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ASSESSMENT OF TURKEY
Debt postponements ( 11) ( 15) ( 28) ( 29) ( 28) c» Refinancing - - ( 8) ( 22) ( 20) /... A/CN.2/R.233 English Page 6 BALANCE OF PAYMENTS (continued) $US million 1963 1963+ 1965 1966 1967 IV.
Language:English
Score: 838906.4 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...et?open&DS=A/CN.2/R.233&Lang=E
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REPORT OF THE AD HOC EXPERT MEETING ON APPLICATIONS OF STRUCTURED COMMODITY FINANCE TECHNIQUES FOR COMMODITY-DEPENDENT COUNTRIES HELD IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL, FROM 19 TO 21 MAY 1999
Experts also noted the existence of special discount (that is, refinancing) windows for trade-related paper at the Federal Reserve of the United States as well as the Bank of England. 10.Although these discount windows were set up to provide liquidity to agricultural finance in these countries, the facilities do not discriminate as to the origin of the paper which is offered for discounting. (...) These discount windows provide very low-cost refinancing possibilities for credit to the rural sector worldwide, as long as this credit is structured through the issuance of trade- related paper.
Language:English
Score: 838778.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...UNCTAD/ITCD/COM/MISC.39&Lang=E
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SUMMARY RECORD OF THE 25TH MEETING : 2ND COMMITTEE, HELD ON WEDNESDAY, 30 OCTOBER 1991, NEW YORK, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 46TH SESSION
In particular, the provisions of the 1991 Paris Club agreement offered encouraging prospects for the relief of Jamaica’s debt, as the portion of that debt which was owed to multilateral financial institutions (36 per cent) was not restructurable, while commercial bank debt (10 per cent) was comparatively small and did not provide significant relief des:?ite the refinancing and conversion arrangements. 26. There was need for a more positive approach in dealing with the debt owed to multilateral financial institutions and, in that connection, mention should be made of chapter V of the Secretary-General’s report (A/46/415), where it was indicated, among other things, that in 1990 that debt had reached about $235 billion, which corresponded to over 19 per cent of the total stock of debt owed by those countries. (...) Although non-concessional loans represented leas than 10 per cent of the least developed countries’ debt, those loans accounted for 40 per cent of their debt-service obligations to multilateral institutions; accordingly, a8 a first step towards debt relief, measures should be adopted to reduce those obligations, With the exceptjon of those which could adversely affect the financjal viability of multilateral institutions, all possible solutions should be considered1 the refinancing scheme established by the World Bank might prove useful in that regard and could alao serve as a point of departure for planning further measures. (...) A significant restructuring of the multilateral debt of the least developed countries could be achieved on the basis of refinancing which met the specific economic needs of individual countries. 44.
Language:English
Score: 838736.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/C.2/46/SR.25&Lang=E
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FINANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN SELECTED TRANSITION ECONOMIES / SUBMITTED BY THE UNECE COMMITTEE ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY THROUGH THE AD HOC WORKING GROUP OF SENIOR OFFICIALS
Tax and customs tariffs incentives 15. Another option for countries to promote measures in energy efficiency is through stimulating utilities or the market for technology distribution and providers of energy efficiency services. (...) Since 1998, there has been a regulation stating that all legal entities may be offered credits at favourable interest rates, which is 50% of the National Bank refinancing rate. In addition, any legal entity can receive a credit for introducing an energy saving activity within the existing energy saving framework. 4. (...) In the fllowing years, state-owned banks had overdue loans to state-owned enterprises and these were refinanced with BNB loans. The central Bank lost control over the money supply and the country entered into a financial crisis of hyperinflation in 1996- ECE/BELGRADE.CONF/2007/INF/4 ECE/ENERGY/2007/5 Page 10 1997.
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Score: 834423.5 - HTTP://DACCESS-ODS.UN.ORG/ACCE...ELGRADE.CONF/2007/INF/4&LANG=E
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23 OCTOBER 1992 10:00 A.M.
Significant prnqress bad been made under the voluntary. market-based international debt strategy in tbe area of commercial bank debts. in tbe form of debt reduction or refinancing agreements. whicb bad accounted for 92 per cent of the outstanding commercial bank debt of tbe 16 major debtor countries. (...) Turning to external financial support, he said that the debt buruan of many severely indebted countries was being reduced by measures focused mainly on official debt, which accounted for most of those countries' indebtedness. The concessional options of the December 1991 "enhanced Toronto terms" of the Paris Club amount~1 tc 50 per cant forgiveness in present value terms. from which eight countries had thus far benefited. (...) Serious consideration should be given to permitting those institutions to restructure or defer debt-servicing payments in appropriate cases; while other mechanisms, such as refinancing schemes, should be strengthened, and their scope widened.
