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However, imitating Chinese porcelain techniques was no easy feat, especially since the base colour of the raw clay in Basra was yellow and not pure white. However, by applying an opaque white base glaze, the potters could recreate a “blank canvas” on which to experiment spectacularly using blue and white patterns.
Language:English
Score: 1831625.4 - https://en.unesco.org/silkroad...c-trade-china-basra-and-back-0
Data Source: un
SOIL STRUCTURE 7.0 Definition and importance of soil structure Soil structure is defined by the way individual particles of sand, silt, and clay are assembled. Single particles when assembled appear as larger particles. (...) There are four major grades of structure rated from 0 to 3 as follows: 0 Structureless has no observable aggregation or no definite orderly arrangement of natural lines of weakness, such as: Massive structure (coherent) where the entire soil horizon appears cemented in one great mass; Single-grain structure (non-coherent) where the individual soil particles show no tendency to cling together, such as pure sand; 1 Weak structure is poorly formed from indistinct aggregates that can barely be observed in place. (...) They are rated from 1 to 4 as follows: 1 Granular and crumb structures are individual particles of sand, silt and clay grouped together in small, nearly spherical grains.
Language:English
Score: 1778952 - https://www.fao.org/fishery/do...ng/General/x6706e/x6706e07.htm
Data Source: un
SOIL STRUCTURE 7.0 Definition and importance of soil structure Soil structure is defined by the way individual particles of sand, silt, and clay are assembled. Single particles when assembled appear as larger particles. (...) There are four major grades of structure rated from 0 to 3 as follows: 0 Structureless has no observable aggregation or no definite orderly arrangement of natural lines of weakness, such as: Massive structure (coherent) where the entire soil horizon appears cemented in one great mass; Single-grain structure (non-coherent) where the individual soil particles show no tendency to cling together, such as pure sand; 1 Weak structure is poorly formed from indistinct aggregates that can barely be observed in place. (...) They are rated from 1 to 4 as follows: 1 Granular and crumb structures are individual particles of sand, silt and clay grouped together in small, nearly spherical grains.
Language:English
Score: 1778952 - https://www.fao.org/fishery/st...ng/General/x6706e/x6706e07.htm
Data Source: un
This difference was determined  by different soil cultivation methods, clay  amount in soils and depths of clay in the soil.  Both test fields there was a proportional  relationship between clay amount and  potassium concentration.  21 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs THE COMPARISON OF SOILS BETWEEN THE POPLAR PLANTATION  AREA AND CORN AND HAZELNUT CULTIVATED AREAS BASED ON  SOME PLANT NUTRIENTS Due to high concentration of clay in our soils,  calcium concentration was also found to be  high.  (...) Moreover, it was detected that calcium concentration is not  affected from plant species and soil cultivation.  24 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs IPC 24th Session, Dehradun Nov 2012 29.11.2012 7 THE COMPARISON OF SOILS BETWEEN THE POPLAR PLANTATION  AREA AND CORN AND HAZELNUT CULTIVATED AREAS BASED ON  SOME PLANT NUTRIENTS These results also revealed that contrary to  popular belief poplar does not exploit plant  nutrient components in soil; instead it takes as  far as it needs.  25 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs THE COMPARISON OF SOILS BETWEEN THE POPLAR PLANTATION  AREA AND CORN AND HAZELNUT CULTIVATED AREAS BASED ON  SOME PLANT NUTRIENTS Furthermore, in such studies, through soil analysis  based researches, considering purely the  concentration of plant nutrient elements in the soil is  insufficient, in the meanwhile leaf, root, branch and  stem analysis should be preformed for the support of  study. 25 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs 27 THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION
Language:English
Score: 1748972 - https://www.fao.org/forestry/d...26223cdc9a2ccdf1aceb1bbbe9.pdf
Data Source: un
ADSORPTION Attachment by simple attraction of a particle, ion or molecule to a surface; clay and humus are the main soil substances capable of adsorption.   (...) COPPICING Cutting trees close to ground level with the aim of producing shoots from buds near the base of the plant. CORE (a) When constructing a dike or dam: clay core placed in the centre of it to ensure impermeability. (...) DENSITY Ratio of the weight of a certain volume of a material to the weight of the same volume of pure water DETRITUS  Any disintegrated organic matter accumulated in water, on mud or on soil.     
