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Solution: It is suggested to use extraction and discharge by source and section in to drivage end to extract gas comprehensively (refer to Fig.1), apply underground hydraulic fracture system to fracture the coal seam once the gas extraction hole formed, with the purpose to increase the permeability of coal seam, which provide sufficient time for rapid drivage and form fracture rapid drivage mode. 114 extraction holes have been constructed after the fracture, the total length of extraction holes is about 7810m, and the gas extraction output during this period is 720,000m3, the total length of drivage is over 400m and inspected for 142 times, the over standard rate is 3.2%, and the average monthly progress is around 40m.Compared with the measures of advance drainage borehole for the roadway, the drivage speed improved 2.26 times. The gas extraction boreholes are drilled in the upper channel and down channel of roadway in 2115 working face (refer to Fig.2, both of the upper channel and down channel of roadway shall be 10m), the coal seam is fractured by hydraulic fracture system (refer to Fig.3), and succeeded for 6 times. (...) Fig. 1 Hydraulic Fracture Extraction System for Drivage Working Face Wing lane in down side roadway Fracture hole Fig.2 Arrangement of fracture system to increase permeability in 2115 working face Table 1 Comparison of 2115 working face before and after underground fracture to increase permeability Permeability coefficient (md) Gas flow decay coefficient (d-1) Gas flow in single hole per hundred meter (m3/d.hm) Monthly progress (m) Over standard rate % Before fracture 0.03 0.045 0.3871 26.52 12.26 35 After fracture 5.83 0.044 573.7 40 3.2 Time of improvement 129 194 8.80 21.62 3.3 10..9 Fig. 3 Diagram of fracture equipment system 2113 Down roadway (ceiling) No.5 fracture hole No.4 fracture hole No.3 fracture hole No.2 fracture hole No.1 fracture hole 2115 working face 2115 upper roadway(floor) 2115 upper roadway (ceiling) 2115 cutting hole 2115 down raodway 2115 down raodway Coal seam Valve in orifice Air door to prevent outburst Water supply pipe underground Additive High pressure rubber Explosion proof motorhose Transmission Fracture pump Pressure gauge Flow meter Unloading valve Liquid mix tank
Language:English
Score: 1569521.8 - https://unece.org/DAM/energy/s...ring.Permeability.Increase.pdf
Data Source: un
Article 27: On two-way roadways, when forward visibility is insufficient (as it can occur in a turn or at a slope top), overtaking is forbidden except if this manoeuvre doesn't overlap the left hand side of the roadway, beyond a continuous line, or if overtaking a two-wheel vehicle doesn't lap over the half left hand part of the roadway. (...) Furthermore, he must give way to the vehicles coming from the opposite direction on the roadway he is about to leave, the pedestrians already passing as well as the cycles, the rickshaws and motorcycles moving on the reserved lanes that cross the roadway which he is entering. (...) When it can be placed only on the roadway, the provisions determined here above in (a) and (b) must be respected.
Language:English
Score: 1549315.2 - https://www.wto.org/english/th...cc_e/khm_e/WTACCKHM5_LEG_7.pdf
Data Source: un
Failure to detect methane layers  Incorrect monitoring locations.  Lack of suitable monitoring equipment.  Inadequately trained staff.  Site specific monitoring programme.  Suitable monitoring probes, especially for high roadway sections.  Training. Failure to prevent methane layering  Ventilation quantities too low.  Unreliable ventilation.  Ventilation planning.  Locally enhanced roof ventilation. (...) The mined sections comprise an extensive chequer-board of roadways and pillars, all of which cannot be effectively ventilated due to the massive amounts of air required and the difficulty of distributing it evenly. (...) Some emitted gas at low flow rates, which could form extensive methane layers, and would remain undetected unless probed close to roof level–difficult in the high roadways. Solutions: Gas control where partial extraction mining methods are practised can be assisted by in-seam, predrainage; postdrainage is rarely required as roof and floor coal-bearing strata are not significantly disturbed.
Language:English
Score: 1454110.5 - https://unece.org/DAM/energy/s...cmm/CS/CS_BPG/CS.13_Creedy.pdf
Data Source: un
Exceptional conditions 22 4.3. Gas plug in roadway 23 4.4. Gas testing and air sampling 23 5. (...) Care should be taken, through good strata control practice and the prompt setting of roadway supports with a high degree of stability, to prevent the formation of roadway cavi- ties. 3.3.2. If a roadway cavity is formed as a result of a roof collapse, appropriate steps should be promptly taken to support it in such a way as will prevent its extension. 3.3.3. (1) Roadway cavities should be filled as soon as possible. (2) Until this can be done, the roadway should be provided with adequate ventilation so as to prevent firedamp from accu- mulating within roadway cavities. 19 Prevention of accidents due to explosions 3.3.4.
