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ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 8 ITU-T Service definitions with real-time text o Definition of the real-time text for conversation is found in ITU-T F.700 Multimedia Service description framework o Use of real-time text in services is defined in ITU-T F.703 Multi-media Conversational Services, and F.724 IP Video telephony • Text telephony= real-time text and voice • Total Conversation= real-time text, video and voice ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 9 ITU-T Occasions when real-time text is important o with deaf people, when the users do not lip- read or use sign language o with deaf-blind people o with signing deaf people when video is not available o with hard-of-hearing people o with speech-impaired people o when environment requires silence o when spoken language difficulties arise o for all when exactness is important ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 10 ITU-T Quality requirements on real-time text o Smoothness of presentation of real-time text • Text may be blocked for more efficient transmission in up to 500 ms intervals. • But presentation should be made smoothly character by character. • Chunky presentation of text creates a very uneasy feeling by users • ( research by Omnitor 2005 ) ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 11 ITU-T Example of a Total Conversation user interface o Video, text and voice: standardised o Simple extension of the videophone concept o Service standardised in ITU-T F.700-series o Fulfills a large variety of user needs ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 12 ITU-T Video quality for sign language and lip reading o Good sign language and lip reading perception needs 25 frames/s o Good sign language and lip reading perception needs 352* 288 pixels o Good conversation need delays <400 ms o With good video coding this is achievable from 100 kbit/s o Too few products perform well today on affordable connections. (...) ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 18 ITU-T Video quality example ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 19 ITU-T Video requirements documented o Video requirements for sign language and lip reading is documented in: • ITU-T H-series Supplement 1. ”Application profile – Sign language and lip-reading real-time conversation using low bit-rate video communication” • Include this reference in all work on video quality. (...) ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 23 ITU-T Good for all – accessibility features add value to mainstream services •Video for feelings, acknowledgement etc •Voice for the main dialogue •Text for addresses, language problems, noise compensation … ( picture from Yoshio Utsumi, General secretary of ITU, and Sylvia Petter, ITU trying Total Conversation demo in UN-days 2001 ) ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 24 ITU-T Needs in NGN and future work (continued) • An accessibility checklist is created to ensure accessibility in new standards and designs • Reminds standardisers on media needs • Provided to NGN standardisers from Q.26/16 ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 25 ITU-T Conclusions o The key to accessibility: Provide more media alternatives. o Respect the video performance requirements for sign language and lip reading o Provide real-time text for fluent interaction o Wider audio bands may give hard-of-hearing users a chance o Learn more from ITU-T Q.26/16 ITU-T Workshop on “End-to-End QoE/QoS“ Geneva, 14-16 June 2006 26 ITU-T Slide author: Gunnar Hellström, Omnitor e-mail gunnar.hellstrom@omnitor.se Tel: +46 708 204 288 Fax: +46 8 556 002 06 www.omnitor.se Andrea Saks e-mail. asaks@waitrose.com http://www.omnitor.se/ Quality of conversation experience in sign language, lip-reading and text Some people need to communicate in alternative media Time for an accessible replacement of the voice telephone Specific requirements on media from use with people with disabilities ITU-T Q.26/16 Accessibility of multimedia Real Time text conversation Quality requirements on real-time text Service definitions with real-time text Occasions when real-time text is important Quality requirements on real-time text Example of a Total Conversation user interface Video quality for sign language and lip reading Example 1 from fingerspelling Example 2 from fingerspelling Video quality example Video quality example Video requirements documented Video camera requirements Example of usability for hard-of-hearing and deaf adults Example from between deaf sign language users Good for all – accessibility features add value to mainstream services Needs in NGN and future work (continued) Conclusions Slide author: Gunnar Hellström, Omnitor
Language:English
Score: 1208120.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...06/presentations/s6p2-saks.pdf
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This real time text differs from instant messaging systems because it is the transmission bi-directionally of one character at a time. This gives the user the feel of real-time communication, just like voice or video systems that transport streaming media over IP. The concept is aimed at providing for rich media real time conversation for all people and for varying situations.
