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MODEL LAW ON COMPETITION (2020), REVISED CHAPTER III
However, it may encourage interbrand competition as retailers endeavour to capture economies of scale and scope.22 Both the manufacturer and retailers may see benefits for themselves in retail price maintenance and it may be argued that there are public benefits as well. (...) Given such circumstances, developing countries are likely to treat resale price maintenance as a per se offence, while the trend in developed countries is to authorize resale price maintenance when there are demonstrable public benefits. (...) A competition authority may authorize firms to engage in certain conduct when the firms are subject to effective competition and such practices produce a net public benefit. The net public benefit needs to be aligned with the objectives or purposes of the competition law, preferably interpreted as an economic benefit or economic efficiency.
Language:English
Score: 1353648.1 - https://daccess-ods.un.org/acc...en&DS=TD/RBP/CONF.9/L.1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
RECENT IMPORTANT CASES INVOLVING MORE THAN ONE COUNTRY : REPORT / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
Minimum resale price maintenance occurs when a manufacturer imposes a minimum resale price on a dealer, thereby limiting or even excluding a dealer’s ability to offer discounts. (...) This case shows the effects that resale price maintenance can have in developing countries. (...) The analysis of the case shows that the benefits of the merger outweigh the concerns of the stakeholders.
Language:English
Score: 1328797.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...open&DS=TD/RBP/CONF.6/5&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch Communication Division Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italie or by e-mail to: [email protected] TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction Acknowledgements 1 Module Land-use planning: an introduction for policy makers 2 Module Mapping our community’s future: why and how to practice participatory land-use planning 3 Module Wildlife can work for you: creating a conservation-based venture (CBV) 4 Module Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs): benefits, challenges and steps 5 Module Conflict in community: managing conflicts in areas with livestock, farming and wildlife 6 Module Managing livestock diseases near wildlife sanctuaries in East Africa © FAO 2009
Language:English
Score: 1321270.8 - https://www.fao.org/3/i0821e/i0821e00.htm
Data Source: un
CHANGES IN INVENTORIES AND HOLDING GAINS : THE CASE OF SWITZERLAND DURING THE YEARS 1996-1998 : INVITED PAPER / SUBMITTED BY THE SWISS FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE
The breakdown is performed according to the benefits derived by the owner of the assets. This innovation allows for a finer analysis of the behaviour of the different economic agents. (...) The 1993 SNA notes that their principal economic benefit lies in the fact that they can be expected to hold their value relative to the prices of other goods and services. (...) It follows that: (1) The SNA classifies an asset according to the benefits derived by its owner (10.3). If it is to be associated with a production process, the asset is an element of gross fixed capital formation or changes in inventories.
Language:English
Score: 1320625.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=CES/AC.68/2000/19&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
MODEL LAW ON COMPETITION (2010) : CHAPTER 3
With a block exemption granted, a certain category of agreements benefits from an exemption without any individual assessment. (...) Competition authorities may authorize firms to engage in certain conduct when the firms are subject to effective competition, and such practices produce a “net public benefit”. The net public benefit needs to be aligned with the objectives or purposes of the competition laws, preferably interpreted as economic benefit or economic efficiency. (...) The ACCC may not grant authorization to proposed exclusionary provisions (primary boycotts), secondary boycotts, third line forcing and resale price maintenance unless it is satisfied in all the circumstances that the TD/RBP/CONF.7/L.3 17 Country proposed provision or proposed conduct is likely to result in such a benefit to the public that the provision should be permitted to be made or the conduct should be allowed to take place (the second test).
