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Taking an informal approach to resolving a dispute can be preferable for the staff member and any other party that is involved. (...) Using informal means of resolving disputes does not in any way preclude a staff member from bringing a case to the formal component of the system. (...) RESOLVING DISPUTES INFORMALLY WITHIN YOUR OFFICE OR DEPARTMENT Staff members should first try to resolve the dispute informally, within their own office or department.
Language:English
Score: 742164.3 - https://www.un.org/en/internal...ving-disputes-informally.shtml
Data Source: un
This website explains the various components of the UN’s internal system of justice, and describes how to resolve work-related disputes informally and if necessary, formally. (...) Digest of Case Law 2009–2019 CONFLICT TO DIALOGUE RESOLVING DISPUTES INFORMALLY Staff members should first try to resolve disputes informally, through dialogue, negotiation, and if necessary, mediation, before bringing their grievance to the formal legal process. (...) Informal resolution can be achieved through: Your office or department UN Ombudsman's Office The Office of Staff Legal Assistance Other informal means CONFLICT TO TRIBUNAL RESOLVING DISPUTES FORMALLY Staff members of the UN Secretariat, UN funds and programmes, and some other entities can formally contest any administrative decision they believe has violated their rights.
Language:English
Score: 741834.23 - https://www.un.org/en/internaljustice/index.shtml
Data Source: un
The UN’s special status leaves the Organization with the responsibility to provide its own staff with an internal justice system which is fair and impartial and which can effectively resolve disputes arising from staff members’ employment. The UN’s internal system for the administration of justice is a means for UN staff to try to resolve dispute informally, and if informal means do not work, to resolve disputes formally through the management evaluation process, UN Dispute Tribunal and UN Appeals Tribunal. (...) For more information see: A Staff Member’s Guide to Resolving Disputes New!  How do I appeal – booklet → New! 
Language:English
Score: 714126.17 - https://www.un.org/en/internal...verview/about-the-system.shtml
Data Source: un
Resolution 35 (WRC-19) RES35-1 RESOLUTION 35 (WRC-19) A milestone-based approach for the implementation of frequency assignments to space stations in a non-geostationary-satellite system in specific frequency bands and services The World Radiocommunication Conference (Sharm el-Sheikh, 2019), considering a) that filings for frequency assignments to non-geostationary-satellite (non-GSO) systems composed of hundreds to thousands of non-GSO satellites have been received by ITU since 2011, in particular in frequency bands allocated to the fixed-satellite service (FSS) or the mobile-satellite service (MSS); b) that design considerations, availability of launch vehicles to support multiple satellite launches and other factors mean that notifying administrations may require longer than the regulatory period stipulated in No. 11.44 to complete implementation of the non-GSO systems referred to in considering a); c) that any discrepancies between the deployed number of orbital planes/satellites per orbital plane of a non-GSO system and the Master International Frequency Register (Master Register) have, to date, not significantly impinged upon the efficient use of the orbit/spectrum resource in any frequency band used by non-GSO systems; d) that the bringing into use and recording in the Master Register of frequency assignments to space stations in non-GSO systems by the end of the seven-year regulatory period referred to in No. 11.44 do not require confirmation by the notifying administration of the deployment of all the satellites associated with these frequency assignments; e) that ITU Radiocommunication Sector studies on the issue have shown that the adoption of a milestone-based approach will provide a regulatory mechanism to help ensure that the Master Register reasonably reflects the actual deployment of such non-GSO systems in certain frequency bands and services, and improve the efficient use of the orbit/spectrum resource in those frequency bands and services; f) that, in defining the timeline and objective criteria for the milestone-based approach, there is a need to seek a balance between the prevention of spectrum warehousing, the proper functioning of coordination mechanisms and the operational requirements related to the deployment of a non- GSO system; g) that adherence to fixed milestone periods is desirable, as this creates certainty with respect to the deployment of non-GSO systems, recognizing a) that the bringing into use of frequency assignments to non-GSO systems is addressed in Article 11; b) that any regulatory mechanism for management of frequency assignments to non-GSO systems in the Master Register should not impose an unnecessary burden; - 47 - RES35-2 c) that the number of orbital planes in a non-GSO system (item A.4.b.1) and the number of satellites in each orbital plane (item A.4.b.4.b) are among the notified required characteristics as specified in Appendix 4; d) that No. 13.6 is applicable to non-GSO systems with frequency assignments that were confirmed to have been brought into use prior to 1 January 2021 in the frequency bands and services to which this Resolution applies; e) that, for frequency assignments to non-GSO systems brought into use and having reached the end of the period referred to in No. 11.44 prior to 1 January 2021 in the frequency bands and services to which this Resolution applies, affected notifying administrations should be given either the opportunity to confirm completion of the deployment of satellites in accordance with the Appendix 4 characteristics of their recorded frequency assignments or sufficient time to complete deployment in accordance with this Resolution; f) that No. 11.49 addresses the suspension of recorded frequency assignments to a space station of a satellite network or to space stations of a non-GSO system, recognizing further that this Resolution relates to those aspects of non-GSO systems to which resolves 1 applies with regard to the notified required characteristics as specified in Appendix 4, and the conformity of the notified required characteristics of the non-GSO systems, other than those referred to in recognizing c) above, is outside the scope of this Resolution, noting that for the purpose of this Resolution: – the term “frequency assignments” is