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STRENGTHENING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SET : THE SCOPE, COVERAGE AND ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION LAWS AND POLICIES AND ANALYSIS OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENTS RELEVANT TO COMPETITION POLICY, INCLUDING THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING AND OTHER COUNTRIES : STUDY / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
However, these may be exempted if they contribute to improving the production or TD/B/COM.2/EM/2 page 7 distribution of goods or to promoting technical or economic progress and allow consumers a fair share of the resultant benefit and do not impose restrictions which are not indispensable to achieve the benefit sought, or afford the possibility of eliminating competition in respect of a substantial part of the products in question. (...) The formation and activities of producer associations and cooperatives, cartels and resale price maintenance may be exempted to a greater or lesser extent. (...) Exclusive purchasing agreements for petroleum-based and other fuels for resale in a designated service station are also exempted.
Language:English
Score: 1114606 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...open&DS=TD/B/COM.2/EM/2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
RESULTS OF THE EUROSTAT/ECMT/ECE PILOT SURVEY ON ROAD VEHICLE FLEETS : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
Alternative fuel: A type of motor energy which provides substantial environmental benefits over conventional fuels (petrol or diesel). (...) This includes end-of-life road vehicles, road vehicles exported to foreign countries for resale, and road vehicles removed from the register for other reasons, such as theft. (...) It is not possible to know if the vehicle is exported to a foreign country for resale or for other use. Statistics Finland proposes that "final deregistrations of road vehicles" include only vehicles removed from the vehicle register.
Language:English
Score: 1108775.7 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=TRANS/WP.6/1998/6&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Ensuring growth in International telecom segment with transparent  regulatory framework on  o Identification of eligibility condition for access seeker to cable  landing station facilities o Stipulation of time frame to entering into agreement for providing  access facilitation o To facilitate Co‐location , Capacity up‐gradation, Grooming Service  o Ensuring minimum commitment period for Co‐location Services at  cable landing stations. o Backhaul circuit provisioning and related issues  20.05.2008 TRAI 7 Entry Fee and Annual License Fee reduced significantly o Revised Entry fee for new ILDO license from US$ 6 Millions to US$  0.6 Million o Annual  license fee reduced to 6% from 15% both for existing and new ILDOs from 01.01.2006 Amendment in ILD license for enabling  TRAI to bring out  regulations to ensure efficient, transparent and non‐ discriminatory access to essential facilities for submarine  cables at CLS. Introduction of resale in IPLC segment for increasing  competition  after a period of 5 years of opening up of ILD  sector i.e. from Feb’2007 International Telecom access‐ Milestones 20.05.2008 TRAI 8 International Telecom access‐ Regulatory Initiatives 2002 : The ILD segment of telecom sector was opened for  competition 2005 : TRAI fixed ceiling tariff for IPLC to  bring down cost  for the users by an extent of 59% for higher capacities. 2006: Government accepted recommendations made by  TRAI on  o Introduction of Resale in IPLC segment o Access to essential facilities including landing facilities for submarine  cables at cable landing stations” 2007: TRAI gave recommendations on terms & conditions for introduction of Resale in IPLC segment.  20.05.2008 TRAI 9 07.06.2007 : TRAI issued Regulation on International  Telecommunication Access to Essential Facilities at Cable Landing  Stations (CLS) Regulation o Every owner of the cable landing station (OCLS) are mandated to  submit Reference Interconnect Offer (RIO) for approval of the  Authority within 30 days.  
Language:English
Score: 1108148.2 - https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/c...-session4-Gupta-openaccess.pdf
Data Source: un
STUDIES RELATED TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE SET AND CONSULTATIONS ON RESTRICTIVE BUSINESS PRACTICES : REPLIES BY STATES AND REGIONAL GROUPINGS ON STEPS TAKEN TO MEET THEIR COMMITMENT TO THE SET OF PRINCIPLES AND RULES : NOTE / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
New regulations which are identified as significantly restricting competition would lapse automatically after five years unless re-enacted following a public review by an independent body of the costs and benefits of the regulation. Existing regulations would be subject to review, and if retained after initial review would also be subject to review every five years. (...) A conclusion regarding this proposal should be reached by the end of the fiscal year 1995. The resale price maintenance system should also be reviewed from the above point of view and a review of goods designated for resale price maintenance is to be carried out with the aim of withdrawing the designation for all such items by the end of 1998. (...) A general ban on certain types of anticompetitive agreements has only been applied on collective resale price maintenance and resale price maintenance in certain sectors and on collusive tendering in the building and construction sector.
Language:English
Score: 1106344.6 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...n&DS=TD/B/RBP/100/ADD.1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Wireline Price Wireless Interconnection (LRIC) Wireline call + Billing & Collection Wireline Interconnection + B & C Wireline Sales Margin (Resale) Wireless Price (Wholesale)Wireline Sales Margin (Resale) Wireless Price (Retail) Wireline call + Billing & Collection Wireline Interconnection + B & C VEN EUR ARG MEX MEXICO/UIT US 28 c US 25 c US 3 c US 38 c US 19 c US 19 c Caller’s price Originating Network Destination Network 7 MEXICO/UIT Fixed to Mobile calls are more expensive than Mobile to Fixed calls.
