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In the last 10 years alone, more than 200,000 patents have been registered worldwide for solar, biomass, fuel cell, wind, ocean, geothermal and other new climate-friendly technologies. Removal of trade distortion, particular harmful subsidies, can constitute a triple win for trade, development, and environment. A 2007 World Bank study, International Trade and Climate Change - estimates, the removal of tariffs for four basic clean energy technologies (wind, solar, clean coal and efficient lighting) in 18 developing countries with high greenhouse gas emissions would result in trade gains of up to 7%. The removal of both tariffs and non-tariff barriers could boost trade by as much as 13 %.
Language:English
Score: 512720.26 - https://sdgs.un.org/ru/node/11475
Data Source: un
In the last 10 years alone, more than 200,000 patents have been registered worldwide for solar, biomass, fuel cell, wind, ocean, geothermal and other new climate-friendly technologies. Removal of trade distortion, particular harmful subsidies, can constitute a triple win for trade, development, and environment. A 2007 World Bank study, International Trade and Climate Change - estimates, the removal of tariffs for four basic clean energy technologies (wind, solar, clean coal and efficient lighting) in 18 developing countries with high greenhouse gas emissions would result in trade gains of up to 7%. The removal of both tariffs and non-tariff barriers could boost trade by as much as 13 %.
Language:English
Score: 512720.26 - https://sdgs.un.org/ar/node/11475
Data Source: un
Brennan) SUMMARY This working paper proposes revision to allow batteries that power mobility aids to be removed according to the level of protection provided to the battery by the device instead of whether or not the battery is removable by design. (...) On the one hand, the provisions are suggesting that the battery can remain if it can be securely attached to the device, but on the other hand, the user needs to remove the battery if the device is designed to allow the battery to be removed. 1.4 Nowadays, many battery powered mobility aids are designed to allow the battery(ies) to be removed, so that users can either replace the battery(ies) or carry spare battery(ies) with them. (...) There was then a dilemma of whether the batteries should remain or be removed and if they are to be removed, the passenger would end up with two 192 Watt-hour lithium batteries. 1.6 As the intent of the provisions is to ensure safety when transporting these devices, the level of protection to the device must also be taken into account, which is demonstrated by the requirements of spillable battery powered mobility aids, where their battery only needs to be removed if the device cannot be loaded, stowed, secured and unloaded in an upright position without considering whether the device is designed to allow the battery to be removed or not. 2.
Language:English
Score: 512655.27 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da.../WG21/DGPWG.21.WP.024.2.en.pdf
Data Source: un
A mobility aid might be called collapsible if the seat can be removed/folded down or if the handle bars can be lowered — this does not necessarily mean that the batteries must be removed in order to collapse it. (...) OPTION 2 . . . 2.13 LOADING OF NON-SPILLABLE BATTERY-POWERED MOBILITY AIDS CARRIED UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF PART 8 2.13.1 An operator must secure a battery-powered mobility aid to prevent movement and protect it from being damaged by the movement of baggage, mail, stores or other cargo. 2.13.2 An operator must verify that: a) the battery terminals are protected from short circuits (e.g. by being enclosed within a battery container); and b) the battery is either: i) securely attached to the mobility aid and the electrical circuits are isolated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions; or ii) removed from the mobility aid in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions when required by 2.13.3. 2.13.3 An operator must remove the batteries [from the mobility aid] when: a) the batteries are not afforded adequate protection when installed in the mobility aid; or b) the mobility aid [designed to be collapsible] requires the batteries to be removed in order to be collapsed for carriage. 2.13.4 An operator must ensure that the batteries removed from the mobility aid are carried in strong, rigid packagings and are protected from short circuit. 2.13.5 The operator must inform the pilot-in-command of the location of any removed batteries. (...) OPTION 3 . . . 2.13 LOADING OF NON-SPILLABLE BATTERY-POWERED MOBILITY AIDS CARRIED UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF PART 8 An operator must: a) secure a battery-powered mobility aid to prevent movement and protect it from being damaged by the movement of baggage, mail, stores or other cargo; DGP-WG/16-WP/37 Appendix A A-4 b) verify that: i) the battery terminals are protected from short circuits (e.g. by being enclosed within a battery container); and ii) the battery is either: — securely attached to the mobility aid and the electrical circuits are isolated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions; or — removed from the mobility aid in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions when required by c); c) remove the batteries [from the mobility aid] when: i) the batteries are not afforded adequate protection when installed in the mobility aid; or ii) the mobility aid [designed to be collapsible] requires the batteries to be removed in order to be collapsed for carriage; d) ensure that the batteries removed from the mobility aid are carried in strong, rigid packagings and are protected from short circuit; and e) inform the pilot-in-command of the location of any removed batteries.
