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For a small country acquir- ing a license for climate-related technology may not be profi t- able even if it is a middle- or high-income developing country, unless it is able to use the license to tap export markets. In the latter case, the royalty could be reduced or eliminated and/ or the exemption of patent rights could be extended from a domestic to a regional market. Even when a technology has been already patented, TRIPS off er opportunities for automatic use without the consent of the patent-holder through compulsory licensing. (...) A new agreement should aim to facilitate compulsory licensing for environmentally sound technologies and sim- plify procedures for challenging patents in order to lower costs faced by all developing countries.
Language:English
Score: 895823.6 - https://sdgs.un.org/sites/defa...publications/policybrief19.pdf
Data Source: un
Arturas Medeisis ITU-BDT Spectrum Management Expert ITU Regional Workshop on “Competition in Telecommunications Market” Khartoum-Sudan, 24-26 May 2016 Overview - Main tasks in spectrum regulation and –management - Licensing - Types of licenses - Awarding processes of individual spectrum licenses - Licensing policy for individual spectrum licenses - Spectrum license fees - Some regulatory topics - Spectrum trading - License modification - Digital dividend - Future capacity issues ITU Regional Workshop on “Competition in Telecommunications Market” Khartoum-Sudan, 24-26 May 2016 ITU Regional Workshop on “Competition in Telecommunications Market” Khartoum-Sudan, 24-26 May 2016 Spectrum is regulated by Government for two key reasons: • co-ordination of radio emissions so to avoid radio interference; • allocation of scarce radiofrequency spectrum between competing uses. (...) ITU Regional Workshop on “Competition in Telecommunications Market” Khartoum-Sudan, 24-26 May 2016 Individual spectrum licenses • Individual spectrum licenses give the holder of the license the exclusive right to use and manage the frequency band in a pre-determined geographic area – these are typically for mobile networks. • These licenses are long-term in duration, 15 - 25 years. (...) We will now focus on individual licenses only ITU Regional Workshop on “Competition in Telecommunications Market” Khartoum-Sudan, 24-26 May 2016 Individual license awarding processes (1) When the number of licenses available is less than the anticipated demand from licenses, some form of selection is necessary.
Language:English
Score: 893843.9 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/R...Spectrum%20and%20licensing.pdf
Data Source: un
Recommendations 34 per cent of the businesses had a trade license, the most common license was the county permit 21 Businesses with trade license Proportion of MSMEs that had a business license Types of trade licenses acquired by MSMES Proportion of MSMEs with different types of licenses 57.25 33.5 5.75 3 0.75 0.5 0.25 0.25 Music/media permits NEMA Fire safety permit County business permit Food/health related permits NHIF/NSSF KRA Pin/ VAT certificate No trade license Others 0% No license 67% Licensed 34% Have any license • Most SMES use personal identification number to file tax return on KRA. • Majority of MSES cited that the single business permits helped them avoid enforcement by the government officers and was not related to any support by the government Amongst the businesses that did not have any form of trading license, close to half of them were led by the youths; majority did not receive any govt support 22 No License 67% Licensed by type of leadership Licensed 34% Licensed Men led 29% Youth led 48% Women led 23% Received govt support Did not receive govt support 95% Received govt support 5% There exists an opportunity to convince youths to obtain relevant trading licenses in the move towards formalization to enable government support through formal structures Businesses with trade license Proportion of MSMEs that had a business license Businesses with trade license by leadership Proportion of MSMEs that had a business license by leadership Businesses with trade license by govt support Proportion of MSMEs that did not have business license by government support 23 I. (...) Electricity and network coverage are highly concentrated in the densely populated regions along central, west, and coastal regions. (...) Moreover, majority of the businesses that did not have any trade license did not receive any government support. EFFECTIVE SUPPORT STRATEGIES Recommendations 3/3 26 a) Learnings from success in issuance of county trading license/ business permit can be used to effect policies aimed at devolving taxation to county level which would help the government increase tax base at the same time visibility of business landscape b) Articulate messaging; MSEA and other key organizations have initiated discussions on formalizing MSEs aiming at expanding access to government services and support.
Language:English
Score: 885686.3 - https://sdgs.un.org/sites/defa...n-led%20MSMEs%20in%20Kenya.pdf
Data Source: un
Four countries in the African region license vaccine in milestone for Ebola prevention Global Regions WHO Regional websites Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. (...) Once licensed doses are available, use of the vaccine will not require clinical trial or other research protocols. (...) “The rapid approval of the Ebola vaccine by countries in the Africa Region helps ensure this critical prevention tool will be available when and where it is needed most,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa.
Language:English
Score: 869248.9 - https://www.who.int/news/item/...milestone-for-ebola-prevention
Data Source: un
§ Goals of Licensing • Allocation of scarce resources, regulatory certainty, establishing a framework for privatisation and competition, etc § The Evolution of Licensing • From monopoly to competition • Licensing in the era of convergence § Is Licensing Necessary? (...) Local, domestic long distance, mobile, etc. § Generic Classifications • Facilities-based and service-based licensing • e.g. Carrier Licensing in Australia, FBO and SBO licensing in Singapore • Other generic classifications • e.g Multimedia Communications Services in Brazil, Unified Access Licensing in India. § A Single Classification • e.g EU Authorisation Directive, Unified Licensing in India International Telecommunication Union Licensing Service Areas § National or Regional Service Areas • Economies of scale vs. ease of market entry § Universal Access and Rural Licensing • Packaging different regions and services • “Starting small” - focusing on SMEs • e.g. South Africa’s “Under-Services Area Licence” • Lowering licensing and regulatory hurdles § Cross-border Licensing • Common licensing guidelines • e.g.