Language:English
Score: 1106304.8 - https://www.itu.int/osg/spu/ni/fmi/workshop/hirsch.pdf
Data Source: un
CASE LAW ON UNCITRAL TEXTS (CLOUT) : UNCITRAL THESAURUS OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON CONTRACTS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS
Impediment excusing party from damages Failure of performance caused by other party Effects of avoidance Effect of avoidance on obligations: arbitration, restitution Buyer'S inability to return goods in same condition Preservation of other remedies Restitution of benefits received Preservation of the goods Article 85. (...) Effect of avoidance on obligations: arbitration. restitution 81A Obligations of both parties under Convention 81A1 Exception: damages for breach (see arts. 74-'76) 81B Contract clauses not terminated by avoidance: 81B1 Clauses on settlement of disputes; arbitration 81B2 Clauses on rights of parties consequent upon avoidance 81C Restitution by each party of benefits received (art. 81(2» 81Cl Return of defective goods 81Cll Right to require substitute goods under art. 46(2) 81C2 Conforming goods resold; right to recover damages 81C2l Problems: Right to proceeds of resale; interest (art. 78) 81C3 Avoidance for non-payment; right to return of goods 81C31 Domestic law of forum denies specific relief (art. 28) 810 Restitution by both parties; concurrent exchange 81E Other problems Article 82. (...) A/CN.9/SER.e/INDEX/1 English Page 35 82B2 Goods modified as result of examination (art. 82(2) (b» or: 82B3 Goods sold or transformed by buyer in normal use (art. 82 (2) (c) ) : 82B31 Before discovery of lack of conformity 82C Compare restitution of benefits (art. 84(2)) 82D Other problems Article 83.
Language:English
Score: 1104949.3 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...DS=A/CN.9/SER.C/INDEX/1&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
RECENT IMPORTANT COMPETITION CASES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : REPORT / BY THE UNCTAD SECRETARIAT
Thus, the behaviour of these firms affected all Brazilian citizens, who were prevented from benefiting from the price reductions that would have resulted from a TD/B/COM.2/CLP/26 Page 6 competitive environment. (...) The case may also be of interest to developing countries seeking to take action to benefit consumers of pharmaceuticals. 5. Venezuela Abuse of dominant position in the telecommunications industry Telefonica CANTV Facts 23. (...) The Competition Commission of Zimbabwe noted that, although the merger would result in the creation of a monopoly situation, other public interest benefits took precedence. Section 32 (5) of the Competition Act includes as such benefits the creation of greater economies of scale resulting in more efficient use of resources, the generation of foreign currency through exports, and the stabilization of cigarette prices on the local market.
Language:English
Score: 1102170.8 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...en&DS=TD/B/COM.2/CLP/26&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
Dec ’94 Liberalization of resale of public switched telecommunications services for existing resellers in hotel and service apartment sector. (...) Jun ’95 Six bids for third Internet Access Service Provider (IASP) licence received. Aug ’95 Resale of international telephone services via customer-owned and operated Coinafons. (...) Licensing of 2 Internet public access providers, in competition with Singnet. Oct ’95 Resale of services by Internet public access providers permitted.
Language:English
Score: 1100623.8 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/...singapore/material/sing1-3.pdf
Data Source: un
INTERNATIONAL COUNTERTRADE : DRAFT LEGAL GUIDE ON DRAWING UP CONTRACTS IN INTERNATIONAL COUNTERTRADE TRANSACTIONS : SAMPLE CHAPTERS : REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
The purchaser may be restricted as to the territory of resale, as well as to the terms of resale (e.g., resale price or packaging). (...) In addition, the countertrade agreement may address issues such as restrictions on the resale of countertrade goods (chapter X), participation of third persons in the countertrade transaction (chapter VIII), choice of law (chapter XIV) and settlement of disputes (chapter XV). (...) If the parties do not wish to entrust the decision on a contract term to a third person, but still want the benefit of the opinion of a third person, it may be agreed that the determination by the third person will only be a recommendation. 54.
Language:English
Score: 1097411.2 - daccess-ods.un.org/acce...pen&DS=A/CN.9/332/ADD.2&Lang=E
Data Source: ods
USIMINAS/COSIPA laboured to collect and report these affiliates’ resale information. The resale information was then subject to verification as part of the large volume of information submitted by USIMINAS/COSIPA. (...) The substitution of higher downstream resale prices increases normal value so as to vitiate any “fair comparison.” Moreover, the use of resale prices results in a comparison of ex-factory prices in one market to a comparison of a downstream resale price in another market.
Language:English
Score: 1095934.4 - https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/184r_c_e.doc
Data Source: un