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Also included are the methods to determine the areas, e.g., circuit blocks or circuit packs, requiring soft error measures in telecommunication equipment in order to conform to the reliability requirements. (...) Finally, the reliability evaluation methods using theoretical calculations and tests of actual equipment are described to confirm the effect of the applied measures and conformity to the reliability requirements." (...) Finally, the reliability evaluation methods using theoretical calculations and tests of actual equipment are described to confirm the effect of the applied measures and conformity to the reliability requirements.
Language:English
Score: 1270942.8 - https://www.itu.int/t/aap/recdetails/10150
Data Source: un
Study design determines which methods you will use: • Qualitative methods • Quantitative methods • Mixed methods Design informs methods • A full description of the subjects (sample) or participants involved in the research • How participants will be selected • Criteria for becoming a participant Study participants • Discuss your study design • Draft outline of your participants section Group activity Qualitative and quantitative approaches Qualitative Quantitative Social theory Action Structure Methods Observation, interview Experiment, survey Question What is x? (...) (enumeration) Reasoning Inductive Deductive Sampling Theoretical Statistical Strength Validity Reliability Pope and Mays (1995). Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: An introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research. BMJ: 311; No. 6996 • Diversity in research design, researcher roles, and data gathering techniques • Requires the use of a rigorous systematic scientific process • Data are usually in the form of words (rather than numbers) are detailed, often including description and direct quotations • Small number of purposefully selected participants or ‘cases’ • Used to explore values, attitudes, opinions, feelings, and behaviours of individuals • Concerned with individuals’ perceptions of specific topics, issues, or situations and the meanings they assign to their lives • Important for theory generation, policy development, improving educational practice, justifying change or a particular practice, and illuminating social issues • Results are descriptive rather than predictive Research method: Qualitative Proposal should outline: • Rationale • Data collection • Data analysis • Trustworthiness • Participants Qualitative sub-sections of proposal • If your research team decides to use qualitative methods in your study, your proposal should describe why qualitative approaches were chosen Rationale • Preferable to ‘triangulate’ the data, adds rigor to the research • Typically time-consuming and laborious • Data collection process is emergent and flexible Qualitative data collection • Data collection and analysis are conducted simultaneously • Data analysis is an on-going process that begins with the first piece of data collected • Analysis consists of data management, reduction and coding • Goal is to identify patterns (themes) in the data and links between them • Software can help to manage data Plan for qualitative data analysis Stipulate how your research team will ensure scientific rigour • If possible, have participants review interview transcripts • Member checks • Triangulate data • Report "disconfirming" results Trustworthiness • Describe sampling of the study population • Define the number of participants • Participant criteria • Describe selection (age, gender, ethnicity, income bracket, etc.), characteristics related to the disease of interest, etc. • A full description of the participants involved in the research Participants • Determine the relationship between variables or explore differences between two or more groups • Involves the collection and analysis of objective data, often in numerical form • Research design and methods are determined prior to the start of data collection and are not flexible • Types of quantitative research design include: o Quasi-experimental research o Correlational research o Monitoring evaluation Research method: Quantitative Proposal should outline: • Rationale • Data collection • Data analysis • Reliability and validity • Participants Quantitative sub-sections of a proposal • Instrument used (e.g. questionnaires, checklists) • Instruments may be one developed by the researcher or, one that has been previously developed • Instruments need to be tested through pilot studies, for example • Enumerators need to be trained for data collection Quantitative data collection • Data presented in numerical form • Analysed using descriptive or inferential statistics • Data can be either quantitative or categorical • A variable is measured along a scale and reported in terms of scores • Quantitative data differ in degree and amount • Categorical data differs only in kind, o indicates the number of instances in each category, o are reported as frequencies or percentages Plan for quantitative data analysis • Tools should be valid and reliable o Considered valid if it measures what it purports to measure o Reliability, refers to the consistency and reproducibility of the results • Internal consistency is the degree to which all items in a domain reflect the same construct • Content, criterion and construct validity Reliability and validity • Describe the study population • Define the sample size, unit of analysis, number of units • Documents how participants will be selected and criteria for becoming a participant • Describe selection (age, gender, ethnicity, income bracket, etc.), characteristic related to the disease of interest, study site, or other factors • Indicate whether variables are dependent or independent Participants • Most IR proposals use mixed methods • Qualitative and quantitative techniques are combined • Under the right circumstances, a mixed methods approach can provide a better understanding of the problem than either a quantitative or qualitative research approach • It could be challenging to create the optimal combination and sequence of both approaches • Appealing for interdisciplinary projects which deal with complex problems Research method: Mixed methods Since mixed-methods involve both qualitative and quantitative methods, components must be