  For example: 158.43/16 and 2001:db8::/32 20 History of IP Addressing p  Pre-CIDR (before 1994) n  Big networks got a class A n  Medium networks got a class B n  Small networks got a class C p  The CIDR IPv4 years (1994 to 2010) n  Sizes of IPv4 allocations/assignments made according to demonstrated need – CLASSLESS p  IPv6 adoption (from 2011) n  Network Operators get at least one /32 n  End Sites get /48 n  IANA’s free pool is depleted (February 2011) – the size of IPv4 address allocations and assignments is now very limited 21 IP Addressing p  IP Address space is a resource shared amongst all Internet users n  Regional Internet Registries delegated allocation responsibility by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) n  AfriNIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC & RIPE NCC are the five RIRs n  RIRs allocate address space to ISPs and Local Internet Registries n  ISPs/LIRs assign address space to end customers or other ISPs p  RIRs address distribution: n  IPv6 is plentiful n  IPv4 is very limited 22 Address delegation hierarchy 23 IANA AfriNIC (Africa) APNIC (Asia & Pacific) ARIN (N America) LACNIC (C&S America) RIPE NCC (EU,ME,C Asia) ISPs ISPs ISPs ISPs ISPs End Users End Users End Users End Users End Users Non-portable Address Space p  “Provider Aggregatable” or “PA Space” n  Customer uses RIR member’s address space while connected to Internet n  Customer has to renumber to change ISP n  Aids control of size of Internet routing table n  Need to fragment provider block when multihoming p  PA space is allocated to the RIR member n  All assignments made by the RIR member to end sites are announced as an aggregate to the rest of the Internet 24 Portable Address Space p  “Provider Independent” or “PI Space” n  Customer gets or has address space independent of ISP n  Customer keeps addresses when changing ISP n  Is very bad for size of Internet routing table n  Is very bad for scalability of the routing system n  → PI space is rarely distributed by the RIRs 25 Internet Hierarchy The pecking order 26 Global Internet: High Level View 27 R4 Global Providers Regional Provider 1 Access Provider 1 Customer Networks Access Provider 2 Regional Provider 2 Content Provider 1 Content Provider 2 IXP Detailed View of the Global Internet p  Global Transit Providers n  Connect to each other n  Provide connectivity to Regional Transit Providers p  Regional Transit Providers n  Connect to each other n  Provide connectivity to Content Providers n  Provide connectivity to Access Providers p  Content Providers n  Cross-connect to Access Providers n  Peer at IXPs (free traffic to Access Providers) p  Access Providers n  Connect to each other across IXPs (free peering) n  Provide access to the end user 28 Categorising ISPs 29 Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Regional ISP IXP Access ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP Regional ISP IXP Access ISP Access ISP Access ISP Access ISP Access ISP Categorising ISPs p  Tier-1 ISP – definition: n  A provider which peers with other Tier-1s and does NOT pay for transit n  Caveat: p  Many marketing departments call their ISP a Tier-1 – even though that ISP may still pay for transit to some parts of the Internet p  Regional providers often have the reach of Tier-1s but still have to rely on maybe one or two Tier-1s to access the whole Internet n  They often provide access too, via in country domestic access networks p  Access providers work exclusively in their locale 30 Inter-provider relationships p  Peering between equivalent sizes of service providers (e.g. (...) n  No one n  (Definitely not ICANN, nor the RIRs, nor the US,…) p  How does it keep working? n  Inter-provider business relationships and the need for customer reachability ensures that the Internet by and large functions for the common good p  Any facilities to help keep it working?
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Score: 293743.58 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/R.../S04-Internet-introduction.pdf
Data Source: un
Door 4'x8' x1 No. 11 Gypsum Ceiling: Providing & Fixing Gypsum Ceiling Complete in all respect. (...) Sofa Set No 1 26 Providing Sofa Set 5 seater finished with cloth / rixion of best quality. (...) No 3 33 Gas Connection Rft 750 Providing and Fixing of gas connections with PPRC pipes (1/2") dia including jointing materials. 34 Providing and Fixing of Gas Heater(Three burner plates).
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Score: 293710.8 - https://www.unhcr.org/pk/wp-co.../ANNEX-B-SCOPE-OF-WORK-UOB.pdf
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x FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? x 14 Was commercial name provided? x 15 If relevant, was brand name provided? (...) x FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? x 14 Was commercial name provided? x 15 If relevant, was brand name provided? (...) x FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? x 14 Was commercial name provided? x 15 If relevant, was brand name provided?