Language:English
Score: 1142824.4 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/2005...ccessibility/conversation.html
Data Source: un
It defines reference model, requirements and functionality that facilitate, via an assistive intermediary (i.e., real time captioner or via voice recognition software), to enable the inclusive meeting participation of person either on site or remotely. (...) The Velotype keyboard is an example of chord-keyboard. 3.2.8 transcription: In the linguistic sense, it is the systematic representation of language in written form. 4 Abbreviations ASR Automatic speech recognition CART Communication access real time translation KPI Key performance indicator MT Machine translation RTC Real time captioning S2ST Speech-to-speech translation STTR Speech to text reporter WPM Words per minute 5 Conventions None. 6 Background 6.1 What is remote captioning? (...) If the source and target language are the same language, then MT is a trivial text-to-text conversion with no changes. 8.1.2 Service description of S2ST for real-time captioning or communication access real time translation This S2ST process can be modified for real-time captioning (RTC) to produce a speech-to-text effect, in the following way (see Figure 8-1): R em o te c ap ti o n er Live audio feed Live event/ meeting Live text file Text displayed at event site and individual devices FSTP-ACC-RCS (2018-07) 5 1.
Language:English
Score: 1120401.5 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it...UT-FSTP-2018-ACC.RCS-PDF-E.pdf
Data Source: un
The impact of regulation changes the variance used in the real options model. For example, the price cap or discounted access charges or other regulatory devices dampen the possibility of a high return contract, thus affecting the variance of returns. (...) REAL OPTIONS What are real options? A financial option is the right to buy (a call) or sell (a put) a stock, but not the obligation, at a given price within a certain period of time. (...) The deferral option is the one that is generally illustrated and is treated as analogous to a call option. But real options analysis can be applied to evaluation of other management alternatives, for example shutdown and restart, time-to-build, or extend the life of a project or enterprise.
Language:English
Score: 1118829.9 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...k-management/alleman-paper.pdf
Data Source: un
“ San Diego, 9-11 May 2006 4 ITU-T Real Time text conversation Why do you need real-time text transmission? Because then you get a live conversation suitable for a real time call. Yes, I see, I can read your thoughts at the moment you express them. (...) “ San Diego, 9-11 May 2006 22 ITU-T Slide author: Gunnar Hellström, Omnitor e-mail gunnar.hellstrom@omnitor.se Tel: +46 708 204 288 Fax: +46 8 556 002 06 www.omnitor.se http://www.omnitor.se/ Accessibility in New Emerging Networks and Services Some people need to communicate in alternative media Time for an accessible replacement of the voice telephone Real Time text conversation Example of a Total Conversation user interface Example with deaf-blind user Example of usability for hard-of-hearing Example from user with speech impairment Example from between deaf users Example from deaf and hearing persons Value added serviceVideo relay service Good for all – accessibility features add value to mainstream services Achievements in Accessibility standardisation for personal communication Needs in NGN and future work Needs in NGN and future work (continued) Accessibility Checklist for standards work Accessibility checklist Traditional accessibility design golden rules Accessibility checklist contents Consider the following topics with a wide selection of media Conclusions Slide author: Gunnar Hellström, Omnitor
Language:English
Score: 1118366 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/work...05/presentations/s1p7-saks.pdf
Data Source: un
Unlike shocks to the flow demand or flow supply, speculative demand shocks can cause large immediate effects on the real price of oil, for example in response to geopolitical events. (...) This response pattern differs sharply from the typical effect of higher energy prices driven by shocks to the speculative demand for crude oil, for example, or by shocks to the flow supply of crude oil, but it helps explain why the 2003-08 surge in the real price of oil did not create a major recession long before the global financial crisis. One direct implication of recent models of the endogenous determination of the real price of oil is that conventional estimates of the response to unanticipated oil price changes are best thought of as the response to an average oil price shock and in practice may be sensitive to the sample period, as the composition of the underlying demand and supply shocks evolves over time.
