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UN Search International Year of Chemistry, 2011 UN Home Main Page Background Global Experiment Events Videos UN Resolution Resources UN Observances Resources United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Natural Sciences: Celebrating Chemistry in 2011 International Year of Chemistry Chemistry: SCIENCE Water: A chemical solution Visualisation of Climate Change Project UNESCO Science Report 2010 Chemistry and Life International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Year of Chemistry United Nations Environment Programme UNEP Chemicals Branch UNEP Annual Report 2009: Good Chemistry – Promoting Synergies Among Chemicals and Wastes-related Conventions Others Nobel Prize in Chemistry Copyright | Terms of Use | Privacy Notice | Site Index | Fraud Alert | Contact Us
Language:English
Score: 993306 - https://www.un.org/en/events/chemistry2011/resources.shtml
Data Source: un
It was brought to the Committee’s attention that in the case of purely domestic flights the Convention applied where the aircraft was leased to a State other than the State of Registration whereas the Convention did not apply to such flights in the State of Registration. (...) The Convention would not apply to aircraft operating purely domestic flights in the State of Registration. (...) In light of these developments and the frequency with which this type of arrangement takes place the application of the Convention in relation to purely domestic flights should be reassessed. 6.3 Where an offence takes place in relation to an aircraft carrying out air services between two points in one State, with no connection to an international flight, and the offender is found in the territory of that State the offence is not of an international nature but rather a purely domestic criminal offence and should be regarded as such.
Language:English
Score: 988238.4 - https://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/restr/doc05_en.pdf
Data Source: un
For the purposes of this clause, salts, esters, ethers, polymorphs, metabolites, pure form, particl e size, isomers, mixtures of isomers, complexes, combinations and other derivatives of known substance shall be considered to be the same substance, unless they differ significantly in properties with regard to efficacy ; 9 engelhard@boehmert.de "non -inventions“ Example India "non -inventions“ Example India The following are not inventions within the meaning of the Act: •(e) a substance obtained by a mere admixture resulting only in the aggregation of the properties of the components thereof or a process for producing such substance ; •… •(i) any process for the medicinal, surgical, curati ve, prophylactic, diagnostic, therapeutic or other treatment of human beings or … of animals to render them free of disease or to increase their economic value •(j) plants and animals in whole or any part thereof •… •(p) an invention which in effect, is traditional knowledge… 10 engelhard@boehmert.de “exclusions“ Example US “exclusions“ Example US No statutory provisions of exclusions, BUT: • Abstract ideas • Natural phenomena • Products of nature • Laws of nature excluded by case law 11 engelhard@boehmert.de Exceptions to patentability (Europe)Exceptions to patentability (Europe) Patents shall not be granted in respect of: (a) inventions the commercial exploitation of which would be contrary to "ordre public" or morality ; such exploitation shall not be deemed to be so contrary merely because it is prohibited by law or regulation in some or all of the Contracting States; (b) plant or animal varieties or essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals; this provision shall not apply to microbiological processes or the products thereof; (c) methods for treatment of the human or animal body by surgery or therapy and diagnostic methods practised on the human or animal body; this provision shall not apply to products, in particular substances or compositions, for use in any of these methods. 12 engelhard@boehmert.de Pharma subject matterPharma subject matter Physical entities: • substances, compounds, compositions, formulations Activities: • methods of synthesis, methods of manufacture, methods of formulating, methods of treatment • Uses, incl. use as a medicine in general (“1st medical indication”), use as a medicine for the treatment of specific disease (“2nd or furthermedical indication”) 13 engelhard@boehmert.de Pharma subject matterPharma subject matter Physical entities claimed in: • Product claims (substance, compound, salt, cystal form, solvate etc.) (...) Claim: A compound having the structure Wherein M+ represents a cation, and R represents n- hexyl, n-octyl, 2-ethylhexyl, 3,5,5-trimethylhexyl, or n- decyl novel 27 engelhard@boehmert.de Novelty new forms/parameters Scenario:Prior art discloses amorphous form and a crystalline form of compound A Invention: specific polymorph which has specific characteristics as determined by XRPD, IR, DSC, mp - Disclose such characteristics in the application - Disclose also alternative characteristics (secondary bands, peak intensities, peak