Language:English
Score: 512517.8 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da.../WG16/DGPWG.16.WP.037.2.en.pdf
Data Source: un
Tušek) SUMMARY In Australia, a number of airlines have asked about the requirements to remove batteries from mobility aids where they are specifically designed for the removal of the battery by the user. This has resulted in the need to clarify when batteries must be removed from mobility aids. Action by the DGP-WG is in paragraph 2. 1. (...) However, for air transport there is no requirement that mobility devices must be collapsed even if they are designed to be collapsible and the battery(ies) does not need to be removed even if the design allows for removal of the battery(ies).
Language:English
Score: 512513.43 - https://www.icao.int/safety/Da...%2012/DGPWG.12.IP.003.6.en.pdf
Data Source: un
The affirmative asylum process is for individuals who are not in removal proceedings and the defensive asylum process is for individuals who are in removal proceedings.  (...) Individuals who file late must explain the reason for the delay in filing and may be denied the opportunity to apply for asylum. Expedited Removal Proceedings, Reinstatement of Removal, and Administrative Removal There are multiple types of processes that the U.S. (...) Reasonable Fear Individuals with a prior order of removal may be in reinstatement of removal proceedings.
Language:English
Score: 511872.8 - https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/defensive-asylum.html
Data Source: un
9/27/21, 11:53 AM Scale up carbon dioxide removal to achieve climate targets, urge United Nations regional leaders. - The St Kitts Nevis Observer https://www.thestkittsnevisobserver.com/scale-up-carbon-dioxide-removal-to-achieve-climate-targets-urge-united-nations-regional-leaders/ 1/3 Scale up carbon dioxide removal to achieve climate targets, urge United Nations regional leaders. (...) Second, carbon dioxide removal is essential if the world is to achieve its universally agreed sustainable development goals. (...) By working together, carbon dioxide removal has the potential to become a critical component of viable climate policy options for regions now and in the decades to come.
Language:English
Score: 510767 - https://www.cepal.org/sites/de...he_st_kitts_nevis_observer.pdf
Data Source: un
China Trade Wood Resources International Record Roundwood Harvests in 2004 UNECE Timber Committee Meeting September 27-28, 2005 Geneva, Switzerland Håkan Ekström Wood Resources International Wood Resources International Outline • Roundwood Removals – Industrial – Fuel wood • Roundwood Consumption • Raw Material Trade • Sawlog & Pulpwood Costs Wood Resources International Roundwood Removals – Industrial wood – Fuel wood Wood Resources International Roundwood Removals in the UNECE Source: UNECE/FAO 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 M ill io n m 3 Europe CIS N. America Wood Resources International Roundwood Removals in 2004 Total Of which… Industrial Conifer (million m3) (%) (%) Europe 437 85 76 CIS 205 72 72 North America 658 93 73 World 3401 48 64 Wood Resources International Roundwood Removals in the UNECE in 2004 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Europe CIS N. (...) Record Roundwood Harvests in 2004 UNECE Timber Committee MeetingSeptember 27-28, 2005Geneva, Switzerland Roundwood Removals in the UNECE 2004 Industrial Roundwood Removals - Europe Global Removals of Industrial Roundwood in 2004 Wood Fuel Removals in Europe in 2004 Roundwood Consumption in the UNECE Region
Language:English
Score: 510688.8 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...esentations_PDF/09_Ekstrom.pdf
Data Source: un
We propose to adopt this method by making the data removal conditional; to remove a complete picture if it is available at a picture period, otherwise the coded data remains in the buffer. (...) As a result of this it may happen that when a picture is expected to be removed from the VBV buffer there will not be sufficient data in the buffer to remove a complete picture. This situation is allowed to occur only if neither the picture to be removed nor the previously removed picture is B type.