understood to refer to frequency assignments to a space station of a non-GSO system; – the term “notified orbital plane” means an orbital plane of the non-GSO system, as provided to the Radiocommunication Bureau (BR) in the most recent notification information for the system’s frequency assignments, that possesses the general characteristics of items: – A.4.b.4.a, the inclination of the orbital plane of the space station; – A.4.b.4.d, the altitude of the apogee of the space station; – A.4.b.4.e, the altitude of the perigee of the space station; and – A.4.b.5.c, the argument of the perigee of the orbit of the space station (only for orbits whose altitudes of the apogee and perigee are different) in Table A of Annex 2 to Appendix 4; – the term “total number of satellites” is understood to mean the sum of the various values of Appendix 4 data item A.4.b.4.b associated with the notified orbital planes in the most recent notification information submitted to BR, - 48 - RES35-3 resolves 1 that this Resolution applies to frequency assignments to non-GSO systems brought into use in accordance with Nos. 11.44 and 11.44C, in the frequency bands and for the services listed in the Table below: TABLE Frequency bands and services for application of the milestone-based approach Frequency bands (GHz) Space radiocommunication services Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 10.70-11.70 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 11.70-12.50 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 12.50-12.70 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) FIXED-SATELLITE (space- to-Earth) BROADCASTING- SATELLITE FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 12.70-12.75 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth- to-space) BROADCASTING- SATELLITE FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 12.75-13.25 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 13.75-14.50 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 17.30-17.70 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) None FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 17.70-17.80 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) FIXED-SATELLITE (space- to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 17.80-18.10 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 18.10-19.30 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 19.30-19.60 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 19.60-19.70 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) (Earth-to-space) 19.70-20.10 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 20.10-20.20 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 27.00-27.50 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 27.50-29.50 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) - 49 - RES35-4 Frequency bands (GHz) Space radiocommunication services Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 29.50-29.90 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth- to-space) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) MOBILE-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 29.90-30.00 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) MOBILE-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 37.50-38.00 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 38.00-39.50 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 39.50-40.50 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) MOBILE-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) 40.50-42.50 FIXED-SATELLITE (space-to-Earth) BROADCASTING-SATELLITE 47.20-50.20 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 50.40-51.40 FIXED-SATELLITE (Earth-to-space) 2 that, for frequency assignments to which resolves 1 applies, and for which the end of the seven-year regulatory period specified in No. 11.44 is on or after 1 January 2021, the notifying administration shall communicate to BR the required deployment information in accordance with Annex 1 to this Resolution no later than 30 days after the end of the regulatory period specified in No. 11.44 or 30 days after the end of the bringing into use period in No. 11.44C, whichever comes later; 3 that, for frequency assignments to which resolves 1 applies, and for which the end of the seven-year regulatory period specified in No. 11.44 has expired prior to 1 January 2021, the notifying administration shall communicate to BR the required deployment information in accordance with Annex 1 to this Resolution no later than 1 February 2021; 4 that, for the purposes of this Resolution, all references to 100% of the total number of satellites indicated in the latest notification information shall mean either 100% of the filed satellites (counting the number of satellites in each notified orbital plane), or 100% of the filed satellites minus one satellite; 5 that, upon receipt of the required deployment information submitted in accordance with resolves 2 or 3 above, BR shall: a) promptly make this information available “as received” on the ITU website; b) add a remark to the Master Register entry, if available, or to the latest notification information, as appropriate, stating that the assignments are subject to the application of resolves 7 to 18 of this Resolution if the number of satellites communicated to BR under resolves 2 or 3 above is less than 100% of the total number of satellites indicated in the latest notification information published in the International Frequency Information Circular (BR IFIC) (Part I-S) or in the latest notification information received by BR, as appropriate, for the frequency assignments; and c) publish the results of action taken pursuant to resolves 5b) above in the BR IFIC and on the ITU website; - 50 - RES35-5 6 that, if the number of satellites communicated to BR under resolves 2 or 3 above is 100% of the total number of satellites indicated in the Master Register in Part II-S of the BR IFIC, if available, or in the latest notification information published in the BR IFIC (Part I-S) for the frequency assignments, resolves 7 to 18 of this Resolution are not applicable; 7 that, for the frequency assignments to which resolves 2 applies, the notifying administration shall communicate to BR the required deployment information in accordance with Annex 1 to this Resolution as of the expiry of the milestone periods mentioned in subsections a) through c) below (see also resolves 9): a) no later than 30 days after the expiry of the two-year period after the end of the seven- year regulatory period referred to in No. 11.44; b) no later than 30 