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In this end, we give reward signals for ( , ) as follows: ⎧ − 0.1⋅( −2) ≥ For a total of at most trials in episodes with a ixed { 2.8 +1 2 initial environment setting, algorithm 1 will stop training { , ∶= ⎨ − 0.01 = 1 (18) the agent once is approached rather than continuing 0 2.8 +1 { the process due to the reward signals design in our model: { 0.2⋅(30− ) ⎩ 2.8 +1 = 0 Controller C: As shown in Algorithm 1, controller C will shrink the action space related to in every step based 0.01 here ≥ means ≥ 2 and set = − 2.8 +1 on the double - greedy principle. This operation enables 2 from (18) to follow the conditions we derived in (13), (15). the optimal action selection with higher and higher prob‑ Therefore, we can initialize the function as [Q] , ∶= ability as goes on. 0 | |×| | to satisfy (17). Reward , : (18) guarantees the agent learns a global op- timum, our target action, instead of continuously jumping Algorithm 1 Optimal Action Selection Control on some local optimum for meaningless rewarding [23]. Input: Initial CDF state and target state . Reward signals and controller C attempt to guide the 0 Output: Optimal to approach during episode . agent by avoiding redundant scoring and long term penal‑ 0 ties.
语言:英语
得分: 230.09 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...4/files/basic-html/page67.html
数据资源: un
As a state observed at the beginning of a given time step, result of applying the selected action, the training the selected action, the obtained reward as a result environment generates a reward value r(k) that of this action and the new state observed at the end assesses how good the action was from the of the time step duration. perspective of the desired behavior. In particular, in The experiences stored in the ED are used by the the considered approach the reward captures both DQN agent to progressively update the values of the the SLA satisfaction and the capacity utilization. In weights k and  k in the evaluation and target NNs, - this way, the reward for slice k is defined as the respectively.
语言:英语
得分: 230.09 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica.../files/basic-html/page132.html
数据资源: un
Risks and rewards: Outcomes of labour migration in South-East Asia (Key findings) Skip to main content ILO Advancing social justice, promoting decent work ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations Countries Topics Sectors Search ilo.org Search ilo.org Menu Home About the ILO Newsroom Meetings and events Publications Research Labour standards Statistics and databases Contact Us ILO in Asia and the Pacific About us Countries covered Areas of work Child Labour Employment promotion Equality and discrimination Forced labour Green jobs Informal economy International labour standards Labour market governance and working conditions Labour migration Preparing the future of work in Asia-Pacific Safety and health at work Skills and employability Social security Workers and Employers Organizations Youth employment Programmes and projects Research and Publications Asia-Pacific labour market insights Issue briefs Events and meetings Media centre News and articles Impact stories Statements and speeches Videos and Photos ILO Knowledge Centre ILO home Regions and countries ILO in Asia and the Pacific Research and Publications Risks and rewards: Outcomes of labour migration in South-East Asia ... Risks and rewards: Outcomes of labour migration in South-East Asia (Key findings) Type: Publication Date issued: 15 May 2018 Reference: 978-92-2-131411-0[ISBN] RAS/15/05/AUS[ILO_REF] RAS/16/01/CAD[ILO_REF] Authors: Benjamin Harkins; Daniel Lindgren; Tarinee Suravoranon Key findings by country These summaries provide country-specific key findings on labour migration outcomes for Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. (...) The findings challenge some of the commonly held assumptions about the end result of labour migration in South-East Asia and how best to ensure a safe and rewarding experience for migrant workers. Positive outcomes can be achieved if migrant workers are able to avoid burdensome debts, benefit from labour rights protection, enhance their job skills and find gainful employment upon return.