Language:English
Score: 1319931.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=TD/RBP/CONF.7/L.3&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
PowerPoint Presentation 26 August 2015 ITU-MCMC INTERNATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM Regulating Interconnection and Access 2 Create competitive environment Level playing field among large and small operators Minimise duplication of infrastructure by facilitating service based competition Ensure any-to-any connectivity Purpose of Access Regulation 3 COMPETITOR 1 RETAIL COMPETITION RETAIL END USERS COMPETITOR 2 RETAIL COMPETITION COMPETITOR 3 RETAIL COMPETITION COMPETITOR 4 RETAIL COMPETITION COMPETITOR X RETAIL COMPETITION WHOLESALE ONLY (e.g. wholesale monopolist) Upstream Downstream ACCESS ACCESS COMPETITOR 1 RETAIL COMPETITION RETAIL LEVEL END USERS COMPETITOR 2 RETAIL COMPETITION COMPETITOR 3 RETAIL COMPETITION (Vertically integrated operator) WHOLESALE LEVEL COMPETITOR 4 RETAIL COMPETITION COMPETITOR X RETAIL COMPETITION WHOLESALE LEVEL ONLY (e.g. tower companies) Purpose of Access Regulation 4 Standard Access Obligations Provide access to listed facilities and services on reasonable terms and conditions Same or more favourable technical standard and quality Equitable and non discriminatory basis Requires comparison on what Access Provider provides to Access Seeker and what Access Provider provides to itself Access List Services – Key Concepts 5 Inclusion of Services and Facilities in the Access List is based on Key Concepts 1. Long-term benefit of end user (LTBE) 2. Bottleneck Promote competition Any-to-any connectivity Efficient use and efficient investment Controlled by monopolistic firm Not feasible to duplicate Denial of use Feasibility to provide access 6 Network Facilities Providers Network Service Providers ACCESS PROVIDERS ACCESS LIST SERVICES Network Facilities Providers Network Service Providers Application Service Providers Content Applications Service Providers ACCESS SEEKERS Access Providers and Access Seekers Access Regulation Framework 7 Access List Access Code Access AgreementSAOs MCMC registration process MS (Pricing) MS (Access) Access Undertaking MCMC acceptance / rejection MCMC dispute resolution Access Dispute Inclusion of a facility or service in the access list results in regulation of matters such as terms of access and price, fostering competition 8 Domestic backhaul Submarine Cable Landing Station X POI Access Core International Full Access Service Line Sharing Service Sub Loop Service Bitstream Service DSL Resale Service Wholesale Line Rental Service Layer 2 HSBB Network Service Layer 3 HSBB Network Service Wholesale Local Leased Circuit Ducts and Manholes DTB Multiplexing Service Infrastructure Sharing MVNO Service Fixed Network Origination/ Termination Service Mobile Network Origination/ Termination Service Interconnect Link Service Network Co-Location Service Trunk Transmission Domestic Connectivity to International Service End to End Transmission Services in Access List 9 Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer 7 6 5 4 2 1 Physical Layer 3 0 Open System Interconnection (OSI): Layers and Functions Upper layers Lower layers Specifies types of cables, connectors to be used, length of cable, manner to transmit . Specifies the size of the packet of data to be sent, contains basic error detection and correction to ensure that the data sent and received is the same Handles the routing of network messages using logical addresses created by protocols such as Internet Protocol Establishes connections to ensure that the packets move through networks reliably and without errors Establishes sessions before data is transmitted Converts data, compresses and encrypts data Supports application and end user processes Below ground 10 Use of the services in Access List (1/2) Services in the Access List Use of the Services OSI Layer Full Access Service Voice, broadband, IPTV Layer 1 - Physical Line Sharing Service Broadband Layer 1 - Physical Sub Loop Service Voice, broadband, IPTV Layer 1 - Physical Bitstream Service Broadband Layer 2 - Data DSL Resale Service Broadband Layer 3 - Network Wholesale Line Rental Service Bundled with other retail services Layer 3- Physical Layer 2 HSBB Network Service IPTV, video on demand, broadband, VoIP Layer 2 - Data Layer 3 HSBB Network Service IPTV, video on demand, broadband, VoIP Layer 3 - Network Ducts and Manholes Deployment of fibre infrastructure Layer 0 - Physical DTB Multiplexing Service Digital terrestrial broadcasting Layer 2 - Data Infrastructure Sharing Mobile services such as broadband, voice, SMS, MMS Layer 1 - Physical Mobile Virtual Network Operator Mobile services such as broadband, voice, SMS, MMS Layer 2 and above , depending on the business model 11 Use of the services in the Access List(2/2) Services in the Access List Use of the Services OSI Layer Fixed Network Origination/ Termination Service Voice, SMS, MMS Layer 2 - Data Mobile Network Origination / Termination Service Voice, SMS, MMS Layer 2 - Data Interconnect Link Service Voice, SMS, MMS Layer 1 - Physical Network Co-Location Service Physical space acquired for the purpose of interconnection or access and can be used for any services, e.g. voice, broadband etc.