days after the expiry of the five-year period after the end of the seven- year regulatory period referred to in No. 11.44; c) no later than 30 days after the expiry of the seven-year period after the end of the seven- year regulatory period referred to in No. 11.44; 8 that, for frequency assignments to which resolves 3 applies, the notifying administration shall communicate to BR the complete deployment information in accordance with Annex 1 to this Resolution as of 1 January of the years mentioned in subsections a) through c) below (see also resolves 9): a) no later than 1 February 2023 (corresponding to 30 days after the expiry of the two-year period after 1 January 2021); b) no later than 1 February 2026 (corresponding to 30 days after the expiry of the five-year period after 1 January 2021); c) no later than 1 February 2028 (corresponding to 30 days after the expiry of the seven- year period after 1 January 2021); 9 that, for purposes of resolves 7 and 8: a) BR shall process the deployment information required to be submitted under resolves 7a)/8a) or 7b)/8b), as appropriate, at any point during the relevant period, if the notifying administration reports that the total number of satellites required to be deployed as of the end of that milestone period has been achieved; b) BR shall process, at any time, a report from the notifying administration stating that the total number of satellites deployed as a part of the system is 100% of the total number of satellites indicated in the Master Register in Part II-S of the BR IFIC, if available, or in the latest notification information published in the BR IFIC (Part I-S) for the frequency assignments; c) if the total number of satellites deployed as part of the system during any relevant milestone period is greater than the number of satellites that remain deployed as part of the system as of the expiry of the relevant milestone period, BR shall take into account the total number of satellites deployed during the period that has been reported by the notifying administration if: i) the notifying administration includes a detailed explanation of the circumstances which led to having the reduced number of satellites deployed as of the expiry of that milestone period with the complete deployment information in accordance with Annex 1 to this Resolution; and - 51 - RES35-6 ii) the notifying administration provides an indication of whether any of the satellites no longer counted as of the expiry of the relevant milestone period have been or will be used to satisfy milestone obligations associated with frequency assignment(s) of any other non-GSO system(s) subject to this Resolution and, if so, how many satellites and the identity of the non-GSO system(s) in question; d) the notifying administration shall provide with its reporting under resolves 7 or 8, as appropriate, an indication of whether any of the satellites counted as of the expiry of the relevant milestone period have been used to satisfy milestone obligations associated with frequency assignment(s) of any other non-GSO system(s) subject to this Resolution and, if so, how many satellites and the identity of the non-GSO system(s) in question; 10 that, upon receipt of the required deployment information submitted in accordance with resolves 7 or 8, BR shall: a) promptly make this information available “as received” on the ITU website; b) conduct an examination of the information provided for compliance with the minimum number of satellites to be deployed as prescribed for each period in resolves 11a), 11b) or 11c), as appropriate; c) modify the Master Register entry, if available, or the latest notification information, as appropriate, for the frequency assignments to the system to remove the remark added in accordance with resolves 5b), stating that the assignments are subject to the application of this Resolution if the number communicated to BR under resolves 7 or 8 is 100% of the total number of satellites indicated in the Master Register entry for the non-GSO system; d) publish this information and its findings in the BR IFIC and make that information available on the ITU website as soon as possible; 11 that the notifying administration shall also submit to BR, no later than 90 days after the expiry of each of the milestone periods referred to in resolves 7 or 8, as appropriate, the modifications to the characteristics of the notified or recorded frequency assignments if the number of space stations declared as deployed: a) under resolves 7a) or 8a), as appropriate, is less than 10% of the total number of satellites (rounded down to the lower integer) indicated in the latest notification information published in Part I-S of the BR IFIC for the frequency assignments; in this case, the modified total number of satellites shall not be greater than 10 times the number of space stations declared as deployed under resolves 7a) or 8a); b) under resolves 7b) or 8b), as appropriate, is less than 50% of the total number of satellites (rounded down to the lower integer) indicated in the latest notification information published in Part I-S of the BR IFIC for the frequency assignments; in this case, the modified total number of satellites shall not be greater than two times the number of space stations declared as deployed under resolves 7b) or 8b); - 52 - RES35-7 c) under resolves 7c) or 8c), as appropriate, is less than 100% of the total number of satellites indicated in the latest notification information published in Part I-S of the BR IFIC for the frequency assignments; in this case, the modified total number of satellites shall not be greater than the number of space stations declared as deployed under resolves 7c) or 8c); 12 that resolves 11a) shall not apply for frequency assignments for which the end of the seven-year regulatory period in No. 11.44 is before 28 November 2022, provided that the notifying administration submits the complete information listed in Annex 2 to this Resolution to BR by 1 March 2023, and a favourable determination is made by the Radio Regulations Board (RRB) or WRC-23, as described below: a) upon receipt of this complete information, BR shall report it to RRB as soon as possible, but no later than 1 April 2023, in order to enable comments from administrations and consideration by RRB at its second meeting in 2023, at the latest; b) RRB shall consider the information provided under this resolves and provide a report with its conclusions or recommendations to WRC-23, including any cases where RRB is not in a position to conclude favourably; 13 that BR shall, no