patterns, spectra, recording conditions of such characteristics) 28 engelhard@boehmert.de Novelty new forms/parameters - Disclose also method of production of new polymorph ( product-by-process claim) - Include discussion of advantages and/or unexpected effects associated with such polymorph (because of T0777/08) - Include comparative data (or be prepared to obtain and procure them) 29 engelhard@boehmert.de Novelty purity Scenario: Prior art discloses mixture of two crystalline forms A and B of a compound; pure form A is not described/disclosed in the prior art Invention: method for the production of pure form A 30 engelhard@boehmert.de Novelty purity Method for the production of pure form A Pure form A of compound …, obtainable by a method comprising the steps … Beware of T990/96 and related decisions: “A document disclosing a low molecular weight compound and its manufacture makes normally available this compound to the public in all degrees of purity “ Include in the application a rationale why pure form was so far not available 31 engelhard@boehmert.de Novelty Second medical use claims Use of compound X (for the manufacture of a medicament) for the treatment of y (G005/83, G006/83, EPC 2000) „Swiss-type claims“ 32 engelhard@boehmert.de Second medical use claims Scenario: Pharmaceutical substance is known but its suitability for the treatment of a disease is not known in the prior art. (...) DSM 2247, at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, DSM, in accordance with the Budapest Treaty, and which are designated A3C6E2.” 60 engelhard@boehmert.de Example: Inventive step under the EPC Prior art discloses: - monoclonals specific to SCF-receptor of type IgG 2A - methods of production of monoclonals Invention uses: specific cell line for production of monoclonal - produces different type of monoclonal (IgG 1) - monoclonal is easier to purify (no cross reactivities) - has higher affinity to its natural ligand 61 engelhard@boehmert.de Example: Inventive step under the EPC Someone skilled in the art had: no incentive to use specific cell line, no reasonable expectation of success of obtaining a specific antibody with very specific qualities 62 engelhard@boehmert.de Example: Inventive Step under the EPC Confirming a reasonably expected result experimentally does not give rise to inventive step: T 249/88.
Language:English
Score: 984190.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/tr...ability_trilatworkshop15_e.pdf
Data Source: un
Natural Resources and Governance: Incentives for Sustainable Resource Use. (...) Not incidentally, governance is GTZ’s annual theme in 2004. Relative to purely technical aspects, the political and the institutional dimensions of our practical work have grown to be more and more prominent. (...) We analyse incentive mechanisms that foster the misuse and overexploitation of natural resources, and identify approaches how to direct these patterns towards a more sustainable development in a market economy context.
Language:English
Score: 983410.6 - https://www.fao.org/policy-sup...resources-details/fr/c/445384/
Data Source: un
Natural Resources and Governance: Incentives for Sustainable Resource Use. (...) Not incidentally, governance is GTZ’s annual theme in 2004. Relative to purely technical aspects, the political and the institutional dimensions of our practical work have grown to be more and more prominent. (...) We analyse incentive mechanisms that foster the misuse and overexploitation of natural resources, and identify approaches how to direct these patterns towards a more sustainable development in a market economy context.
Language:English
Score: 983410.6 - https://www.fao.org/policy-sup...resources-details/es/c/445384/
Data Source: un
Natural Resources and Governance: Incentives for Sustainable Resource Use. (...) Not incidentally, governance is GTZ’s annual theme in 2004. Relative to purely technical aspects, the political and the institutional dimensions of our practical work have grown to be more and more prominent. (...) We analyse incentive mechanisms that foster the misuse and overexploitation of natural resources, and identify approaches how to direct these patterns towards a more sustainable development in a market economy context.
Language:English
Score: 983410.6 - https://www.fao.org/policy-sup...resources-details/ru/c/445384/
Data Source: un
Today 118 elements have been identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth and the remaining 24 are synthetic.  (...) Modern observations indicate that chemical elements account for about 5% of the total mass-energy of the Universe, and most are provided by “dark” energy (69%) and “dark” matter (26%), the nature of which is still unknown. Powerful quantum predictive methods were developed in the search for new elements, leading to the discoveries of new materials and novel chemical phenomena and expanding the boundaries of knowledge. (...) It is led by UNESCO together with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Science (EuCheMS), the International Science Council (ISC), the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science and Technology (IUHPST).  