Language:English
Score: 1685843.8 - https://www.fao.org/fishery/do...O_Training/General/GLOSA_e.htm
Data Source: un
ADSORPTION Attachment by simple attraction of a particle, ion or molecule to a surface; clay and humus are the main soil substances capable of adsorption.   (...) COPPICING Cutting trees close to ground level with the aim of producing shoots from buds near the base of the plant. CORE (a) When constructing a dike or dam: clay core placed in the centre of it to ensure impermeability. (...) DENSITY Ratio of the weight of a certain volume of a material to the weight of the same volume of pure water DETRITUS  Any disintegrated organic matter accumulated in water, on mud or on soil.     
Language:English
Score: 1685843.8 - https://www.fao.org/fishery/st...O_Training/General/GLOSA_e.htm
Data Source: un
The high plasticity of Mesopotamian clays meant that forming by hand, and on the wheel, were the dominant methods of pottery manufacture in Pre-Islamic times. (...) By contrast, the aplasticity of the Chinese clays gave rise to the development of a variety of shaping techniques. (...) Thus, it seems likely that Basran merchants trading with the Far East facilitated the transmission of Chinese manufacturing practices, either by importing Chinese potters to Basra, or more likely, through describing what they observed there. The pure white surface achieved with the newly invented tin glaze provided an ideal venue for colourful two dimensional design, and soon cobalt blue decoration was being added, creating the affect of "ink on snow."
Language:English
Score: 1630747.1 - https://en.unesco.org/silkroad...mitation_and_inspiration_0.pdf
Data Source: un
Village of NAKOURA  — Groves on clay soil, frequently nixed with other fruit trees. (...) Also, the trough system of watering, in which the water comes directly into contact with the base of the trunk and the roots, greatly encourages the development of wet-rot, especially in clay soil where the sub-soil is not very permeable. f/- Yield  — In a reasonably kept grove during the maximum productive period (ten to eighteen years) the average annual yield per dunum is estimated at 60 to 70 cases among the Arabs, and 80 to 90 cases among the Israeli. (...) For this reason, the instructions given by the Israeli authorities for the maintenance of Arab plantations, including those classed in the third and fourth categories, are purely formal and inapplicable in very many cases.
Language:English
Score: 1608250.6 - https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-212091/
Data Source: un
Soil classification based on particle-size characteristics is widely used, especially for preliminary or general descriptions (see Section 6.4). (...) TABLE 20A The Unified Soil Classification (definition of major coarse-grained soil groups) TABLE 20B The Unified Soil Classification (definition of major fine-grained soil groups) TABLE 21 Typical names and group symbols of the Unified Soil Classification System USC group symbol Typical names for soils Coarse-grained soils GW Well-graded gravel, gravel and sand mixtures, little or no fines GP Poorly graded gravel, gravel and sand mixtures, little or no fines GM Silty gravel; gravel; sand and silt mixtures GC Clayey gravel; gravel; sand and silt mixtures SW Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines SP Poorly graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines SM Silty sands, sand and silt mixtures SC Clayey sands, sand and clay mixtures Fine-grained soils ML Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands, or clayey silts with slight plasticity CL Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays OL Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity. MH Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts Highly organic soils Pt Peat and other highly organic soils TABLE 22 An example of the field classification of the USC fine-grained soils USC soil group Plasticity (wet soil) Dry consistency Shaking test reaction Plastic limit, toughness of thread Odour ML 0 0 - 1 Rapid to slow None Uncharacterized, often nil CL 2 2 - 4 None to very slow Medium Slight earth smell OL 1 1 - 3 Slow Slight Decomposed organic matter MH 1 1 - 3 Slow to none Slight to medium Uncharacterized, often nil CH 3 3 - 5 None High Strong earth smell OH 2-3 2 - 4 None to very slow Slight to medium Decomposed organic matter TABLE 23 An example of the field classification of the USC coarse-grained soils Soil group Total sample, except cobbles over 12-cm Part of the sample: particles less than 3-mm diameter only GW Relatively few fines Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles GP One or several sizes of coarse particles dominant Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles GM Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity nil or very small GC Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity moderate to high SW All sizes of coarse particles well represented; relatively few fines Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles; plasticity nil SP One or several sizes of coarse particles dominant Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles; plasticity nil SM Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity nil or very small SC Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity moderate to high TABLE 24 Soil properties for engineering use corresponding to USDA textural classes and the USC system 1 USDA textural class USC group Soil properties 2 Fine sand (0.25-0.1 mm) SP Fines less than 10 percent SP-SM Fines 5-10 percent SM Fines more than 10 percent Very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm) SM Low plasticity ML Little or no plasticity Coarse sand (1-0.5 mm) SP or GW Fines less than 5 percent SP-SM Fines 5-12 percent SM Fines more than 12 percent Loamy sand SM Non- to slightly plastic Sandy loam SM Slightly plastic SC Plastic Loam, silty loam ML Slightly plastic CL Plastic Silt ML Slightly plastic Clay loam, silty clay loam CL Liquid limit less than 50; plastic ML-CL Liquid limit less than 50; slightly plastic CH Liquid limit more than 50; high shrink-swell clays MH Liquid limit more than 50; mica, iron oxide, kaolinite clays Sandy clay loam SC Plastic; fines less than 50 percent CL Plastic; fines more than 50 percent Clay, silty clay CH LL > 50; high shrink-swell clays (for example, montmorillonite clays) MH LL > 50; mica, iron oxide, low shrink-swell clays (for example, kaolinite clays) CL Liquid limit less than 50; generally less than 45 percent clay 1 USDA textural classes as defined in Table 4. 2 Fines: silt + clay particles smaller than 0.075 mm; degree of plasticity as in Chapter 8 .