later than 45 days before any deadline for submission by a notifying administration under resolves 2, 3, 7a), b) or c) and 8a), b) or c), send a reminder to the notifying administration to provide the information required; 14 that, upon receipt of the modifications to the characteristics of the notified or recorded frequency assignments as referred to in resolves 11: a) BR shall promptly make this information available “as received” on the ITU website; b) BR shall conduct an examination for compliance with the maximum number of satellites as per resolves 11a), b) or c) and Nos. 11.43A/11.43B, as appropriate; c) BR, for the purpose of No. 11.43B, shall retain the original dates of entry of the frequency assignments in the Master Register if: i) BR reaches a favourable finding under No. 11.31; and ii) the modifications are limited to reduction of the number of orbital planes (Appendix 4 data item A.4.b.1) and modifications to the right ascension of the ascending node of each plane (Appendix 4 data item A.4.b.5.a/A.4.b.4.g), the longitude of the ascending node (Appendix 4 data item A.4.b.6.g) and its date and time (Appendix 4 data items A.4.b.6.h and A.4.b.6.i.a) associated with the remaining orbital planes, or reduction of the number of space stations per plane (Appendix 4 data item A.4.b.4.b) and modifications of the initial phase angle of the space stations (Appendix 4 data item A.4.b.5.b/h) within planes; and iii) the notifying administration provides a commitment stating that the characteristics as modified will not cause more interference or require more protection than the characteristics provided in the latest notification information published in Part I-S of the BR IFIC for the frequency assignments (see Appendix 4 data item A.23.a); - 53 - RES35-8 d) BR shall ensure the remark stating that the assignments are subject to the application of this Resolution as defined in resolves 7 or 8 is retained until the milestone process in resolves 7 to 18 of this Resolution is complete; e) BR shall publish the information provided and its findings in the BR IFIC; 15 that, if a notifying administration fails to communicate the information required under resolves 2, 3, 7a), b) or c), 8a), b) or c) or 11a), b) or c), as appropriate, BR shall promptly send to the notifying administration a reminder asking the administration to provide the required information within 30 days from the date of this reminder from BR; 16 that, if a notifying administration fails to provide information after the reminder sent under resolves 15, BR shall send to the notifying administration a second reminder asking it to provide the required information within 15 days from the date of the second reminder; 17 that, if a notifying administration fails to provide the required information: a) under resolves 2 or 3, as appropriate, following the reminders under resolves 15 and 16, BR shall continue to take the entry in the Master Register into account when conducting its examinations until the decision is made by RRB to cancel the entry; b) under resolves 7a), b) or c), 8a), b) or c), or 11a), b) or c), as appropriate, following the reminders under resolves 15 and 16, BR shall: i) modify the entry by suppressing the notified orbital parameters of all satellites not listed in the last complete deployment information submitted under resolves 2, 3, 7 or 8, as appropriate; and ii) no longer consider the frequency assignments under subsequent examinations under Nos. 9.36, 11.32 or 11.32A, and inform administrations having frequency assignments subject to subsection IA of Article 9 that those assignments shall not cause harmful interference to, nor claim protection from, other frequency assignments recorded in the Master Register with a favourable finding under No. 11.31; 18 that the suspension of the use of frequency assignments in accordance with No. 11.49 at any point prior to the end of a milestone period as specified in resolves 7a), b) or c) or 8a), b) or c) of this Resolution, as applicable, shall not alter or reduce the requirements associated with any of the remaining milestones as derived from resolves 7a), b) or c) or 8a), b) or c), as appropriate; 19 that, for a non-GSO system that has completed the milestone process described in this Resolution, including application of resolves 10c) by BR, and for systems to which resolves 6 applies, if the number of satellites capable of transmitting or receiving the frequency assignments deployed in that system subsequently falls below 95% (rounded down to the lower integer) of the total number of satellites indicated in the Master Register entry minus one satellite for six continuous months, the notifying administration shall inform BR of the date when this event began, for information purposes only, as soon as possible thereafter; if appropriate and applicable, the notifying administration should also inform BR, as soon as possible thereafter, of the date on which the deployment of the total number of satellites was resumed; BR shall make the information received under this resolves available on its website, - 54 - RES35-9 instructs the Radiocommunication Bureau 1 to take the necessary actions to implement this Resolution; 2 to report any difficulties it encounters in the implementation of this Resolution to WRC-23; 3 to continue to identify and report on specific frequency bands in specific services for which there may be a problem similar to that which resulted in the creation of this Resolution, as early as possible, but not later than the penultimate meeting of the responsible group prior to the second session of the Conference Preparatory Meeting, instructs the Radio Regulations Board to provide a report to WRC-23 as called for in resolves 12b), invites the 2023 World Radiocommunication Conference to consider the RRB report submitted in response to resolves 12b) and take necessary action, as appropriate. (...) ANNEX 2 TO RESOLUTION 35 (WRC-19) Information to be provided by the notifying administration pursuant to resolves 12 1) Reference to notification information already submitted 2) Current deployment and operational information 3) Report indicating efforts made and detailing status of coordination with systems or networks 4) Clear evidence of a binding agreement for the manufacture or procurement of a sufficient number of satellites to meet the milestone obligation in resolves 7b) or 8b), as appropriate 5) Clear evidence of a binding agreement to launch a sufficient number of satellites to meet the milestone obligation in resolves 7b) or 8b), as appropriate.