语言:英语
得分: 229.47 - https://www.ilo.org/asia/publi...WCMS_628383/lang--en/index.htm
数据资源: un
Risks and rewards: Outcomes of labour migration in South-East Asia (Key findings) Skip to main content ILO Advancing social justice, promoting decent work ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations Countries Topics Sectors Search ilo.org Search ilo.org Menu Home About the ILO Newsroom Meetings and events Publications Research Labour standards Statistics and databases Contact Us ILO in Asia and the Pacific About us Countries covered Areas of work Child Labour Employment promotion Equality and discrimination Forced labour Green jobs Informal economy International labour standards Labour market governance and working conditions Labour migration Preparing the future of work in Asia-Pacific Safety and health at work Skills and employability Social security Workers and Employers Organizations Youth employment Programmes and projects Research and Publications Asia-Pacific labour market insights Issue briefs Events and meetings Media centre News and articles Impact stories Statements and speeches Videos and Photos ILO Knowledge Centre ILO home Regions and countries ILO in Asia and the Pacific Research and Publications Risks and rewards: Outcomes of labour migration in South-East Asia ... Risks and rewards: Outcomes of labour migration in South-East Asia (Key findings) Type: Publication Date issued: 15 May 2018 Reference: 978-92-2-131411-0[ISBN] RAS/15/05/AUS[ILO_REF] RAS/16/01/CAD[ILO_REF] Authors: Benjamin Harkins; Daniel Lindgren; Tarinee Suravoranon Key findings by country These summaries provide country-specific key findings on labour migration outcomes for Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. (...) The findings challenge some of the commonly held assumptions about the end result of labour migration in South-East Asia and how best to ensure a safe and rewarding experience for migrant workers. Positive outcomes can be achieved if migrant workers are able to avoid burdensome debts, benefit from labour rights protection, enhance their job skills and find gainful employment upon return.
语言:英语
得分: 229.47 - www.ilo.org/asia/public...WCMS_628383/lang--en/index.htm
数据资源: un
In here, learner is not told which actions to take, as in most forms of machine learning, but instead must discover which actions yield the most reward by trying them. In the most interesting and challenging cases, actions may affect not only the immediate reward but also the next situation and, through that, all subsequent rewards. These two characteristics (i.e. trial-and-error search and delayed reward) are the two most important distinguishing features of reinforcement learning. 58     61     62     63     64     65     66     67     68     69     70     71          
语言:英语
得分: 228.55 - https://www.itu.int/en/publica...7/files/basic-html/page66.html
数据资源: un
Policy approaches to reducing CO2 > Carbon taxes – Politically difficult to sell > Cap and trade – Useful for big emitters like power companies – Addresses only supply side of CO2 > Carbon offsets – Immature market with no standards – But addresses demand side of CO2 by businesses and consumers > Carbon Neutrality imposed by law – Growing in popularity especially as protests over gas tax escalates > But there may be an additional approach…. Carbon Rewards rather carbon taxes > Although carbon taxes are revenue neutral, they payee rarely sees any direct benefit – No incentive other than higher cost to reduce footprint > Rather than penalize consumers and businesses for carbon emissions, can we reward them for reducing their carbon emissions? > Carbon rewards can be “virtual” products delivered over broadband networks such movies, books, education, health services etc > Carbon reward can also be free ICT services (with low carbon footprint) such as Internet, cellphone, fiber to the home, etc Other sectors (40%) (e.g. manufacturing, coal mining, export transport) Emissions under direct consumer control (35%) Consumer influenced sectors (25%) (e.g. retail, food and drink, wholesale, agriculture, public sector) H ea tin g Priva te ca rs ElectricityOther transport Consumers control or influence 60 per  cent of emissions http://www.cbi.org.uk/pdf/climatereport2007full.pdf Carbon rewards rather than carbon taxes- gCommerce > Providing free download music, video, and electronic books in exchange for carbon fees on parking, transportation etc > Free distant learning courses rather than telecommuting > Free advanced tele-presence systems in exchange for carbon fees assessed on business travel > Free mobile cell phone using femto cell and Wifi on public transportation > ICT and Internet is in the best position to dominate new world of ‘gCommerce” Carbon Reward Strategy for last mile infrastructure > Provide free high speed