Language:English
Score: 976413.9 - https://en.unesco.org/news/per...mical-elements-window-universe
Data Source: un
Search Close Search UNICEF Fulltext search Max Page Protecting Every Child's Potential in Ghana Creating a lead-poisoning free future for every child in Ghana Globally, up to 800 million children have blood levels indicative of lead poisoning. Lead is a naturally occurring element found in the earth's crust. (...) On 30 July 2020, US non-profit Pure Earth, Clarios Foundation, and UNICEF announced a three-year partnership to work together as founding partners of the Protecting Every Child’s Potential (PECP) initiative to prevent children’s exposure to lead. (...) UNICEF has also supported a clinic in Abgogbloshie with medical equipment to support child and maternal health and emergency health services. UNICEF, Pure Earth and partners are also supporting the Government of Ghana with the needed research, data and tools required to reduce lead poisoning.
Language:English
Score: 975684.3 - https://www.unicef.org/ghana/p...g-every-childs-potential-ghana
Data Source: un
Microsoft Word - Decree No 9-2009 On Regulation on Inspection Charges Levied on Imported Goods.doc YSMO Regulation on Inspection charges levied on imported goods No. section Custom item Commodity Group Item Description acco unt unit charges Fils/ YR from to 1 2 2.01 2.10 Meat and fish and their products Meat and its products kg 0.40 2 3 3.01 3.07 Fish and crustaceans and their products Fish and fish products kg 0.40 3 4 4.01 4.05 Dairy products Dairy products kg 0.50 4.06 Cheese kg 0.70 4.07 4.08 Eggs and their products kg 0.50 4.09 Honey kg 0.85 4.10 Other products kg 0.50 4 7 7.01 7.14 Edible vegetables Vegetables kg 0.35 5 8 8.01 8.14 Edible fruits Fruits kg 0.35 6 9 9.01 9.10 Coffee, tea, Coffee, spices and condiments kg 0.60 9.02 - condiments, spices, Tea kg 0.25 7 10 10.01 10.08 Grain Wheat and mixture of wheat and rye, barley, oats, corn, rice, beans, black wheat, millet,, birds beans, etc - cost of fixed category to be applied 8 11 11.01 11.09 mills Products mills Products kg 0.20 9 12 12.01 12.14 Oil seeds and fruits Seeds( Soya beans, peanuts, coconut pulp, linen, sunflower, sesame, flour and semolina seed, seeds and fruits used in perfumes kg 0.70 10 15 15.02 15.22 Oils and fats and their products Greases and oils and vegetable fats and animal products kg 0.22 11 16 16.01 16.05 Aquatic Products Crustoceans and fish products, meat and invertebrates kg 0.40 12 17 17.01 17.02 Sugar Products(sweets) Sugar cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, and other types of sugar (maltose) kg cost of fixed category to be applied 17.03 - Molasses (molasses) kg 0.70 17.04 - Sugar confectionery (candy and soft, halva, candles kg 0.60 17.04.1 - Gum kg 0.75 13 18 18.01 18.06 Cocoa and products Cocoa and products kg 0.80 14 19 19.01 19.05 Products based on grain or flour, starch or milk Pastes, powders, biscuits, and Weaver, pastries, corn flakes kg 0.80 15 20 20.01 20.06 Vegetable and fruit products Other products from vegetables or fruit and fruits, and parts of plants preserved by vinegar or otherwise kg 0.40 20.07 - Jam, Marmalade, Fruit puree kg 0.50 20.08 - Fruit, nuts, and parts kg 0.40 20.09 - fruit and vegetable Juice kg 0.35 16 21 21.01 - Coffee and tea concentrates and its products kg 0.60 21.02 - Yeast powder kg 0.50 21.03 - Sauce products and ingredients, mixed seasoning kg 0.40 21.04 - Miscellaneous food products Flour and powdered mustard, and their products. kg 0.50 21.05 - Iced products kg 0.40 21.06 - Other food products ( cream caramel, food powder, supplementary children foods) kg 0.50 17 22 22.01 Natural mineral water, soft drinks and vinegar and its alternatives Mineral water, soft drinks with no sugar and flavors kg 0.20 22.02 Water minerals, carbonated, unsweetened, and unflavored ,sweetened and flavored soft drinks kg 0.25 22.09 Vinegar and its edible alternatives kg 0.40 18 23 23.01 23.09 Animal food Animal fodder and animal food made from