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CURRENT AND FUTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR MOTAPM DETECTION AND CLEARANCE : PRESENTATION / PREPARED BY THE UNITED NATIONS MINE ACTION SERVICE (UNMAS)
Biological (dogs, bees, bacteria, rats, pigs, etc) Living organisms detect explosive vapors in situ. Can confirm presence of explosives Problems in dry environments; affected by high vegetation, windy, very cold or hot weather; demanding logistic support; night activity (rats) Basic and continued research needed to determine full potential (though dogs are widely used today) Remote sensing Sampling of explosive vapour with filters, which are then presented to dogs or some other sensing animal or device, away from the affected area. (...) Flourescent Measures changes in polymer flourescence in presence of explosive vapors Confirms presence of explosives Performance negatively affected in dry environments Basic research needed to determine operational potential Electrochemical Measures changes in polymer electrical resistance upon exposure to explosive vapors Confirms presence of explosives Performance negatively affected in dry environments Basic research needed to determine whether detection limit can be reduced C C W /G G E/V II/W G .2/W P.4 Page 6 Piezoelectric Measures shift in resonant frequency of various materials upon exposure to explosive vapors Confirms presence of explosives Performance negatively affected in dry environments Basic research needed to determine whether detection limit can be reduced Spectroscopic Analyzes spectral response of sample Confirms presence of explosives Performance negatively affected in dry environments Basic research needed to determine whether detection limit can be reduced Bulk Explosives Detection Nuclear quadrupole resonance Induces radio frequency pulse that causes the chemical bonds in explosives to resonate Identifies bulk explosives Problems with TNT and liquid explosives detection; limited use in areas with radio frequency interference or quartz-bearing and magnetic soils Many mines contain TNT, unworkable if system cannot detect this explosive Neutron based technology Induces radiation emissions from the atomic nuclei in explosives Identifies the elemental content of bulk explosives Not specific to explosives molecule; performance negatively affected in moist soil; ground-surface fluctuations Unlikely to yield major gains Advanced Prodders / Probes Provide feedback about nature of probed object and amount of force applied by probe Could deploy with almost any type of detection method Hard grounds – like roads, where most MOTAPM are found, roots, rocks; requires physical contact with mine; Time-consuming. (...) Depending on soil conditions systems leave light dust behind the machine, which causes problems to manual deminers and dogs doing the verification behind the machine. High purchase and running costs. High logistical effort and transportation problems.
Language:English
Score: 1445849.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...S=CCW/GGE/VII/WG.2/WP.4&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
REPORT : [ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE], COMMITTEE ON ENERGY, WORKING PARTY ON GAS, SYMPOSIUM ON DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS OF GAS MARKETS AND THE GAS INDUSTRY IN THE ECE REGION IN THE YEARS 2000-2010, ISTANBUL (TURKEY), 4-8 OCTOBER 1993
Maina, Italy) ENERGY/WP.3/SEM.1/R.19 Natural gas purchase and IV E selling prices for distribution companies. (...) Finally, with the approval of related governmental authorities, the location on the east coast of Marmara Ereglisi, near Sultanköy was selected. The LNG purchase contract between BOTAS and SONATRACH (Algeria) was signed on 14 April 1988. (...) ENERGY/WP.3/SEM.1/2 page 25 Annex II 2 ORP Vaporizers - ORV: Open Rack Vaporizer - unit capacity 228,000 Nm3/h. 4 SMV Vaporizers - SMV: Submerged Vaporizer - unit capacity 124,600 Nm3/h. 2 B.O.
Language:English
Score: 1420485.9 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...&DS=ENERGY/WP.3/SEM.1/2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
COMPILATION OF STRATEGIES FOR THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BANKS OF OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES
The Act and its regulations also regulate the sale, purchase, use, storage and disposal of ODS and SGG in Australia. (...) On the other hand, there may be other facilities that are regulatory permitted to accept ODS for destruction and capable of ODS destruction but that have not reported doing so. 3 These facilities generally use fume/vapor incinerators or other types of air emissions control devices to destroy ODS. (...) Such facilities could also be permitted for use as fume/vapor incinerators (i.e., air emission control devices) to destroy chemical process byproducts generated on site.
Language:English
Score: 1412116.4 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...ZL.PRO/WORKSHOP.3/INF/1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
REPORT ON ACTIVITIES UNDER THE UNEP MERCURY PROGRAMME: AWARENESS RAISING: A MODULAR APPROACH
• always look for mercury-free substitutes if available, ask questions when making purchases. • help raise awareness about mercury exposure risks with your family and in your community. (...) Acute exposure to elemental mercury and vapor can result in acrodynia or “pink disease”, which is characterized by bright pink peeling palms, fingers, and soles of the feet, excessive perspiration, itchiness, rashes, joint pain and weakness, elevated blood pressure and heart palpitations.