Language:English
Score: 834423.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=A/C.2/47/SR.19&Lang=E
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HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY : REPORT OF THE INDEPENDENT EXPERT ON THE QUESTI?ON OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EXTREME POVERTY, ARJUN SENGUPTA
Expanding microfinance facilities, as have been instituted in many developing countries, together with reorienting the existing financial intermediary institutions of a country with adequate refinancing and appropriate risk-sharing, must be taken up in these countries supported by central banks and often by national and international financing institutions. 44.
Language:English
Score: 834423.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...?open&DS=E/CN.4/2005/49&Lang=E
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MACROECONOMIC POLICY QUESTIONS : INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM AND DEVELOPMENT :REPORT OF THE 2ND COMMITTEE : GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 76TH SESSION
A/76/531/Add.3 3/11 21-18124 Emphasizing that debt sustainability is essential for underpinning growth, underlining the importance of debt sustainability, debt transparency and effective debt management to the efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, and acknowledging that debt crises are costly and disruptive, including for employment and productive investment, and tend to be followed by cuts in public spending, including on health and education, affecting the poor and vulnerable in particular, Reaffirming that each country has primary responsibility for its own development, including through maintaining its own debt sustainability, and that the role of national policies and development strategies, including in the area of debt management, is central to the achievement of sustainable development, and recognizing that national efforts, including to achieve development goals and to maintain debt sustainability, should be complemented by supportive global programmes, measures and policies aimed at expanding the development opportunities of developing countries, while taking into account national conditions and ensuring respect for national ownership, strategies and sovereignty, Reiterating that debt sustainability depends on a confluence of many factors at the international and national levels, and emphasizing that country-specific circumstances and the impact of external shocks, such as volatile commodity and energy prices, more intense and frequent natural disasters and international capital flows, should continue to be taken into account in debt sustainability analyses, Expressing concern about the adverse impact of the continuing fragility of the global economy and the slow pace of the restoration of global growth and trade, including the impact on development, cognizant that the global economy remains in a challenging phase, with many downside risks, including net negative capital flows from some emerging and developing economies, continued low commodity prices, high unemployment, in particular among young people, women, persons with disabilities and other people in vulnerable situations, and rising private and public indebtedness in many developing countries, and stressing the need for continuing efforts to address systemic fragilities and imbalances and to reform and strengthen the international financial system while implementing the reforms agreed upon to date to attend to these challenges and to make progress towards sustaining global demand, Expressing deep concern that global growth has remained strongly dependent on unprecedented increases in global debt stocks in the years since the global financial crisis, and, in conjunction with the fast integration of developing countries into international financial markets, including for purposes of debt refinancing, exposes a growing number of developing economies to highly sensitive and amplified reactions to even mildly adverse economic developments, or the perception of such, in financial markets, Underlining that, globally, the gross domestic product growth rate could increase significantly if every country achieved gender equality, and recognizing that the economic and social losses owing to a lack of progress in achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls are significant, Recognizing with concern that, in 2020, the external debt positions of many developing countries had continued to deteriorate, with external debt stocks of developing countries growing by 500 billion United States dollars in 2020 to reach a new record level of 11.3 trillion dollars, that the average ratio of total external debt to gross domestic product rose from 29.9 per cent in 2019 to 32.5 per cent in 2020 and that the cost of servicing external debt obligations now amounts, on average, to A/76/531/Add.3 21-18124 4/11 15.8 per cent of developing countries’ export earnings, the highest level since 2002, as stated in the report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 5 Recognizing with concern also that small island developing States saw their external debt position deteriorate in 2020, reaching new record levels of 54.7 billion dollars and raising the ratio of debt service costs to export revenues from 20.1 per cent in 2019 to 34.1 per cent in 2020, Recognizing with concern further that total external debt stocks in middle- income countries, excluding small island developing States, grew in 2020 to 2.35 trillion dollars, or 32.2 per cent of their gross domestic product, 148.2 per cent of their export earnings, that the ratio of debt service to export revenues rose from 14.9 per cent in 2019 to 17.5 per cent in 2020 and that the debt of middle -income countries is not only growing at a faster pace than anticipated but is a more costly debt with a shorter maturity, Recognizing the important role, on a case-by-case basis, of debt relief, including debt cancellation, as appropriate, and debt restructuring as debt crisis prevention, management and resolution tools, Recalling the Sendai Declaration and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, 6 reiterating that severe natural disasters and social or economic shocks can undermine a country’s debt sustainability, and noting that public creditors have taken steps to ease debt repayment obligations through debt rescheduling and debt cancellation following an earthquake or a tsunami and in the context of the Ebola crisis in West Africa, noting the debt swap initiative of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Debt for Climate Adaptation Swap, and encouraging consideration of further debt relief steps, such as the use of sovereign contingent debt instruments, where appropriate, and/or other measures for countries affected in this regard, as feasible, Expressing deep concern that a number of countries in special situations, in particular African countries, the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States, as well as a growing number of middle - income countries, face challenges in servicing their debt and