Language:English
Score: 709215.87 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/s...ce/Documents/RES35(WRC-19).pdf
Data Source: un
Attachments: 2 Attachment 1 PROPOSED Merge of the content of Resolutions ITU-R 34-4 and ITU-R 35-4 into a revision of Resolution ITU-R 36-4 Content of Resolution ITU-R 34-4 Content of the revision of Resolution ITU-R 36-4 recognising a) new recognising a) recognising b) new recognising b) considering a) edited into new considering b) considering b) reflected in new considering b) considering c) covered in new considering b) considering d) new considering c) resolves 1 reflected in new further resolves 7 invites 1 new footnote to the title of Annex 3 Annex 1 new Annex 3 Content of Resolution ITU-R 35-4 Content of the revision of Resolution ITU-R 36-4 recognising a) new recognising a) recognising b) new recognising b) considering a) part of new considering a) considering b) reflected in new considering b) resolves 1 new further resolves 1 resolves 2 new further resolves 2 resolves 3 new further resolves 4 resolves 4 new further resolves 5 resolves 5 new further resolves 3 resolves 6 new further resolves 6 resolves 7 new further resolves 7 resolves 8 new further resolves 8 resolves 9 new further resolves 9 resolves 10 new further resolves 10 resolves 11 new further resolves 11 Annex 1 new Annex 2 Content of Resolution ITU-R 36-4 Content of the revision of Resolution ITU-R 36-4 recognising a) new recognising a) recognising b) new recognizing b) considering a) reflected in new considering a) considering b) reflected in new considering b) considering c) reflected in new considerings a) and f) considering d) edited into new considering a) considering e) implied in new considering a) considering f) new considering d) considering g) new considering e) considering h) new considering f) resolves 1 simplified in new resolves 1 resolves 2 reflected in new resolves 3 resolves 3 new resolves 4 resolves 4 new resolves 5 resolves 5 new resolves 2 Annex 1 new Annex 1 ATTACHMENT 2 Proposed revision of RESOLUTION ITU-R 36-4 to merge it with Resolutions ITU-R 34-4 and ITU-R 35-4 [footnoteRef:1] [1: Editor’s note: The parts transferred from Resolutions ITU-R 34-4 and ITU-R 35-4 are preceded here by a note in square brackets, highlighted in yellow. (...) Busan, 2014), on use of the six official languages of the Union on an equal footing, which instructed the Council and the General Secretariat on how to achieve the equal treatment of the six languages; b) the decisions by the ITU Council centralizing the editing functions for languages in the General Secretariat (Conferences and Publications Department), calling upon the Sectors to provide the final texts in English only (this applies also to terms and definitions), considering [the new considerings are taken from Resolution ITU-R 34-4] a) that it is important for the work of ITU, and in particular of the Radiocommunication Sector (ITUR), to liaise with the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and other interested organizations about terms and definitions, graphical symbols for documentation, letter symbols and other means of expression, units of measurement, etc., with the objective of standardizing such elements, etc.in order to avoid misunderstandings with those organizations and within the ITU, in the use of common terms and definitions; b) the difficulty of achieving agreement on definitionsthat the individual Radiocommunication Study Groups have a responsibility for the proposal of terms and definitions in the English language, but it may sometimes be difficult to reach agreement on the use of terms and on their definitions when more than one Radiocommunication Study Group is involved; c) that ITU is collaborating with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in order to provide and maintain an internationally agreed vocabulary of telecommunications; c) that there are definitions contained in the Annexes to the ITU Constitution and Convention and in the Administrative Regulations; d) that both the Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITUT) and ITUR are collaborating with IEC (TC 3) in order to provide internationally agreed graphical symbols for diagrams and for use on equipment, and approved rules for the preparation of documentation and for item designation; e) that both the ITUT and ITUR are collaborating with IEC (TC 25) in order to provide internationally agreed letter symbols and units, etc.; fd) that there is a continuing need for the publication of terms and definitions appropriate to the work of ITUR; ge) that unnecessary or duplicated work can be avoided by effective coordination and adoption of all work on vocabulary and related subjects carried out by the Radiocommunication Study Groups; hf) that the long-term objective of the terminology work must be the preparation of a comprehensive vocabulary of telecommunications in the official languages of ITU, resolves 1 that the coordination of work on vocabulary within ITUR willshould be based on the submission by the Study Groups in English, with the consideration, resolution and adoption of the translation into the other five official languages as proposed by the ITU General Secretariat (Conferences and Publications Department), and willshould be ensured by a Coordination Committee for Vocabulary (CCV), comprising of experts in the various official languages and members designated by interested administrations and other participants in the work of ITUR, as well as the Rapporteurs for Vocabulary of the Radiocommunication Study Groups, in close collaboration with the ITU General Secretariat (Conferences and Publications Department) and the Radiocommunication Bureau (BR) editor; 2 that the Chairman and six Vice-Chairmen of CCV, each representing one of the official ITU languages, should be nominated by the Radiocommunication Assembly; 23 that