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Score: 293665.5 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...NG_FCT_QA_Cambodia_010813.xlsx
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Figure II.1 – Example of deployment scenarios with respect to the relationship between IoT data roles and IoT business roles In Figure II.1, the IoT business roles [ITU-T Y.4000] associated to the above four IoT components, i.e., device provider, platform provider, network provider and application provider, describe the relationships in terms of revenue streams. The two application providers shown in Figure II.1 aim to describe two different sub- roles in a given deployment scenario from the IoT data perspective: – Application provider (I) provides IoT applications to the application customer (described in [ITU-T Y.4000]); – Application provider (II) provides IoT data processing capabilities to application provider (I) via handling IoT data and providing the analysis results to application provider (I). In Figure II.1, the interactions between the IoT data roles associated with the five IoT components, i.e., IoT data provider, IoT data carrier, IoT data framework provider, IoT data application provider and IoT data consumer, describe the relationships in terms of IoT data operations in this specific scenario: 218 Network and infrastructure     221     222     223     224     225     226     227     228     229     230     231          
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Score: 293644.68 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page226.html
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H 7 Was relevant information on treatment applied provided? J 8 Was information on preservation method provided? (...) FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? 14 Was commercial name provided? 15 If relevant, was brand name provided? (...) x FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? x 14 Was commercial name provided? x 15 If relevant, was brand name provided?
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Score: 293629.25 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...NG_FCT_QA_Thailand_150513.xlsx
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FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? 14 Was commercial name provided? 15 If relevant, was brand name provided? (...) FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? 14 Was commercial name provided? 15 If relevant, was brand name provided? (...) FOR MANUFACTURED PREPACKED FOOD ONLY 13 Was generic name provided? 14 Was commercial name provided? 15 If relevant, was brand name provided?
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Score: 293506.15 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...G_FCT_QA_Indonesia_070813.xlsx
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Figure 1 – IoT data roles – IoT data provider: The IoT data provider collects data from things, injects data processed within the IoT system as well as data from external sources and provides them via the IoT data carrier to the IoT data consumer (optionally, the applications provided by the IoT data application provider may execute relevant data operations with the support of the IoT data framework provider). – IoT data application provider: The IoT data application provider provides applications related to the execution of IoT data operations (e.g., applications for data analysis, data pre-processing, data visualization and data query). NOTE 1 – The applications provided by the IoT data application provider can interact with the infrastructure (e.g., storage cloud) provided by the IoT data framework provider through the IoT data carrier or run on the infrastructure (e.g., scalable distributed computing platforms) provided by the IoT data framework provider. – IoT data framework provider: The IoT data framework provider provides general IoT data processing capabilities and related infrastructure (e.g., storage and computing resources, data Network and infrastructure 205     208     209     210     211     212     213     214     215     216     217     218          
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Score: 293478.93 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page213.html
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Figure A.3 – CSC:cloud service administrator relationship for the "monitor service" activity Other elements relevant to the cloud service customer–cloud service provider relationship can include a customer to provider agreement, which can include an SLA, intellectual property issues and regulated matters such as the appropriate protection of personal data. A.2 The provider–peer provider (or "inter-cloud") relationship A cloud service provider can make use of one or more cloud services which are provided by other cloud service providers. This is described as a provider to peer cloud service provider relationship, or alternatively as an "inter-cloud" relationship – the provider making use of the services is termed a primary cloud service provider while a provider whose services are being used is termed a secondary cloud service provider. 102     105     106     107     108     109     110     111     112     113     114     115          
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Score: 293379.15 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page110.html
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 Page 566 - 5G Basics - Core Network Aspects           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 566 - 5G Basics - Core Network Aspects P. 566 1 Applications 7 Reference model of Smart Farming based on networks 7.1 Reference architecture To apply Smart Farming based on networks shown in Figure 1, a reference architecture showing the service roles, consumers, distributors, agricultural producers and service providers, is presented in Figure 2. Service roles shown in Figure 2 (consumers, agricultural producers, distributors, service providers and network providers) play major roles in Smart Farming based on networks as follows: – Consumer: the service role that ultimately purchases the final agricultural product from distributors, agricultural producers or direct sellers and also provides a farm product traceability service to the service provider. – Agricultural producer: the service role that actually produces agricultural products to be supplied to distributors or consumers that is provided with Smart Farming services, such as a farm product protection service or remote farm management service. – Distributor: the service role that distributes agricultural products supplied from agricultural producers through the distribution network and provides a farm production regulation service, which is required to identify and maintain the break-even point. – Service provider: the service role that provides the requested Smart Farming services to requesting users such as consumers, agricultural producers and distributors. – Network provider: the service role that provides the infrastructure that conveys information related to Smart Farming based on networks and interconnects the other service roles. (...) In the pre-production and production stages, the agricultural producer can be advised on what to produce, when to produce, what to seed and other matters by the service provider via plan/production consulting. Distributors and consumers can also be advised by the service provider about market demands, food traceability and prices. The network provider can provide the telecommunication network to support information transfer between the various service roles.
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Score: 293372.68 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page566.html
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