that, in spite of international efforts, a growing number of developing countries continue to struggle with high debt burdens and are classified, in accordance with the debt sustainability assessments, as being in debt distress or at high risk of debt distress, Recognizing with concern that, prior to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, total external debt stocks of developing countries reached a new record of 10 trillion dollars, and rising external debt burdens continued to absorb a growing share of developing countries’ resources and simultaneously the ability of developing countries to self-insure against exogenous economic and non-economic shocks, and increased market risk through international reserve cushions continued to weaken, recognizing with concern also that there has been a deterioration in the external debt sustainability of economies, in particular in the most vulnerable and in middle -income countries throughout the crisis, despite efforts by the Group of 20, targeted at the most vulnerable countries, and bilateral creditors, such as the Paris Club, and the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to address the challenges of debt sustainability, and encouraging them to continue their work to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and socioeconomic crisis on debtor countries’ debt sustainability, noting the meetings of the fourth discussion group of the Initiative on __________________ 5 See A/76/214. 6 Resolution 69/283, annexes I and II. (...) Recognizes with appreciation the steps taken by the Group of 20, including the extraordinary leaders’ summit hosted by Saudi Arabia on COVID-19 and the work under the presidency of Italy, to provide a time-bound suspension of debt service payments for the poorest countries and to implement the Debt Service Suspension Initiative and the Common Framework for Debt Treatments beyond the Debt Service Suspension Initiative, calls for all official bilateral creditors to implement these initiatives fully and in a transparent, timely and effective manner, while noting that more needs to be done, including to respond to the needs of countries not covered by these initiatives, including middle-income countries, and in this regard reaffirms the growing urgency of dealing not only with liquidity but also solvency risks, and (a) welcomes the International Monetary Fund’s special drawing rights allocation of the equivalent of 650 billion dollars of 23 August 2021 to meet the long-term global need to supplement reserve assets, and encourages countries with strong external positions to seek options for voluntary channelling of special drawing rights, in accordance with national laws and regulations, and to this end appreciates the Fund’s efforts to seek further viable options for the voluntary channelling of special drawing rights to countries most in need, such as the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust and the new Resilience and Sustainability Trust of the Fund, with a view to providing affordable long-term financing to developing countries in a manner that preserves their external debt sustainability, and encourages the consideration of viable options to voluntarily channel through multilateral development banks; (b) recommends assisting developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief, debt restructuring and sound debt management, as appropriate, to enhance the ability of countries to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals; and (c) also recommends the faci litation of timely and orderly debt treatment with the broad participation of all creditors, including those in the private sector, on comparable terms, stresses the need in the medium term to strengthen information-sharing between debtors and creditors, as necessary, and long-term debt sustainability analysis, based on comprehensive, objective, transparent and reliable data, while respecting commercially sensitive information, and technical cooperation that takes account of the requirements of A/76/531/Add.3 9/11 21-18124 sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda, and emphasizes the urgency of strengthening international efforts and cooperation and responding to the call for the easing of debt burdens by addressing the debt vulnerability, in the immediate term, and the debt sustainability, in the long term, of highly indebted developing countries; 22. (...) Welcomes the reforms to pari passu and collective action clauses proposed by the International Capital Market Association and endorsed by the International A/76/531/Add.3 21-18124 10/11 Monetary Fund to reduce the vulnerability of sovereigns to holdout creditors, encourages countries to take further action to include those clauses in all their bond issuances, and welcomes the continued work of the International Monetary Fund to monitor the uptake of the clauses and explore options for resolving the issue with the outstanding stock of debt without such clauses; 29.
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Score: 833066.5 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...?open&DS=A/76/531/ADD.3&Lang=E
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REPORT ON THE UNFCCC REGIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMME ON PROJECT PREPARATION : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The secretariat, in collaboration with the EGTT and other intergovernmental organizations, organized two workshops on innovative options for financing the development and transfer of technology (held in Montreal, Canada, in 2004 and in Bonn, Germany, in 2005). (...) Particular attention was given to issues related to risks associated with technology development, transfer and diffusion and those related to risk management through financial structuring options that would satisfy the needs of public and/or private investors in the domestic and international capital markets. 17. (...) Project structuring Assessing public and private options Structuring project finance Designing legal entities 5.
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Score: 833066.5 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...S=FCCC/SBSTA/2010/INF.6&Lang=E
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Debt relief: includes debt forgiveness, i.e. the extinction of a loan by agreement between the creditor (donor) and debtor (aid recipient), and other action on debt, including debt swaps, buy-backs and refinancing. In the DAC database, debt forgiveness is reported as a grant and therefore counts as ODA.
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Score: 832260.4 - https://en.unesco.org/gem-repo...ault/files/aid_table_intro.pdf
Data Source: un
Other risks include banking sector weaknesses, which have not been eliminated despite numerous bailout efforts, geopolitical conflicts, and tightening of access to external funding and debt refinancing. In South-Eastern Europe, the prospect of EU accession remains an important macroeconomic policy anchor.
Language:English
Score: 832260.4 - https://www.un.org/development...s_Release_CIS__SEEur_Final.pdf
Data Source: un