CCV should work according to the terms of reference of CCV is given in Annex 1; 34 that CCV, where necessary, should review and revise where necessary the existing Recommendations of the V series; new and revised Recommendations shouldmay be adopted by CCV and should be submitted for approval in accordance with Resolution ITUR 1; 45 that administrations and other participants in the work of ITUR may submit, to CCV and to the Radiocommunication Study Groups, contributions concerning vocabulary and related subjects;, 5 that the Chairman and six Vice-Chairmen, each representing one of the official languages, should be nominated by the Radiocommunication Assembly. further resolves [the following further resolves are taken from Resolution ITU-R 35-4] 1 that the Radiocommunication Study Groups, within their terms of reference, should continue their work on technical and operational terms and their definitions in English only, which may be required also for regulatory purposes and also on specialized terms in English which may be required by them in the course of their work; 2 that each Radiocommunication Study Group should be responsible for proposing terminology in its particular field of interest with the assistance of the Coordination Committee for Vocabulary (CCV) if needed; 3 that, in particular, each Radiocommunication Study Group should consider terms included within its texts and should propose definitions if necessary, or at least explain new concepts or clarify the text used to express existing concepts; 4 that each Radiocommunication Study Group should appoint a permanent Rapporteur for Vocabulary to coordinate efforts regarding terms and definitions and related subjects and to act as a contact person for the Study Group in this domain; 5 that the responsibilities of the Rapporteurs for Vocabulary should be the ones given in Annex 2; 6 that where more than one Radiocommunication Study Group is defining the same terms and/or concept, efforts should be made to select a single term and a single definition which is acceptable to all of the Radiocommunication Study Groups concerned; 7 that, when selecting terms and preparing definitions, the Radiocommunication Study Groups shall take into account the established use of terms and existing definitions in ITU as well as those found in the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) and should use the guidelines given in Annex 3 hereto; 8 that the Radiocommunication Bureau (BR) should collect all the new terms and definitions proposed by the Radiocommunication Study Groups, and provide them to CCV, which shall act as an interface with IEC; 9 that in close collaboration with the ITU General Secretariat (Conferences and Publications Department), CCV shall communicate with individual Rapporteurs for Vocabulary and, if necessary, promote meetings of experts where inconsistencies are found between terms and definitions in ITUR, the Telecommunication Standardization Sector and IEC; these mediation efforts should seek agreement to the extent that such agreement is feasible, with remaining inconsistencies duly noted; 10 that Radiocommunication Study Groups, administrations and other participants in the work of ITUR may submit contributions concerning vocabulary and related subjects to CCV; 11 that Rapporteurs for Vocabulary should take into account any available ITU Sector lists of emerging terms and definitions, to seek consistency of ITUR terms and definitions wherever practicable.
Language:English
Score: 708010 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/c...scv/Documents/SCV-TD54Ad2.docx
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 Page 40 - Implementation of Secure Authentication Technologies for Digital Financial Services           Basic HTML Version Table of Contents View Full Version Page 40 - Implementation of Secure Authentication Technologies for Digital Financial Services P. 40 6.7.7 DID Resolution The DID specification requires each DLT to have a DID DID as input and resolve it to a DID Document. The Method specification to describe how DID operations universal resolvers are specifically designed to work are performed. (...) The universal resolver approach solves the DID Document is complex. (...) Work has begun on a universal DID resolv- depicts the Universal Resolver concept [15]. er architecture and toolset that can take any valid Figure 25 – Universal DID Resolver Ledger 1 Ledger 2 Ledger N Ledger N+1 Driver Driver Driver Http get DID:ledger1 DID:ledger2 DID:ledgerN Universal Resolver Http get Http get App App 38 Implementation of Secure Authentication Technologies for Digital Financial Services     35     36     37     38     39     40     41     42     43     44     45          
Language:English
Score: 705239.65 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...h/files/basic-html/page40.html
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RADIO REGULATIONS 2008 RES609-1 RESOLUTION 609 (Rev.WRC-07) Protection of aeronautical radionavigation service systems from the equivalent power flux-density produced by radionavigation- satellite service networks and systems in the 1164-1215 MHz frequency band The World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2007), considering a) that the band 960-1215 MHz is allocated on a primary basis to the aeronautical radionavigation service (ARNS) in all Regions; b) that the band 1164-1215 MHz is also allocated on a primary basis to the radionavigation-satellite service (RNSS), subject to the condition in No. 5.328A that operation of RNSS systems shall be in accordance with this Resolution; c) that WRC-2000 provided for implementation of a provisional aggregate power flux- density (pfd) limit during the period between WRC-2000 and WRC-03, and requested ITU-R studies on the need for an aggregate pfd limit, and revision, if necessary, of the provisional pfd limit given