Language:English
Score: 1302466.2 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/R...on%20on%20Access-ver110815.pdf
Data Source: un
Call-back brings enormous benefits to telecommunication users in terms of lower prices for international telephone calls, particularly in developing countries. (...) However, the developing county PTOs do benefit indirectly through settlement payments from partner countries. (...) Some alternative calling procedures stimulate traffic without bringing financial benefits to the local PTO (this is the case, for instance, with Internet telephony, international simple resale and other PSTN-bypass systems).
Language:English
Score: 1301432.3 - https://www.itu.int/osg/spu/intset/ITUpap/cashback.doc
Data Source: un
MODEL LAW ON COMPETITION (2015) : REVISED CHAPTER 4
As low pricing usually involves benefits to consumers, jurisdictions may be reluctant to condemn pricing as predatory. Depending on the structure of its markets, jurisdictions must balance the benefits and detriments of such practices. Developing jurisdictions tend to be less reluctant to condemn predatory pricing, as their markets may be more concentrated, and as barriers to entry are high, the elimination of a smaller rival may be more problematic. On the other hand, consumers and small businesses in developing countries may derive more benefits from lower prices, leading to agencies being reluctant to intervene.
Language:English
Score: 1299126.1 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=TD/RBP/CONF.8/L.2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
We would therefore advise the corresponding recommendation to be made very clear in respect to the following categories of equipment/investments: i) personal GMPCS units intended exclusively for personal use; ii) GMPCS units imported in large quantities (i.e. more than one) intended for use other than personal e.g. for resale to the general public or distribution to employees, etc.; iii) equipment and other investments needed to facilitate the use of GMPCS service in the country. In view of the above, we propose the Article 4 (Customs Arrangements) to read: "The Parties shall develop recommendations to their competent authorities proposing exemption of approved terminals (intended exclusively for personal use) from customs restrictions when visiting or transiting countries except when the terminals are carried or imported for the purpose of resale/distribution in which case a mechanism should be made to meet the customs requirements of the individual country. Also an arrangement should be made such that an individual/visitor who qualifies for customs exception must leave the country with his/her terminal, unless it was declared for resale/distribution right from the beginning." 3) Article 6 On reviewing this article, we reached a consensus amendments that the issuance for the requested data must be mentioned as 30 man-days and the words "prohibit and" be inserted between the words "to" and "identify" in the last line.
Language:English
Score: 1281177.3 - https://www.itu.int/newsarchive/wtpf96/gmpcs-mou/no-52.html
Data Source: un
This leadership will help navigate through the profound technology change of today and deliver on its rich promise tomorrow, with life-changing benefits for many millions. I am sure that this year’s GSR Best Practice Guidelines will provide useful guidance in forging regulatory frameworks for the ICT sector as the basis for the digital economy today and for the future.” (...) More inclusive, incentive-based and collaboration-driven regulation will not only benefit consumers and businesses, but will help fast-track a digital future for the billions who remain unconnected. (...) Advocating widely for the benefits of new technologies in the digital economy and society
Language:English
Score: 1277678.5 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/C...%20Practice%20guidelines_E.pdf
Data Source: un