flour and plants…etc kg 0.10 19 24 24.01 Tobacco and its products Raw tobacco or unprocessed tobacco kg 0.60 24.02 24.03 Cigarettes, cigar, other typed made from tobacco and its alternatives kg 1.00 20 25 25.01 Mineral products salt kg 0.30 25.02 25.30 Other metal products ( cement, lime and mica etc. - cost of fixed category to be applied 21 26 26.01 26.21 Metal ores Metal ores and concentrates, its remnants, impurities and ashes( zinc, titanium, chrome etc..), - cost of fixed category to be applied 22 27 27.01 27.08 Fuel and mineral oil Briquette, gas coal etc kg cost of fixed category to be applied 27.09 27.10 Oil, oil from mineral products, Bituminous minerals, raw or un-raw and its products - 0.50 27.11 27.16 Petroleum jelly, petroleum gases, oil tar etc.. - cost of fixed category to be applied 23 28 28.01 28.53 Non-organic chemical products and organic and non- organic compounds - cost of fixed category to be applied etc. 24 29 29.01 29.42 Organic chemical products, - cost of fixed category to be applied 25 31 31.01 31.05 fertilizers Fertilizers ( from animal or plant origin, nitrogen, phosphate or potassium based) mineral or chemical kg 0.20 26 32 32.01 32.15 Paints, coloring, tanning, dying and inks Paint and varnish, putty, and printing inks…etc kg 0.75 27 33 33.01 33.04 Materials and Cosmetics Perfumes, oils, perfume mixtures and cosmetic kg 1.50 33.05 33.06 Hair care products, mouth and teeth kg 1.20 33.07 Products used before, during and after shaving and deodorant kg 1.50 28 34 34.01 34.07 except 34.02 Soaps and detergents Soap, lubricating products, synthetic candles for lighting, detergents, polishers in the form of spreads and paste kg 0.50 34.02 Manufactured detergents (washing preparations) kg 0.60 29 35 35.01 35.07 Albuminoidal substances, modified starches, gluten, enzymes Glue, enzymes, bomin and its salts and derivates kg 0.60 30 36 36.05 Safety matches Safety matches kg 0.75 31 37 37.01 37.07 Product of Photography and Film Cardboard sheets, textile, and chemical products for photography etc. kg cost of fixed category to be applied 32 38 38.01 38.24 Miscellaneous chemical products Graphite, washing solvent, resin acid, pesticides, rodent killers , anti weed compounds..etc kg cost of fixed category to be applied 38.14 Organic solvents and compound thinners kg 0.75 38.19 38.20 Hydraulic brake fluids and transformation of movement and anti-freezing kg 0.50 33 39 39.01 39.26 Plastics and affiliated industries Polymers ( ethylene, propylene, styrene, vinyl acetate, acrylics, Pipes, tubes, hoses, fittings, - cost of fixed category to be applied 34 40 40.01 40.17 Products (natural - Sheets - Sheet - renew - residues and - cost of fixed category to Rubber and its industrial products scraps and wastes - composite and other forms) of rubber, threads, pipes, tubes, gloves be applied 40.11 40.13 Tires 1.50 35 41 41.01 41.15 Leather Raw leather or suede or equipped kg 0.50 36 42 42.01 42.06 Leather product Leather (Bags of all kinds - Bags - Wallets - Clothing and accessories dresses - Other products ....) of leather or renew leather kg 0.75 37 43 43.01 43.04 Fur and leather products: natural or artificial Fur skins (raw - tanned - Equipped - Clothes and supplies for dresses) and their products natural or artificial kg 0.60 38 44 44.01 44.21 Timber and its industrial products Timber and its industrial products - cost of fixed category to be applied 39 45 45.01 45.04 Cork and its manufactures Cork (natural - raw - prepared - waste - crushed - powder - - cost of fixed category to blocks - boards - plates) and its products be applied 40 47 47.01 47.07 Pulp of wood, fibrous cellulosic material Pulp (wood mechanism - chemical wood - wood and chemical mechanism - waste and waste paper and cardboard - materials for the fibrous - cost of fixed category to be applied 41 48 48.01 48.23 except 48.18 Paper and paperboard and its manufactures Paper (for printing and writing, Carbon paper, cellophane, Kraft, books, cigarettes, wax, engineering