Language:English
Score: 1573150.9 - https://www.fao.org/fishery/do...ng/General/x6706e/x6706e11.htm
Data Source: un
Soil classification based on particle-size characteristics is widely used, especially for preliminary or general descriptions (see Section 6.4). (...) TABLE 20A The Unified Soil Classification (definition of major coarse-grained soil groups) TABLE 20B The Unified Soil Classification (definition of major fine-grained soil groups) TABLE 21 Typical names and group symbols of the Unified Soil Classification System USC group symbol Typical names for soils Coarse-grained soils GW Well-graded gravel, gravel and sand mixtures, little or no fines GP Poorly graded gravel, gravel and sand mixtures, little or no fines GM Silty gravel; gravel; sand and silt mixtures GC Clayey gravel; gravel; sand and silt mixtures SW Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines SP Poorly graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines SM Silty sands, sand and silt mixtures SC Clayey sands, sand and clay mixtures Fine-grained soils ML Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands, or clayey silts with slight plasticity CL Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays OL Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity. MH Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts Highly organic soils Pt Peat and other highly organic soils TABLE 22 An example of the field classification of the USC fine-grained soils USC soil group Plasticity (wet soil) Dry consistency Shaking test reaction Plastic limit, toughness of thread Odour ML 0 0 - 1 Rapid to slow None Uncharacterized, often nil CL 2 2 - 4 None to very slow Medium Slight earth smell OL 1 1 - 3 Slow Slight Decomposed organic matter MH 1 1 - 3 Slow to none Slight to medium Uncharacterized, often nil CH 3 3 - 5 None High Strong earth smell OH 2-3 2 - 4 None to very slow Slight to medium Decomposed organic matter TABLE 23 An example of the field classification of the USC coarse-grained soils Soil group Total sample, except cobbles over 12-cm Part of the sample: particles less than 3-mm diameter only GW Relatively few fines Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles GP One or several sizes of coarse particles dominant Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles GM Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity nil or very small GC Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity moderate to high SW All sizes of coarse particles well represented; relatively few fines Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles; plasticity nil SP One or several sizes of coarse particles dominant Clean material; not enough clay to agglomerate the sand particles; plasticity nil SM Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity nil or very small SC Dirty material; good range of sizes for coarse particles only; many fines Plasticity moderate to high TABLE 24 Soil properties for engineering use corresponding to USDA textural classes and the USC system 1 USDA textural class USC group Soil properties 2 Fine sand (0.25-0.1 mm) SP Fines less than 10 percent SP-SM Fines 5-10 percent SM Fines more than 10 percent Very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm) SM Low plasticity ML Little or no plasticity Coarse sand (1-0.5 mm) SP or GW Fines less than 5 percent SP-SM Fines 5-12 percent SM Fines more than 12 percent Loamy sand SM Non- to slightly plastic Sandy loam SM Slightly plastic SC Plastic Loam, silty loam ML Slightly plastic CL Plastic Silt ML Slightly plastic Clay loam, silty clay loam CL Liquid limit less than 50; plastic ML-CL Liquid limit less than 50; slightly plastic CH Liquid limit more than 50; high shrink-swell clays MH Liquid limit more than 50; mica, iron oxide, kaolinite clays Sandy clay loam SC Plastic; fines less than 50 percent CL Plastic; fines more than 50 percent Clay, silty clay CH LL > 50; high shrink-swell clays (for example, montmorillonite clays) MH LL > 50; mica, iron oxide, low shrink-swell clays (for example, kaolinite clays) CL Liquid limit less than 50; generally less than 45 percent clay 1 USDA textural classes as defined in Table 4. 2 Fines: silt + clay particles smaller than 0.075 mm; degree of plasticity as in Chapter 8 .
Language:English
Score: 1573150.9 - https://www.fao.org/fishery/st...ng/General/x6706e/x6706e11.htm
Data Source: un