in No. 5.328A; d) that WRC-03 determined that protection of the ARNS from harmful interference can be achieved if the value of the equivalent pfd (epfd) produced by all the space stations of all RNSS (space-to-Earth) systems in the 1164-1215 MHz band does not exceed the level of 121.5 dB(W/m2) in any 1 MHz band; e) that only a limited number of RNSS systems are expected to be deployed in the 1164-1215 MHz band, and only a few of these systems at most would have overlapping frequencies; f) that ARNS systems can be protected without placing undue constraints on the development and operation of RNSS systems in this band; g) that to achieve the objectives in considering f), administrations operating or planning to operate RNSS systems will need to agree cooperatively through consultation meetings to equitably share the aggregate epfd in a manner to achieve the level of protection for ARNS systems that is stated in considering d); h) that it may be appropriate for representatives of administrations operating or planning to operate ARNS systems to be involved in determinations made pursuant to considering g); - 293 - RES609-2 i) that WRC-03 decided to apply the coordination provisions of Nos. 9.12, 9.12A and 9.13 to RNSS systems and networks for which complete coordination or notification information, as appropriate, is received by the Bureau after 1 January 2005, noting a) that WRC-2000 invited ITU-R to conduct the appropriate technical, operational and regulatory studies on the overall compatibility between the RNSS and the ARNS in the band 960-1215 MHz; b) that WRC-2000 resolved to recommend that WRC-03 review the results of the studies, recognizing that under No. 7.5, interested administrations have the ability, at any time, to request the assistance of the Bureau with respect to Articles 9 and 11 and associated procedures, resolves 1 that in order to protect ARNS systems, administrations shall ensure, pursuant to this Resolution, that the epfd level produced by all space stations of all RNSS systems does not exceed the level –121.5 dB(W/m2) in any 1 MHz band; 2 that administrations operating or planning to operate in the 1164-1215 MHz frequency band RNSS systems or networks shall, in collaboration, take all necessary steps, including, if necessary, by means of appropriate modifications to their systems or networks, to ensure that the aggregate interference into ARNS systems caused by such RNSS systems or networks operating co-frequency in these frequency bands is shared equitably among the systems identified in resolves 3 and does not exceed the level of the aggregate protection criterion given in resolves 1 above; 3 that administrations, in carrying out their obligations under resolves 1 and 2 above, shall take into account only those RNSS systems with frequency assignments in the band 1 164- 1 215 MHz that have met the criteria listed in the Annex to this Resolution through appropriate information provided to the consultation meetings referred to in considering g); 4 that administrations, in developing agreements to carry out their obligations under resolves 1 and 2 above, shall establish mechanisms to ensure that all potential RNSS system operators and administrations are given full visibility of the process; 5 that in order to allow multiple RNSS systems to operate in the frequency band 1 164- 1215 MHz, no single RNSS system shall be permitted to use up the entire interference allowance specified in resolves 1 above in any 1 MHz of the 1 164-1 215 MHz band (see Recommendation 608 (Rev.WRC-07)); - 294 - RES609-3 6 that to achieve the objectives in resolves 1 and 2 above, administrations operating or planning to operate RNSS systems will need to agree cooperatively through consultation meetings to achieve the level of protection for ARNS systems that is stated in resolves 1; 7 that administrations participating in this process of epfd calculation should hold consultation meetings on a regular basis (e.g. yearly); 8 the administrations participating in the consultation meeting shall designate one administration that shall communicate to the Bureau the results of any aggregate sharing determinations made in application of resolves 2 above, without regard to whether such determinations result in any modifications to the published characteristics of their respective systems or networks (see Recommendation 608 (Rev.WRC-07)); 9 that administrations operating or planning to operate ARNS systems in the 1164- 1215 MHz band should participate, as appropriate, in discussions and determinations relating to the resolves above; 10 that the methodology and the reference worst-case ARNS system antenna contained in Recommendation ITU-R M.1642-2 shall be used by administrations for calculating the aggregate epfd produced by all the space stations within all RNSS systems in the band 1164- 1215 MHz, instructs the Radiocommunication Bureau 1 to participate in consultation meetings mentioned under resolves 6 and to observe carefully results of the epfd calculation mentioned in resolves 1; 2 to determine whether the pfd level in recommends 1 of Recommendation 608 (Rev.WRC-07) is exceeded by any subject space station, and to report the findings of this determination to the participants in the consultation meeting; 3 to publish in the International Frequency Information Circular (BR IFIC), the information referred to in resolves 8 and instructs the Radiocommunication Bureau 2, invites the Radiocommunication Bureau to examine the possibility, if needed, of developing software that can be used to calculate the epfd level mentioned under resolves 1, invites administrations 1 to deal with RNSS intersystem matters, as required, as early as possible; - 295 - RES609-4 2 to provide the Bureau and all participants in the consultation meeting with access to appropriate software used to calculate the epfd level mentioned under resolves 1.
