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Throughout the chapter “removals” is used synonymously for production when roundwood produced in the forest is actually removed as opposed to being stocked in the forest. (...) United States roundwood removals increased by 1.0% and by 4.8 million m3, to overcome the drop in 1997, but not to recover the 1996 rate of removals (statistics were not available for Canada). (...) Nevertheless, softwood remains the largest species group: European softwood removals were more than twice that of hardwood removals in 1998.
Language:English
Score: 494913.7 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA.../timber/docs/rev-99/chap-7.pdf
Data Source: un
Second, carbon dioxide removal is essential if the world is to achieve its universally agreed sustainable development goals. (...) Enhancing governance of carbon dioxide removal could provide an excellent opportunity to focus and align regional and international efforts to attain global circular carbon economy. By working together, carbon dioxide removal has the potential to become a critical component of viable climate policy options for regions now and in the decades to come.  
Language:English
Score: 494813.5 - https://www.cepal.org/en/artic...s-urge-united-nations-regional
Data Source: un
Twenty-one (21) Contracting States, along with a representative from a national airline from each State are presently represented on the IATA/CAWG. 1.2 Based on analysis of existing national policies relating to deportation and removal processes adopted by the various Contracting States that began in 1998, IATA/CAWG identified significant inconsistencies in the processes employed to support deportee removals. In an effort to respond to these inconsistencies, and to provide best practice guidance to both aircraft operators and public authorities, IATA/CAWG developed and adopted its Guidelines for the Removal of Deportees (“Removal Guidelines”) in October, 1999. (...) The group recognized that an escort may be used for the removal of both inadmissible passengers and deportees, and that aircraft operators may employ, or require the use of an escort depending on the situation, and therefore decided to expand the definition found in the “Removal Guidelines” to more accurately reflect the circumstances where use of an escort might be warranted. 2.2 The group discussed the two provisions contained in the “Removal Guidelines” relating to the need for exchange of contact information between aircraft operators and Deportee States, particularly as relates to deportees and their transportation.
Language:English
Score: 494813.5 - https://www.icao.int/Meetings/...p7-2012/WP10/FALP7.WP10.RU.pdf
Data Source: un
Marco Gercke APPROACH TOWARDS CYBERCRIME Gercke, Cybercrime DECENTRALISED SERVICES •  Availability of high-speed Internet connections and server infrastructure today enables the development of storage/processing concepts that are not anymore based on local but decentralised storage/processing •  „cloud computing“ and „cloud storage“ •  New opportunities for industry – but in a contested environment Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt EXAMPLE: AMAZON CLOUD COMPUTING Page: 2 Internetkriminalität Seite: 3 DECENTRALIZED SERVICES •  Ability to use low-level end user systems for highly complex operations Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt IPHONE CLOUD Internetkriminalität Seite: 4 DECENTRALIZED SERVICE •  ExampleGoogle Maps, Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt GOOGLE MAPS Cybercrime SUBSTANTIVE CRIMINAL LAW Page: 5 Gercke, Cybercrime DECENTRALISED SERVICES Local storage Page: 6 Illegal Access Insider Attacks Gercke, Cybercrime RISKS Local storage Page: 7 Illegal Access Hindering Transfer Interception of communication Cloud Services Illegal Access Insider Attacks „Legal“ Access System Interference Cybercrime SOLUTION •  Within HIPCAR/ICB4PAC/HIPSSA comprehensive regional legal frameworks are developed that address the various crimes •  This includes issues like illegal acquisition of computer data (data espionage), identity-related crime Page: 8 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt HIPCAR (1) If a judge is satisfied on the basis of [information on oath/affidavit] that in an investigation concerning an offence listed in paragraph 5 hereinbelow there are reasonable grounds to believe that essential evidence can not be collected by applying other instruments listed in Part IV but is reasonably required for the purposes of a criminal investigation, the judge [may/ shall] on application authorize a police officer to utilize a remote forensic software with the specific task required for the investigation and install