included in the proposal: • Rationale (including methods used) • Data collection • Data analysis • Reliability and validity • Trustworthiness • Participants Mixed-methods proposal sub-sections Elements related to mixed methods that need to be considered in research design: • Timing • Weighting • Mixing • Visual diagrams Mixed methods data collection and analysis • Indicate data collection strategies and tools you intend to use and why • Outline a plan of data management and analysis Data collection and analysis • Explain how you will address issues of trustworthiness, validity and reliability with data collection and analysis Trustworthiness, validity and reliability • Ensure that your sample size, recruitment and selection criteria align with your mixed methods (see qualitative and quantitative participants sections) Participants • Discuss your research design • Determine your research methods Group activity • Develop the following parts of your proposal: • Research design • Research methods including: o Step-by-step procedures for your data collection o Data analysis o Trustworthiness, validity, reliability o Participants Write-shop details • Ensure the research process will meet or exceed scientific, ethical and regulatory research standards • Should be embedded into all research activities • Quality management plan is NOT optional Quality management Activities to address quality issues Some of the activities you can integrate into your proposal to manage quality include: • Protocol review and approval • Documentation of standard operating procedures (SOPs) • Validation of research instruments • Training the project team • Quality control and monitoring • Evaluation of services provided • Evaluation of the performance of service providers • Review of reports Quality management • Research that collects data from human subjects must undergo an ethics review • Describe how you will ensure the protection, dignity, rights and safety of all research participants Research ethics • Develop the following components of your proposal: o Data analysis plan o Research ethics • Revisit the Introduction, Research Question(s), Research Method, Participants, Research Design, and Data Collection sections of your IR proposal. o Make any changes necessary to improve, update, or align all sections of your proposal Write-shop details
Language:English
Score: 1245562.2 - https://www.who.int/tdr/public...ule2_Session2-Slides_final.pdf
Data Source: un
We interface level is physical: believe the upper position of the foot module is ideal for - INT-1: size, connection method, and reliability mounting the battery and control board to the foot prosthetic. between socket and ankle joint; - INT-2: size, connection method, and reliability We plan to use a single motor cylinder for the instep between ankle joint and instep push/pull; push/pull module. The module is attached to the front of the - INT-3: size, connection method, and reliability shin as shown in Figure 12. However, we plan to determine between ankle joint and foot; whether the module should be placed on the front of shin or - INT-4: size, connection method, and reliability on part of the Achilles' tendon on the basis of experimental between instep push/pull and foot; results. - INT-5: size, connection method, and reliability between foot and toe; For the single motor cylinder, we used an Oriental Motor DR - INT-6: size, connection method, and reliability series with a 30-mm stroke, 2-kg carrying force, and a 100- between heel sensor and shoe; mm/sec maximum stroke speed [11].
Language:English
Score: 1235713.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...e/files/basic-html/page57.html
Data Source: un
Page 141 - 2015 Security in Telecommunications and Information Technology           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 141 - 2015 Security in Telecommunications and Information Technology P. 141 Unleashing the potential of the Internet of Things 3 Appendix I Methods concerning assurance of integrity and reliability of the data produced by IoT devices during disaster (This Appendix does not form an integral part of this Recommendation.) (...) Therefore, the integrity and reliability of data produced by IoT devices are very significant issues for the IoT in general. (...) During disaster, neither users nor rescue services, or IoT devices will be able to make contact with the manufacturer of each particular IoT device to confirm the integrity and reliability of its data. The second method is much more concrete in that it consists of the establishment of monitoring and control centres for IoT devices.
Language:English
Score: 1218283.6 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/Publ.../files/basic-html/page141.html
Data Source: un
Page 141 - Unleashing the potenti al of the Internet of Things           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 141 - Unleashing the potenti al of the Internet of Things P. 141 Unleashing the potential of the Internet of Things 3 Appendix I Methods concerning assurance of integrity and reliability of the data produced by IoT devices during disaster (This Appendix does not form an integral part of this Recommendation.) (...) Therefore, the integrity and reliability of data produced by IoT devices are very significant issues for the IoT in general. (...) During disaster, neither users nor rescue services, or IoT devices will be able to make contact with the manufacturer of each particular IoT device to confirm the integrity and reliability of its data. The second method is much more concrete in that it consists of the establishment of monitoring and control centres for IoT devices.
Language:English
Score: 1218283.6 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page141.html
Data Source: un
Transfer pricing methods  typically  use  information on comparables, and the  lack of such comparables can make a particular method – even  one  that  might  seem  initially  preferred  –  inapplicable,  and  a  different  method  more  reliable.  (...) If  reasonable  adjustments cannot be performed the reliability of  the CUP method  is decreased.  In these circumstances  another transfer pricing method may be more appropriate.    6.2.3.  (...) However,  the comparable uncontrolled  price method may still provide the most reliable measure of an arm's length result.       6.2.6. 