Internet and fiber to the home with resale of electrical and gas power (ESCOs) – http://www.newamerica.net/files/HomesWithTails_wu_slater.pdf > Customer pays a premium on their gas and electric bill > Customers encouraged to save money through reduced energy consumption and reduced carbon output > Customer NOT penalized if they reduce energy consumption – May end up paying substantially less then they do now for gas + electricity + broadband + telephone + cable > Network operator gets guaranteed revenue based on energy consumption rather than fickle triple play Thank you > More information > http://green-broadband.blogspot.com > http://free-fiber-to-the-home.blogspot.com/ > http://green-broadband.blogspot.com/ http://free-fiber-to-the-home.blogspot.com/ Preparing for the next “911” event –Climate catastrophe The Climate Change Imperative Climate Forecasts Slide Number 4 Possible climate “911” event Sustainability versus Climate Change The Falsehood of Energy Efficiency Zero carbon for the future Internet Why ICT and Internet is critical to reducing CO2 Slide Number 10 Possible research areas Slide Number 12 Slide Number 13 Policy approaches to reducing CO2 Carbon Rewards rather carbon taxes Slide Number 16 Carbon rewards rather than carbon taxes- gCommerce Carbon Reward Strategy for last mile infrastructure Thank you
语言:英语
得分: 228.53 - https://www.itu.int/themes/cli...ing/dcicc-4dec08-bstarnaud.pdf
数据资源: un
The case studies presented below do not illustrate the full integrated criteria for an IES package, but include at least one element from the  incentives spectrum  to reward or compensate farmers to implement improved agriculture, land, forest or watershed management practices. (...) Engaging local business in PES: Lessons from Lake Naivasha, Kenya Njenga, N., WWF Netherlands Rewarding climate change mitigation Rewarding climate change mitigation 17. (...) Policy experiment of transboundary watershed management of the Xin'an River, China Wen, C., University of Leeds New tools to increase effectiveness in design of ecosystem services rewards New tools to increase effectiveness in design of ecosystem services rewards 23.
语言:英语
得分: 228.15 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/...ies/from-pes-to-ies-part-i/en/
数据资源: un
The case studies presented below do not illustrate the full integrated criteria for an IES package, but include at least one element from the  incentives spectrum  to reward or compensate farmers to implement improved agriculture, land, forest or watershed management practices. (...) Engaging local business in PES: Lessons from Lake Naivasha, Kenya Njenga, N., WWF Netherlands Rewarding climate change mitigation Rewarding climate change mitigation 17. (...) Policy experiment of transboundary watershed management of the Xin'an River, China Wen, C., University of Leeds New tools to increase effectiveness in design of ecosystem services rewards New tools to increase effectiveness in design of ecosystem services rewards 23.
语言:英语
得分: 228.15 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/...ies/from-pes-to-ies-part-i/es/
数据资源: un
The case studies presented below do not illustrate the full integrated criteria for an IES package, but include at least one element from the  incentives spectrum  to reward or compensate farmers to implement improved agriculture, land, forest or watershed management practices. (...) Engaging local business in PES: Lessons from Lake Naivasha, Kenya Njenga, N., WWF Netherlands Rewarding climate change mitigation Rewarding climate change mitigation 17. (...) Policy experiment of transboundary watershed management of the Xin'an River, China Wen, C., University of Leeds New tools to increase effectiveness in design of ecosystem services rewards New tools to increase effectiveness in design of ecosystem services rewards 23.
语言:英语
得分: 228.15 - https://www.fao.org/in-action/...ies/from-pes-to-ies-part-i/fr/
数据资源: un
This paper studies using Reinforcement Learning (RL) to do transmission rate and power control for maximizing a joint reward function consisting of both throughput and energy consumption. We design the system state to include factors that reflect packet queue length, interference from other nodes, quality of the wireless channel, battery status, etc. The reward function is normalized and does not involve unit conversion. (...) We compare the performance of our RL optimal policies with the popular Minstrel rate adaptation algorithm: our approach can achieve (i) higher throughput when using the throughput-critical reward function; (ii) lower energy consumption when using the energy-critical reward function; and (iii) higher throughput and slightly higher energy when using the throughput and energy balanced reward function.
语言:英语
得分: 227.16 - https://www.itu.int/pub/S-JNL-VOL3.ISSUE2-2022-A39
数据资源: un