it on the suspect’s computer system in order to collect the relevant evidence. (...) Cybercrime PROCEDURAL LAW Page: 9 Gercke, Cybercrime DECENTRALISED SERVICES •  Cloud storage provider might host data for thousands of customers •  Traditional approaches like seizing all relevant IT-systems might in this case not be an option as it could affect thousands of businesses Page: 10 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt SERVER Gercke, Cybercrime DECENTRALISED SERVICES •  Law enforcement might not have the possibility to physically seize evidence •  More sophisticated instruments might be required •  Includes activating a computer system Page: 11 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt HIPCAR (16) Seize includes: a) activating any onsite computer system and computer data storage media; b) making and retaining a copy of computer data, including by using onsite equipment; c) maintaining the integrity of the relevant stored computer data; d) rendering inaccessible, or removing, computer data in the accessed computer system; e) taking a printout of output of computer data; or f) seize or similarly secure a computer system or part of it or a computer-data storage medium; Cybercrime ENCRYPTION •  In order to avoid some of the above mentioned attacks technical solutions are used •  One example is encryption technology •  Use of such technology can seriously interfere with the work of law enforcement Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt EXAMPLE PGP Page: 12 Cybercrime SOLUTION •  With regard to the use of encryption technology by offenders solutions for LEA are required •  This includes technical as well as legal solutions •  Within HIPCAR/ICB4PAC/HIPSSA comprehensive regional legal frameworks are developed that address the issue of sophisticated investigation instruments Page: 13 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt HIPCAR (1) If a judge is satisfied on the basis of [information on oath/affidavit] that in an investigation concerning an offence listed in paragraph 5 hereinbelow there are reasonable grounds to believe that essential evidence can not be collected by applying other instruments listed in Part IV but is reasonably required for the purposes of a criminal investigation, the judge [may/ shall] on application authorize a police officer to utilize a remote forensic software with the specific task required for the investigation and install it on the suspect’s computer system in order to collect the relevant evidence. (...) Introduction of digital evidence as additional evidence •  Influence is not limited to the fact that courts need to deal with digital evidence •  Even the design of courtrooms is influenced Page: 17 Cybercrime DIGITAL DATA •  One explanation for the emerging importance of digital evidence is the fact that the number of digital documents are intensively increasing •  Costs for storing one MB of data was constantly decreasing during the last decades •  Today it is cheaper to store information digitally than to keep physical copies 10 MB 1981 676 MB 1990 10.000.000 MB 1996 70.000.000 MB 2000 2.000.000.000 MB 2009 Page: 18 Gercke, Cybercrime DECENTRALISED SERVICES •  With regard to cloud computing the presentation of electronic evidence in court might be required •  Essential that there are rules in place that allow such process •  Within HIPCAR/ICB4PAC/HIPSSA comprehensive regional legal framework are developed that address the issue of admissibility of electronic evidence Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt EXAMPLE: AMAZON CLOUD COMPUTING Page: 19 Cybercrime LIABILITY OF ISPS Page: 20 Gercke, Cybercrime DECENTRALISED SERVICES Local storage Cloud Services Page: 21 Se rv er N et w or k Cl ie nt Cybercrime SOLUTION •  The involvement of Internet Service Provider at various stages raises the question of liability •  Within HIPCAR/ICB4PAC/HIPSSA comprehensive regional legal frameworks are developed that address the issue ISP liability Page: 22 Picture removed in print version Bild zur Druckoptimierung entfernt HIPCAR (1) A hosting provider is not criminally liable for the information stored at the request of a user of the service, on condition that: (a) the hosting provider expeditiously removes or disables access to the information after receiving an order from any public authority or court of law to remove specific illegal information stored; or (b) the hosting provider, upon obtaining knowledge or awareness about specific illegal information stored by other ways than an order from a public authority, expeditiously informs a public authority to enable them to evaluate the nature of the information and if necessary issue an order to remove the content.