Language:English
Score: 1117199.5 - https://www.wto.org/english/re...r10_forum_e/wtr10_kilian_e.htm
Data Source: un
Unlike shocks to the flow demand or flow supply, speculative demand shocks can cause large immediate effects on the real price of oil, for example in response to geopolitical events. (...) This response pattern differs sharply from the typical effect of higher energy prices driven by shocks to the speculative demand for crude oil, for example, or by shocks to the flow supply of crude oil, but it helps explain why the 2003-08 surge in the real price of oil did not create a major recession long before the global financial crisis. One direct implication of recent models of the endogenous determination of the real price of oil is that conventional estimates of the response to unanticipated oil price changes are best thought of as the response to an average oil price shock and in practice may be sensitive to the sample period, as the composition of the underlying demand and supply shocks evolves over time.
Language:English
Score: 1117199.5 - https://www.wto.org/spanish/re...r10_forum_s/wtr10_kilian_s.htm
Data Source: un
Unlike shocks to the flow demand or flow supply, speculative demand shocks can cause large immediate effects on the real price of oil, for example in response to geopolitical events. (...) This response pattern differs sharply from the typical effect of higher energy prices driven by shocks to the speculative demand for crude oil, for example, or by shocks to the flow supply of crude oil, but it helps explain why the 2003-08 surge in the real price of oil did not create a major recession long before the global financial crisis. One direct implication of recent models of the endogenous determination of the real price of oil is that conventional estimates of the response to unanticipated oil price changes are best thought of as the response to an average oil price shock and in practice may be sensitive to the sample period, as the composition of the underlying demand and supply shocks evolves over time.
Language:English
Score: 1117199.5 - https://www.wto.org/french/res...r10_forum_f/wtr10_kilian_f.htm
Data Source: un
It defines reference model, requirements and functionality that facilitate, via an assistive intermediary (i.e., real time captioner or via voice recognition software), to enable the inclusive meeting participation of person either on site or remotely. (...) The Velotype keyboard is an example of chord-keyboard. 3.2.8 transcription: In the linguistic sense, it is the systematic representation of language in written form. 4 Abbreviations ASR Automatic speech recognition CART Communication access real time translation KPI Key performance indicator MT Machine translation RTC Real time captioning S2ST Speech-to-speech translation STTR Speech to text reporter WPM Words per minute 5 Conventions None. 6 Background 6.1 What is remote captioning? (...) R em o te c ap ti o n er Live audio feed Live event/ meeting Live text file Text displayed at event site and individual devices FSTP-ACC-RCS (2019-10) 5 8.1.2 Service description of S2ST for real-time captioning or communication access real time translation This S2ST process can be modified for real-time captioning (RTC) to produce a speech-to-text effect, in the following way (see Figure 8-1): 1.
Language:English
Score: 1114747.7 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it...UT-FSTP-2019-ACC.RCS-PDF-E.pdf
Data Source: un
This project is tasked with developing an ITU-T recommendation which addresses Real-Time Audio/Visual Conversational Services Applications. (...) The term “real-time” is a primary distinguishing feature of this audio/visual application class. (...) Due to the large number of likely transmission media and the wide variations in the media error and channel characteristics, error resiliency and error recovery are critical requirements for this application class. Specific examples of Real-Time Audio/Visual Conversational Services Applications include the video telephone (videophone), videoconferencing (multipoint videophone with individuals and/or groups), cooperative work (usually involves conversational interaction and data communication), symmetric remote expert (i.e., medical or mechanical assistance), and symmetric remote classroom.
Language:English
Score: 1104865.4 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a...deo-site/9604_Dal/lbc96137.doc
Data Source: un