Language:English
Score: 509437.16 - https://www.itu.int/wftp3/av-a.../Report_texts/AVC-0553R_a3.rtf
Data Source: un
Marco Gercke Lecturer for Criminal Law / Cybercrime, Faculty of Law, Cologne University CYBERCRIME Page: 2 CYBERCRIME GUIDE • Aim: Providing a guide that is focussing on the demands of developing • Including recent developments Content • Phenomenon of Cybercrime • Challenges of Fighting Cybercrime • Elements of an Anti-Cybercrime Strategy • Explanation of legal solutions - Substantive Criminal Law - Procedural Law - International Cooperation ITU GUIDE Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 3 CYBERCRIME GUIDE • Focus of the Guide ITU GUIDE Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 4 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES • Most of the infrastructure in western countries (US) • Difficult to say that there are limits with regard to technical protection measures (great potential of technical development - like WMAX) • Since 2005 more internet user in developing countries than in industrialised nations • Getting access remains a crucial problem • Access to the same sources - potentially the offences CYBER CAFE HANOI Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 5 CYBERCRIME GUIDE • Phenomenon ITU GUIDE Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 6 CLASSIC IT-CRIMES • Illegal access to a computer system was one of the dominating crimes in the early days of computer crimes • Incredible technical development since that times • Hacking attacks are still an important phenomenon - especially with regard to the automation of attacks • But in addition a number of other offences were discovered HACKING Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 7 Example (http:wslabi.com) Picture removed in print version EXPLOIT AUCTION • Information about system vulnerabilities are published on websites • In addition these information are offered for sale by some businesses • Information can be used to increase security as well as to commit computer- related offences CYBERCRIME Page: 8 RECENT DEVELOPMENT • New scams related to online-games • Closer relations between virtual worlds and the real world (exchange of virtual currencies) • Highly sophisticated phishing-scams ONLINE GAMES (SECONDLIFE.COM) Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 9 RECENT DEVELOPMENT • Current analysis proof that up to a quarter of all computer connected to the internet could be used by criminals as they belong to “botnets” Souce: BBC report “Criminals 'may overwhelm the web“ • Some analysis go even beyond that number • Botnets can for example be used to send out Spam or carry out a DoS attack • Use of Botnets makes the identification of the offender difficult Botnets (www.shadowserver.org) Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 10 RECENT DEVELOPMENT • Increasing activities of terrorist organisations • Not concentrating on attacks against critical infrastructure - information, recruitment, communication, ... • Continuing improvement of methods protecting communication from lawful interception • Integration of the Internet in terrorist financing activities CYBERTERRORISM Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 11 RECENT DEVELOPMENT • Intensive discussion about new investigation instruments • Remote forensic software tools • In 2001 reports pointed out that the FBI developed a keystroke logger hat can be remotely installed on the computer system of a suspect • In 2007 the FBI requested an order to use a software (CIPAV (Computer and Internet Protocol Address Verifier) to identify an offender that used measures to hide his identity while posting threatening messages CIPAV Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 12 CYBERCRIME GUIDE • Challenge ITU GUIDE Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 13 CHALLENGES • Dependence of the society on information technology • Availability and power of devices that can be used to commit a crime • Availability of Information • Languages • Missing control instruments • International dimension • Speed of information exchange • Speed of the technological development, power and vulnerability of devices • Anonymous communication • Encryption CYBERCRIME Page: 14 POSSIBILITIES • There are no doubts that the ongoing improvement of information technology enables the law enforcement agencies to carry out investigations that were not possible previously • Automated search for key-words / hash-values • Great chance for public private