Language:English
Score: 494813.5 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/arb/...yForum-Eg/Docs/Doc3-Gercke.pdf
Data Source: un
Inadmissible Persons and Deportees: IATA’s Experiences and Concerns Inadmissible Persons and Deportees: IATA’s Experiences and Concerns ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 23-26 March 2015 – Bangkok Focus Areas  Definitions  SARPS and how they should impact decisions  The Good, the Bad and the Ugly  How we can improve cooperation and ensure safe and timely removals 2 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok Definitions Deportee: A person who had legally been admitted to a State by its authorities or who had entered a State illegally, and who at some later time is formally ordered by the competent authorities to leave that State. 3 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok Definitions  Inadmissible Person A person who is or will be refused admission to a State by its authorities. 11 September 2014 4 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok Definitions Deportation Order A written order, issued by the competent authorities of a State and served upon a deportee, directing him to leave that State. 5 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok Definitions Removal Order: A written order served by a State on the operator on whose flight an inadmissible person travelled into that State, directing the operator to remove that person from its territory. 6 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  3.43 The aircraft operator shall be responsible for the custody and care of disembarking passengers and crew members from the time they leave the aircraft until they are accepted for examination as provided in 3.42.  3.45 The responsibility of an aircraft operator for custody and care of passengers and crew members shall terminate from the moment such persons have been admitted into that State. 7 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  5.3 Contracting States shall without delay notify the aircraft operator, confirming this as soon as possible in writing, when a person is found inadmissible, pursuant to 3.44. 8 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  5.9 The aircraft operator shall be responsible for the cost of custody and care of an improperly documented person from the moment that person is found inadmissible and returned to the aircraft operator for removal from the State. 9 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  5.9.1 The State shall be responsible for the cost of custody and care of all other categories of inadmissible persons, including persons not admitted due to document problems beyond the expertise of the aircraft operator or for reasons other than improper documents, from the moment these persons are found inadmissible until they are returned to the aircraft operator for removal from the State. 11 September 2014 10 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  5.16 Contracting States shall not prevent the departure of an operator’s aircraft pending a determination of admissibility of any of its arriving passengers. (...) Contracting States shall indicate to the deportee the name of the destination State.  5.18 Contracting States removing deportees from their territories shall assume all obligations, responsibilities and costs associated with the removal.. 12 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  5.20 Contracting States, in making arrangements for the removal of a deportee to a destination State, shall use direct non-stop flights whenever practicable.  5.21 A Contracting State, when presenting a deportee for removal, shall ensure that all official travel documentation required by any transit and/or destination State is provided to the aircraft operator. 13 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  5.19 Contracting States, when making arrangements with an aircraft operator for the removal of a deportee, shall make available the following information as soon as possible, but in any case not later than 24 hours before the scheduled time of departure of the flight:  a) a copy of the deportation order, if legislation of the Contracting State allows for it;  b) a risk assessment by the State and/or any other pertinent information that would help the aircraft operator assess the  risk to the security of the flight; and  c) the names and nationalities of any escorts. 14 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok SARPS and how they should impact decisions  Obvious that Annex 9 addresses Deportees and Inadmissible Persons as entirely separate issues  Roles and responsibilities are clearly defined:  Deportees are a State responsibility  Inadmissible Persons are largely airline responsibility  Cooperation and communication is clearly anticipated 15 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok The Good, the Bad and the Ugly  The Good  Government and airline communicate  Each assumes its roles and responsibilities  Concerns are addressed and policies observed  The removal or return takes place as scheduled 16 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok The Good, the Bad and the Ugly  The Bad  Scenario 1:  21 Transit Passengers  Falsified documents noted but outbound planed blocked  Receiving carrier ordered to accept and carry onward  Scenario 2:  Family of 5 with 1 found with expired passport – all ordered back on full flight after 5 hour delay. Flight with 225 held pending  17 others with complex flights missed flights and waited 3 days. 17 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok The Good, the Bad and the Ugly  The Ugly  21 year old female deportee  2 attempts to deport fail due coached bad behaviour  Carrier forced to accept against internal policy for 3rd removal attempt on a commercial flight  Prior to departure, escorts attempt to subdue, and deportee fatally injured in front of other passengers  As bad as it can possibly get 18 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok How it should work in real life  States and airlines must understand their obligations under Annex 9 and abide by appropriate SARPS  Deportees and INADPAX ARE different cases and need to be handled accordingly  Communication and cooperation are critical  Ensuring Aviation Security is essential 19 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok How it should work in real life  Guidance materials exist to describe options and best practices  ICAO’s Facilitation Manual is a resource  IATA/Control Authorities Working Group have established “informal” best practice guides based on Annex 9 SARPs that describe appropriate solutions in detail 20 23-26 March 2015 ICAO Regional Facilitation Seminar 2015 – Bangkok Thank You !