Language:English
Score: 1396283.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...P(DTIE)/HG/OEWG.1/INF/5&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Evapotranspiration (ET) implies a change of phase of water from liquid to gas (vapor) and is the sum of water that evaporates (E) from surfaces (bare soils and free water surfaces) and that transpire (T) from plants. (...) But when the pores are open, water vapor freely escapes from the interior of the leaves. (...) However, what they have in common is: (i) the restricted sampling area in the field (from 2-3 m2 to few hectares); (ii) the complexity and sophistication of the measurements so that they are mostly confined to scientific and research institutions having highly qualified personnel; (iii) substantial costs of purchase, maintenance and calibration; (iv) prohibitive when attempting to scale them up to larger areas (irrigation schemes, watershed, sub-national, national and basin scales).
Language:English
Score: 1366726 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/.../activities/et-measurement/ar/
Data Source: un
Evapotranspiration (ET) implies a change of phase of water from liquid to gas (vapor) and is the sum of water that evaporates (E) from surfaces (bare soils and free water surfaces) and that transpire (T) from plants. (...) But when the pores are open, water vapor freely escapes from the interior of the leaves. (...) However, what they have in common is: (i) the restricted sampling area in the field (from 2-3 m2 to few hectares); (ii) the complexity and sophistication of the measurements so that they are mostly confined to scientific and research institutions having highly qualified personnel; (iii) substantial costs of purchase, maintenance and calibration; (iv) prohibitive when attempting to scale them up to larger areas (irrigation schemes, watershed, sub-national, national and basin scales).
Language:English
Score: 1366726 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/.../activities/et-measurement/en/
Data Source: un
Evapotranspiration (ET) implies a change of phase of water from liquid to gas (vapor) and is the sum of water that evaporates (E) from surfaces (bare soils and free water surfaces) and that transpire (T) from plants. (...) But when the pores are open, water vapor freely escapes from the interior of the leaves. (...) However, what they have in common is: (i) the restricted sampling area in the field (from 2-3 m2 to few hectares); (ii) the complexity and sophistication of the measurements so that they are mostly confined to scientific and research institutions having highly qualified personnel; (iii) substantial costs of purchase, maintenance and calibration; (iv) prohibitive when attempting to scale them up to larger areas (irrigation schemes, watershed, sub-national, national and basin scales).
Language:English
Score: 1366726 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/.../activities/et-measurement/es/
Data Source: un
Evapotranspiration (ET) implies a change of phase of water from liquid to gas (vapor) and is the sum of water that evaporates (E) from surfaces (bare soils and free water surfaces) and that transpire (T) from plants. (...) But when the pores are open, water vapor freely escapes from the interior of the leaves. (...) However, what they have in common is: (i) the restricted sampling area in the field (from 2-3 m2 to few hectares); (ii) the complexity and sophistication of the measurements so that they are mostly confined to scientific and research institutions having highly qualified personnel; (iii) substantial costs of purchase, maintenance and calibration; (iv) prohibitive when attempting to scale them up to larger areas (irrigation schemes, watershed, sub-national, national and basin scales).
Language:English
Score: 1366726 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/.../activities/et-measurement/zh/
Data Source: un
REQUEST FOR AN EXTENSION OF THE DEADLINE FOR COMPLETING THE DESTRUCTION OF ANTI-PERSONNEL MINES IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 5 OF THE CONVENTION / SUBMITTED BY THE BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA
Manuel Echevarría (Cararabo, Estado Apure) by alleged irregular forces operating on the border with the Republic of Colombia, on 25 February 1995, scattered 1,074 mines in 13 mined areas around six naval posts: Guafitas, Isla Vapor, Río Arauca, San Fernando de Atabapo, Puerto Páez and Cararabo, covering an area of 18 hectares. (...) Even if this equipment is not purchased, however, Venezuela will still complete all the necessary works, using whatever mechanical techniques may be necessary, for the destruction of the anti-personnel mines. 23. (...) Last of all, because it is the post where access routes are completely impassable at the time of heavy rains and river flooding, leaving access only by air, the Naval Post of Isla Vapor will be cleared. The plan is to destroy the only minefield in the area starting in February 2014.
Language:English
Score: 1349808.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...S=APLC/MSP.9/2008/WP.19&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Otros vapores emanados de fundiciones y nieblas de aspersores pueden causar enfermedades pulmonares, entre ellas el asma. (...) “Respirable” significa que el polvo fino es invisible y puede llegar a las partes más profundas de los pulmones. Los vapores de las fundiciones ferrosas pueden causar cáncer. Los vapores generados por el ensamblaje de moldes y las nieblas de los aspersores pueden causar enfermedades pulmonares, entre ellas el asma.
Language:English
Score: 1349509.8 - https://www.ilo.org/legacy/spa...oshh_essentials_silica/fd0.pdf
Data Source: un