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Score: 698309.96 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/s...20CM%20Documents/RES-609_e.pdf
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Resolution 35 (WRC-19) - Timeframe RES 35 - Timeframe The required deployment information should be provided before the following deadlines: Case 1: Frequency assignments to which resolves 1 applies, and for which the end of the seven-year regulatory period specified in No. 11.44 is on or after 1 January 2021 Case 2: Frequency assignments to which resolves 1 applies, and for which the end of the seven-year regulatory period specified in No. 11.44 has expired prior to 1 January 2021 Milestone Case 1 Case 2 Initial deployment information (M0), resolves 2 and 3 Latest of (7-year-limit + 30 days) and (DBIU + 120 days) 01.02.2021 1st milestone (M1), resolves 7a and 8a 7-year-limit + 2 years + 30 days 01.02.2023 2nd milestone (M2) resolves 7b and 8b 7-year-limit + 5 years + 30 days 01.02.2026 3rd milestone (M3) resolves 7c and 8c 7-year-limit + 7 years + 30 days 01.02.2028 The 7-year limit corresponds to the end of the seven-year regulatory period referred to in No. 11.44.
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Score: 696796.88 - https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/s...ts/RES35(WRC-19)-timeframe.pdf
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The elements of each Resolution relating to the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) are contained in the column titled “ resolves / invites / instructs ”. Links to the relevant ITU-R Study Group (SG) documents describing the assignment of the Resolution to sub-groups of the SG (i.e. (...) Cells in this colour indicate that the W(A)RC Resolution contains studies by ITU-R and is included in a Document 1 of one or more SG(s). - 3 - Resolution Title resolves / invites / instructs WP Category/(ies) 1 (Rev.WRC-97) Notification of frequency assignments resolves that, unless specifically stipulated otherwise by special arrangements communicated to the Union by administrations, any notification of a frequency assignment to a station shall be made by the administration of the country on whose territory the station is located. − 3 2 (Rev.WRC-03) Equitable use, by all countries, with equal rights, of the geostationary-satellite and other satellite orbits and of frequency bands for space radiocommunication services resolves 1 that the registration with the Radiocommunication Bureau of frequency assignments for space radiocommunication services and their use do not provide any permanent priority for any individual country or groups of countries and do not create an obstacle to the establishment of space systems by other countries; 2 that, accordingly, a country or a group of countries having registered with the Bureau frequencies for their space radiocommunication services need to take all practicable measures to facilitate the use of new space systems by other countries or groups of countries, in particular those of developing countries and least developed countries, so desiring; 3 that resolves 1 and 2 of this Resolution shall be taken into account by the administrations and the Bureau. − 3 4 (Rev.WRC-03) Period of validity of frequency assignments to space stations using the geostationary-satellite and other satellite orbits resolves 1 that, until this Resolution is reviewed by the next competent world radiocommunication conference, frequency assignments to space radiocommunication stations located on the geostationary-satellite and other satellite orbits, noting considering e ) and f) , shall not be considered perpetual and shall be dealt with as follows: 1.1 a frequency assignment to a space station2 shall be deemed definitively discontinued after the expiry of the period of operation shown on the assignment notice, reckoned from the date on which the assignment was brought into service. (...) See Doc. 4/1 2 AND 3 35 (WRC-19) A milestone-based approach for the implementation of frequency assignments to space stations in a non-geostationary-satellite system in specific frequency bands and services resolves … instructs the Radiocommunication Bureau 1 to take the necessary actions to implement this Resolution; 2 to report any difficulties it encounters in the implementation of this Resolution to WRC-23; 3 to continue to identify and report on specific frequency bands in specific services for which there may be a problem similar to that which resulted in the creation of this Resolution, as early as possible, but not later than the penultimate meeting of the responsible group prior to the second session of the Conference Preparatory Meeting, instructs the Radio Regulations Board to provide a report to WRC-23 as called for in resolves 12 b), invites the 2023 World Radiocommunication Conference to consider the RRB report submitted in response to resolves 12 b) and take necessary action, as appropriate.
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Score: 690944.87 - https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/it...0a/0e/R0A0E0000E30001MSWE.docx
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This website explains the various components of the UN’s internal system of justice, and describes how to resolve work-related disputes informally and if necessary, formally. (...) Digest of Case Law 2009–2019 CONFLICT TO DIALOGUE RESOLVING DISPUTES INFORMALLY Staff members should first try to resolve disputes informally, through dialogue, negotiation, and if necessary, mediation, before bringing their grievance to the formal legal process. (...) Informal resolution can be achieved through: Your office or department UN Ombudsman's Office The Office of Staff Legal Assistance Other informal means CONFLICT TO TRIBUNAL RESOLVING DISPUTES FORMALLY Staff members of the UN Secretariat, UN funds and programmes, and some other entities can formally contest any administrative decision they believe has violated their rights.
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Score: 688821.3 - https://www.un.org/en/internaljustice/
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