Language:English
Score: 494553.76 - https://www.icao.int/APAC/Meet...0Persons%20and%20Deportees.pdf
Data Source: un
Second, it looks specifically at friction and explores how it can be added and removed to create more effective hiring practices. (...) Both types of barriers are important and often necessitate different solutions. 3. Add Fuel, Remove Friction Once we have identified the key behavior and the barriers preventing that behavior, we look to remove friction (i.e., implement ways to reduce barriers) and add fuel (i.e., adopt a mix of incentives) to create behavior change. (...) Applied offers a tool that removes names from job applications while both chunking and randomizing application details prior to presenting information to decision-makers who evaluate candidates’ qualifications (Babbage, 2020).
Language:English
Score: 494491.7 - https://unpan.un.org/sites/unp...ts%20report%20-%20chapter7.pdf
Data Source: un
Paper and paperboard mt n.a. n.a. 4,031 5,062 10,075 16,472 22,643 n.a. n.a. Roundwood (Removals) m3 n.a. n.a. 158,678 91,319 150,835 193,290 231,742 n.a. n.a. (...) Paper and paperboard mt n.a. n.a. 1,262 3,252 6,216 10,146 14,318 n.a. n.a. Roundwood (Removals) m3 n.a. n.a. 59,197 94,961 136,932 178,393 217,390 n.a. n.a. (...) Paper and paperboard mt n.a. n.a. 350 1,810 3,859 6,326 8,325 n.a. n.a. Roundwood (Removals) m3 n.a. n.a. 4,274 -3,642 13,903 14,897 14,352 n.a. n.a.
Language:English
Score: 494389.6 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...r/docs/stats-25/supp/WA3-8.doc
Data Source: un
International Cooperation ITU GUIDE! Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 4 ITU GUIDE! (...) Challenge ITU GUIDE! Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 38 CHALLENGES •! (...) Picture removed in print version AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION •!
Language:English
Score: 493560.9 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/cyb/...damentals-brisbane-july-08.pdf
Data Source: un
Physical removal of inadmissible person 7. Miscellaneous provisions 9 May 2013 Page 12 3. (...) Consultation on [time-frame] for removal: [RP5.4 → FALP/7 Standard!] → allow operator sufficient time to remove via own services or make other arrangements 4. (...) Physical removal of inadmissible person 7. Miscellaneous provisions 9 May 2013 Page 19 3.
Language:English
Score: 493458.54 - https://www.icao.int/NACC/Docu...13/FALWORKSHOP2013/FAL-P10.pdf
Data Source: un
Consultation on [time-frame] for removal: [RP5.4 → Amd. 24 Standard!] → allow operator sufficient time to remove via own services or make other arrangements 3. (...) INADMISSIBLE PERSONS 5. Physical removal of inadmissible person ● 5.11 The aircraft operator shall remove the inadmissible person to: → a) the point where he commenced his journey; or → b) to any place where he is admissible [citizen or resident] ● RP 5.11.1 States to consult with aircraft operators: most practicable place to which inad person to be removed 20 February 2014 Page 18 3. (...) IATA/CAWG: → Guidelines for the Removal of Deportees 20 February 2014 Page 27 INADMISSIBLE PERSONS/DEPORTEES QUESTIONS?
Language:English
Score: 493458.54 - https://www.icao.int/ESAF/Docu...%20and%20Deportees%20-ICAO.pdf
Data Source: un