drawing, carburetor self) boxes and bags and packages kg 0.30 48.18 Toilet paper - tissues - blankets and towels for desks and tables - towels and healthy raincoats - diapers - and the linings of children and health related items - clothing and accessories kg 1.20 42 50-63 50.01 63.10 Spinning and weaving products Includes all products, yarn and textile industries - garments and accessories - Textiles - Yarns of all kinds - carpets and floor coverings - blankets - traveling rugs - packing bags - cost of fixed category to be applied - Woven drink - stuffing the Felt - curtains - furniture - textile fibers ... etc 43 64 64.01 64.06 Shoes and the like and parts Shoes (plastics - Rubber leather or composition leather - textile materials ... etc) and its parts kg 0.60 44 65 65.01 65.07 Headgear and its parts Hats and headgear caps - cost of fixed category to be applied 45 66 66.01 66.03 Umbrellas (rain and sun) and sticks Umbrellas for (rain- sun) - sticks - and its parts - cost of fixed category to be applied 46 67 67.02 Artificial flowers and leaves Flowers, leaves and artificial fruits and its parts - cost of fixed category to be applied 47 68 68.01 68.03 Articles of stone or cement Paving stones, paving roads - cost of fixed category to be applied 68.04 Cutting and grinding stones kg 0.85 68.05 68.15 Powders or granules of material provoking natural or artificial pregnant - Articles of cement, stone or plaster ... friction tools - cost of fixed category to be applied 48 69 69.01 69.05 Ceramic products Bricks and blocks and Tiles and tiles and pieces of pottery, brick building, brick ... etc kg 0.15 69.06 Pipes and tubes, and its links and its parts of ceramic kg cost of fixed category to be applied 69.07 69.08 Ceramic products (tiles - tiles) and similar items 0.30 69.09 69.14 Ceramic products (wash basins - Sinks - Sinks and rules - utensils and tableware, kitchen or home - statues - Equipment and varieties of laboratories) 0.40 49 70 70.01 70.20 Glass products Glass and mirrors (flat - Drawn - blown - polished - engraved - Pierced - Insulator, etc. ... bottles and bottles and Jugs and pipes - products and tools are made of glass ... etc. - cost of fixed category to be applied 50 71 71.01 71.17 Expensive metals , jewelry and precious metal Pearl - diamond - gemstones or semi-precious - silver - gold platinum – jewels, jewelry ... etc - the Regulation of standards and jewelry to be applied 51 72 72.01 72.29 Iron ,and steel Primary products of iron in the - cost of fixed form of granules or powder products, flat-rolled bars and rods, and the corners and bars and rods, angles category to be applied 52 73 73.01 73.26 Iron made products Pillars and corners, and supplies for bars rails iron or steel - bridges and parts of bridges - Tanks, drums and tanks - receptacles for compressed or liquefied gas - wire - ropes - and cable - screws - nuts - cost of fixed category to be applied 53 74 74.01 74.19 Copper and its products Copper (half the stuff - pure - not pure - copper alloys - waste and scrap – key alloys - chips and powders) - cost of fixed category to be applied 54 75 75.01 75.08 Nickel and its products Nickel (half-raw - raw - felted - waste and scrap - chips and powder) ... etc - cost of fixed category to be applied 55 76 76.01 76.16 Aluminum and its products Aluminum (raw - scrap and waste - powders and flakes) tableware - cost of fixed category to be applied 56 78 78.01 78.06 Lead and its products Lead and its products - cost of fixed category to be applied 57 79 79.01 79.07 Zinc and its products Zinc and its products - cost of fixed category to be applied 58 80 80.01 80.07 Tin and its products Tin and its products - cost of fixed category to be applied 59 81 81.01 81.13 Other base metals, metal alloys, ceramics and cermets its manufactures Tungsten - - tantalum - magnesium - cobalt - manganese - titanium ...) and their products - cost of fixed category to be applied 60 82 82.01 82.15 Tools, and cutting and table tools of ordinary base/ metal