partnership (Microsoft’s CETS) EXAMPLE CHILD PORNOGRAPHY Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 15 AUTOMATE • Computer and Networks enable offenders to automate attacks • Within minutes millions of spam mails can be send out without generating high costs - sending out one million regular letters would be very expensive and take days • Special software products enable automatic attacks against computer systems Example (Hackerwatch.org) Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 16 AVAILABILITY OF DEVICES • Internet connected devices as tool and target • The number of people who have access to the internet is still growing fast • New ways of access to networks are implemented (UMTS, WLAN,) • Capacity of Computers has increased (great potential) • Number of operations controlled by the use of networks increased Examples Misuse of open WLAN-Access Point to hide identity; Terrorists communication via VoIP using encryption technology; CYBERCRIME Page: 17 AVAILABILITY OF ACCESS • Numerous possibilities to get access to the network • Regular Internet Connection • Mobile Data Services • Public Terminals • Wireless Access Points Example (Internet Cafe) Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 18 ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATION • “Felt Anonymity” • Key motivation especially with regard to crimes connected pornography • Technology available that can hinder law enforcement to trace back the route of an offender (eg. www.anon.de) • Benefit of Anonymous Communication vs. (...) CYBERCRIME Page: 24 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION • Robots used by Search-engines can lead the disclose of secret information • Handbooks on how to build explosives and construct chemical and even nuclear devices are available • Internet sources have been used by the offenders in a number of recent attacks TERRORIST HANDBOOK Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 25 RAGNAR’S ENCYCLOPEDIA Picture removed in print version AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION • Information regarding the construction of weapons were available long time before the Internet was developed • Ragnar‘s Action Encyclopaedia of Practical Knowledge and Proven Techniques • Approaches to criminalise the publication of information that can be used to CYBERCRIME Page: 26 ENCRYPTION • Encryption is the process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge • Encryption can be used to ensure secrecy • Encryption can be used to hide the fact that encrypted messages are exchanged • Encryption used by criminals can lead to difficulties collecting the necessary evidence • E-Mails, VoIP comminication, files PGP Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 27 GLOBAL PHENOMENON • Availability of encryption technology is a global challenge • Powerful software tool that enable are available on a large scale in the Internet • Some of the latest versions of operating systems contain encryption technology MICROSOFT BITLOCKER Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 28 BREAKING A KEY • Brute Force Attack: Method of defeating a cryptographic scheme by trying a large number of possibilities; for example, exhaustively working through all possible keys n order to decrypt a message • Gaps in the encryption software • Dictionary-based attack • Social Engineering • Classic search for hints • Need for legislative approaches? How long it takes to break a key Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 29 STEGANOGRAPHY • Steganography is a technique used to hide information in some other information • Example: Hiding a message in picture • Technique can be used to keep the fact that the exchange of encrypted messages is taking place secret Steganography Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 30 SOLUTION Technical solutions (with legal component) • Magic Lantern (US) • Remote Forensic Software (Germany) Legal solution • Use of keyloggers • Various restrictions on import/export and use of encryption technology • UK: Obligation to disclose password (Sec. 49 of the UK Investigatory Powers Act 2000) MAGIC LANTERN Picture removed in print version CYBERCRIME Page: 31 COMPARING APPROACHES Disclosure Ban on Encryption Possibilities Risk Cirumvention Key-Logger CYBERCRIME Page: 32 CONTACT THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Dr.
Language:English
Score: 509341.65 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/cyb/...ng-cybercrime-praia-nov-07.pdf
Data Source: un