Language:English
Score: 1208523.8 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-...ethods_20120924_v7_HC-accp.pdf
Data Source: un
MARCH 2014 1 VALIDATING METHODOLOGIES March 2014 This is a checklist to assist evaluation managers in validating the methodological soundness of an evaluation proposal. Valid and reliable evaluation methods should be free from any consistent alignment with one point of view which would result in a lack of objectivity, fairness, or impartiality. To ensure validity and reliability in evaluation methodologies, a combination of methods are often used. (...) The OECD/DAC Criteria of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability guide evaluations in the ILO.  Methods answer evaluation questions –The methods selected should permit information to be collected that address pertinent questions that stakeholders want the evaluation to answer.  Methods are appropriate for the sources of information sought –The evaluation methods selected should be appropriate for the sources from which information will be collected.
Language:English
Score: 1205428.9 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...ts/publication/wcms_746807.pdf
Data Source: un
UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Policy approaches to electronic signatures • Examples of enactment of two-tier legislation in “old” EU: – Specific e-signature laws: Italy, Germany, Portugal (all had to amend existing legislation), Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Spain, Sweden, UK (new legislation) – Incorporated in broader framework: Ireland, Luxemburg (e- commerce specific); France, Netherlands (civil code) • Other European countries: – Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia (already prior to EU accession ); Croatia, Norway, Romania, Switzerland • Examples of two-tier legislation in other continents: – Mexico, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Policy approaches to electronic signatures Main examples of minimalist legislation • Australia • Canada • New Zealand • United States of America UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Policy approaches to certification services – Free market approach • Any entity may offer certification services without requiring prior authorization: United States – Mandatory licensing schemes • Certification authorities need to obtain a license from a governmental body: Colombia, India, Singapore – Accreditation schemes • Certification authorities encouraged to seek accreditation with a public body or with a private non-for profit business sector organization: European Union, Pakistan – Monopoly schemes • Only public bodies or notaries authorized to issue certificates: typically applied to digital signatures used in governmental functions: Argentina, Chile UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Electronic signatures under the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce Legal signature requirements are met in relation to a data message if: • a method is used to identify the signatory and to indicate his approval of the information contained in the data message; and • that method is as reliable as was appropriate for the purpose for which the data message was generated or communicated (ex-post facto reliability of signature method: UNCITRAL Model Law, article 7) UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law The UNCITRAL policy: technology neutrality Model Law on Electronic Signatures, article 3 (Equal treatment of signature technologies): Nothing in the Law shall be applied so as to exclude, restrict or deprive of legal effect any method of creating an electronic signature that satisfies its requirements or otherwise meets the requirements of applicable law. (...) UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Technology neutrality applied to electronic signatures: reliability standards When is a signature method “as reliable as appropriate”? (...) UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Barriers to international use of electronic signatures • Absence of common standards: – Different countries accept different methods – Same method applying different technical standards in different countries • Variety of approaches and designs: – Conflicting conceptual outlay of electronic signature systems – Varying role of State • Recent UNCITRAL study: “Promoting confidence in electronic commerce: legal issues on international use of electronic authentication and signature methods” – Available at http://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts/electcom/08- 55698_Ebook.pdf UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law UNCITRAL policy on cross-border use of electronic signatures: no discrimination and substantive equivalence Article 12.
Language:English
Score: 1199044.3 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it.../15/08/T15080000020001PDFE.pdf
Data Source: un
GSP_GLOSOLAN_Value_chain_EN_006b GLOSOLAN aims to harmonize soil analysis methods so that soil data is comparable and interpretable across soil laboratories in a country, between countries and regions, and globally. © FA O , 2 02 1 C B 60 20 E N FARMERS AGROCHEMICALS AND MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES RESEARCH AND ACADEMIA POLICY MAKERS SOIL LABORATORIES DONORS NATIONAL REPORTING INSTITUTIONS TO UN CONVENTIONS Improves decision making for enhancing soil productivity and make ecient use of inputs Supports the continuous improvement of the quality and safety of products through reliable data Supports the identification of research gaps and contributes to improve quality, comparability and reliability of scientific data for sustainable soil management Benefits from the harmonization of methods, units and enhance their capacities towards more sustainable methods Provides reliable data and information for making sound decisions on soil health Provides with scientific data for reporting to the dierent UN Conventions and Sustainable Development Goals Provides with concrete and quantifiable evidence on the impacts of the dierent actions on the ground Global Soil Laboratory Network (GLOSOLAN): Why does soil analysis matter?
Language:English
Score: 1197861.6 - https://www.fao.org/3/cb6020en/cb6020en.pdf
Data Source: un
Transfer pricing methods typically use information on comparables; the lack of such comparables can make a particular method — even one that might seem initially preferred — inapplicable, and a different method more reliable. (...) If reasonable adjustments cannot be performed the reliability of the CUP Method is decreased. In these circumstances another transfer pricing method may be more appropriate. (...) However, the Comparable Uncontrolled Price Method may still provide the most reliable measure of an arm’s length result.
Language:English
Score: 1196384.2 - https://www.un.org/esa/ffd/wp-..._Methods_20161127_v7_clean.pdf
Data Source: un