Shovels - mattocks - shovels - hand saws - files - pliers - cutters screws - wrenches,. etc. - cost of fixed category to be applied 61 83 83.01 82.11 Miscellaneous types of base / ordinary metal Locks - bolts – to fix furniture and doors - Cabinets - Safe boxes of files - bells, and bells - pipes and tubes - plugs and covers ...etc - cost of fixed category to be applied 62 84 84.01 84.78 Boilers, machinery, equipments, machine tools and its parts Boilers and equipment to assist them used to generate the generator - turbines - combustion engines - pumps - fans refrigerators - freezers - heaters - sprinklers - washing machines - extinguishers ... etc - cost of fixed category to be applied 84.23 weight, counting & adjustment equipment, and balance adjustment - the Regulation of standards to be applied 63 85 85.01 85.48 Machinery and electrical equipment Electric motors and generators - electric transformers - electrical apparatus for domestic use - hanger combustion and parts - electric transformers - vacuum cleaners - electronics for domestic use - phones - cameras - TV …etc - cost of fixed category to be applied 64 87 87.01 87.05 Automotive, its parts and its fittings Small vehicles, medium and light transport and trucks and buses (used and new) - the fee of transport means list to be applied 87.06 87.08 Structures and hulls and parts and accessories for vehicles - cost of fixed category to be applied 87.11 87.14 Motorcycles and ordinary two-wheeled carts and the disabled and their parts and fittings - cost of fixed category to be applied 87.15 Children transporting vehicles - cost of fixed category to be applied 65 90 90.01 90.14 Tools and equipment for optics, photography and measurement Lenses, sunglasses, their parts and cameras - cost of fixed category to be applied 90.15 90.17 Measurement tools for space, dimensions and weights - the regulation of standards to be applied 90.17 90.24 90.25 90.26 Measure tools for density, pressure and humidity - the regulation of standards to be applied 90.28 90.32 Counters for gases and liquids, electricity, cars and spaces and their parts and fittings - the regulation of standards and jewelry to be applied 66 95 95.01 95.03 Toys & community games for entertainment and sports Bicycles, vehicles and models of entertainment and children's toys with engine or by other means - cost of fixed category to be applied 67 96 96.01 96.17 Miscellaneous manufactured articles Cosmetics (for nails - toilet and clean brushes for shoes and clothing - buttons staplers - pens - combs - fasteners hair - scent receptacles dielectric buffer ... etc.) - cost of fixed category to be applied Fixed categories No.
Language:English
Score: 975391.8 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...e/yem_e/WTACCYEM33A2_LEG_1.pdf
Data Source: un
Themes Festivals Documentary Heritage Intangible Cultural Heritage Languages and Endangered Languages Movable Heritage and Artefacts Traditional Craftsmanship Underwater Heritage World Cultural Heritage World Natural Heritage, Biosphere Reserves and Geoparks In Action Cities Institutions Museums Publications Knowledge Bank Countries Silk Roads Photo Contest UnescoLogo_AI Building peace in the minds of men and women Search English English Français Русский العربية 中文 Español Traditional Ainu dance © Ainu Association of Hokkaido The Ainu are an indigenous people who today live mostly in Hokkaidō in northern Japan. (...) Some dances imitate the calls and movements of animals or insects; others, like the sword and bow dances, are rituals; and still others are improvisational or purely entertainment. Believing that deities can be found in their surroundings, the Ainu frequently use dance to worship and give thanks for nature. (...) For the Ainu, dance reinforces their connection to the natural and religious world and provides a link to other Arctic cultures in Russia and North America.
Language:English
Score: 974604.7 - https://en.unesco.org/silkroad...eritage/traditional-ainu-dance
Data Source: un