Language:English
Score: 868585.9 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...SR/GSR04/documents/EricLie.pdf
Data Source: un
The improvements in satellite licensing and adjudication have occurred primarily on two fronts: 1) regional cooperation leading to the removal of country by country licensing requirements and 2) much simpler licensing procedures and quicker decisions in individual countries. (...) CITEL has adopted Recommendation 20 (VIII-06) which urges Members to · adopt procedures that facilitate the free circulation and implementation of GMPCS satellite system terminals for when Administrations consider them needed and · Notify the CITEL Executive Secretary of authorized systems and terminals, including contact points for posting on CITEL website In addition to regional and international efforts, there has been a licensing shift in many countries to an “open skies” policy that eliminates many costly licensing requirements. (...) To promote investment, regulators should advance work on international and regional licensing models, and regional and global cooperation, and pursue light-touch regulation and simplified procedures.
Language:English
Score: 865685.6 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/part...s/GILF/2009/docs/iridium-2.doc
Data Source: un
ASA technical standard; IEEE 802.11 or Wi-Fi is the best will allow an access seekers to deploy cognitive radio example of it; or bands shared by licensed and license- techniques that will help it learn about on-the-spot channel exempt applications and, licensed and light-licensed availability. (...) Shared licensed applications In 2009 New Zealand introduced the Managed Spectrum Park (MSP), a special type of licensed commons that Authorised Licensed operates in the 2575-2620 MHz band. (...) A MSP allows access to a number of users – usually operators of communication services such as wireless broadband- to the common band on a shared basis and is intended for local and regional services; applicants to a MSP only seek to cover Figure 1: The spectrum sharing landscape small geographical areas and do not need or want a nationwide license.
Language:English
Score: 861254.5 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page112.html
Data Source: un
This Action Plan identifies concrete actions to mainstream OER to achieve SDG 4 on Quality Education. 1 The six sessions were held in: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Asia Regional Consultation, 1-2 December 2016); Valletta, Malta (Europe Regional Consultation, 27– 28 February 2017); Doha, Qatar (Arab States Regional Consultation, 27-28 February 2017); Port Louis, Mauritius (Africa Regional Consultation, 2-3 March 2017) ; Sao Paulo, Brazil (Americas Regional Consultation, 3 – 4 April 2017); and Auckland, New Zealand (Pacific Regional Consultation 29 – 30 May 2017). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/open-educational-resources/what-is-the-paris-oer-declaration/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 2 Context The Ljubljana OER Action Plan 2017 contributes to all relevant United Nations frameworks. (...) Addressing http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://en.unesco.org/world-education-forum-2015/incheon-declaration This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 3 these OER challenges should not be delayed, in view of the urgency for action to achieve SDG 4 ‘Quality Education’. (...) In addition, infrastructure such as electricity and connectivity and suitable devices / media to access OER remain challenges in http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 5 many parts of the world, including within national contexts.
Language:English
Score: 860200.9 - https://en.unesco.org/sites/de...ljana_oer_action_plan_2017.pdf
Data Source: un
The licenses to export ferrosilicon manganese originating from Ukraine to the countries of the European Community shall be issued for the volume of goods, actually produced before the day of submission of the license application, confirmed by the certificate of origin, issued by the Chamber of Commerce and Trade of Ukraine and by authorised regional Chambers. 2. The term of validity of the above license on the territory of Ukraine shall be 30 (thirty) days from the moment of signing of the proper form of license. 3. Applications for export licenses for the above product may be submitted until November, 16, 1996. 4.
Language:English
Score: 859902.8 - https://www.wto.org/english/th..._e/ukr_e/WTACCUKR26_LEG_12.pdf
Data Source: un
The present document will be presented to ECOWAS/UEMOA member countries for final approval The present report focuses on the issue of licensing, detailing in the following chapters: the objectives of licensing, international and regional practices and the key issues relating to licensing. (...) Some countries, typically large one such as Brazil, India and the United States, divided their telecommunication markets into specific regions for the purposes of licensing. However, recently, perhaps as a result of convergence, many countries have moved away from regional licenses and are taking a more national approach. TRASA10 is also looking into a regional license to speed up market entry across the region. • Licenses for rural or universal access providers: South Africa has such licenses according to the Balancing Act Issue 198 of 7 March 2004; Digitel, one of the mobile operators in Venezuela also has a Rural Telephone Service license ____________________ 9 See: http://www.trai.gov.in 10 For further information see: http://www.trasa.org.bw http://www.trai.gov.in http://www.trasa.org.bw/ Licensing 9 • Spectrum-based licenses (GSM, PCS, 3G, etc). 3.3 Regional Trends 3.3.1 The Role of Regional Organizations in Licensing The role of ICTs for regional integration and cooperation has gained considerable attention.
Language:English
Score: 855119 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/treg...s/FinalDocuments/Licensing.pdf
Data Source: un