Language:English
Score: 1419218.7 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...tiveinstrument/wcms_107896.pdf
Data Source: un
Faber Maunsell Security aspects in the construction and maintenance of infrastructures of the inland transport sector Richard Harris Director Intelligent Transport Systems Faber Maunsell - AECOM UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Security Principles − Deterrence – Keep the bad guys out; make it easier for them to go elsewhere − Detection – If they do get in, make sure you know about it − Assessment – Once something happens, know what is unfolding − Response – Be able respond appropriately and manage the result UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Major events − March 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack − July 1995 Paris subway bombing − February 2004 Moscow subway bombing − March 2004 Madrid train system bombings − July 2005 London underground and bus bombings UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Infrastructure Security Challenges − Transportation systems, by their nature, invite public access − Roadways and rail systems are spread across the landscape − Distances can make response times long − Information networks (CCTV, alarm reporting) can be expensive because of distances UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Vulnerable Points − Rail Stations and Railways − Open to public access − Busy/Crowded − Small explosive device can have big impact − Difficult to monitor for terrorist activity − Difficult to screen passengers − Can have economic impact with loss of public confidence UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Vulnerable Points − Roadways, Bridges and Tunnels − Open to public access − Traffic gridlock can present an inviting target − Maintenance points give access to critical areas − Vehicle borne explosives are difficult to detect UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Best Practices − Rail Stations − Work with police and emergency response staff to design around security concept of operations − Use pedestrian modeling to eliminate choke points in passenger flow − Use CCTV to monitor interior and exterior − Use intrusion alarm on all entries to non-public spaces − Place police or emergency response assets and accommodations at key points UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Best Practices − Roadways, Bridges and Tunnels − Work with police and emergency response staff to design around security concept of operations − Use CCTV to monitor traffic flows and unusual behavior − Use intrusion alarm on all entries to non-public spaces − Incorporate automatic toll collection equipment into the security system − Use lighting to deter criminal activity UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Best Practices − Use technology − Share technology − Collect data and share information UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Best Practices − Communications is Imperative − Information is critical − Communication of alarms, unusual events or suspicious activity must be instant − Communications in the management of event response saves lives and minimizes damage − Communication Systems must be part of any design UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Best Practices − Communications is a Vulnerability − Information must be kept close − Design drawings are a terrorists best asset − Safeguarding security designs may require different procurement methods in the public sector − Procedures for handling security sensitive information before, during and after design and construction are a must UNECE: Transport Security in the Pan-European Context Ministerial Conference on International Transport Security − Sharing best practice − Promoting international cooperation R&D, technology, detecting and monitoring − Encourage government cooperation with stakeholders − Encourage creation of international working group − Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Singapore, UK, USA.
Language:English
Score: 1378935.2 - https://unece.org/DAM/trans/doc/2006/itc/itcrt_sec/pres2.pdf
Data Source: un
Case study: Achieving planned coal production from a gassy, retreat longwall with severe strata stress and a spontaneous combustion prone coal seam – United Kingdom Initial conditions: 980 m working depth, 50 m3/t specific emissions from a 2 m high retreat longwall required to produce 1 Mtpa, high spontaneous combustion risk coal, ultra-low permeability coal, severe horizontal stresses at the coalface and floor heave in the longwall access roadways―one intake and one return. Gas control problems: Predrainage was not feasible due to the low permeability of the coal, and cross- measure boreholes angled above the longwall front of the face were disrupted by the high stresses; hence, gas capture and purity was too low. (...) The optimum drilling pattern was found to be a series of up-holes, at right angles to the longwall roadway, angled upwards at 55o to the seam plane, and 7.5 m apart.
Language:English
Score: 1347289.6 - https://unece.org/DAM/energy/s...s/cmm/CS/CS_BPG/CS.5_Pitts.pdf
Data Source: un
Summary 4 Road markings are important to ensure safe and reliable navigation of autonomous vehicles through the roadway “But like the human eye, the technology cannot work effectively if it cannot see the road markings and traffic signs if they are worn out or hidden, or if they are confusing.” (...) Self-driving cars confused by shabby U.S. roadways [online], available from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-autonomous-infrastructure-insig/wheres-the- lane-self-driving-cars-confused-by-shabby-u-s-roadways-idUSKCN0WX131, accessed November 13th, 2018 ▪ Swarco (2018): Straßenmarkierungen und autonomes Fahren oder Zurück von der Zukunft [online], available from https://www.zvoe.at/img-inhalt/Downloads/Vortraege-Fachtagung-2018/RMS_autonomes_Fahren_2018.pdf, accessed November 12th, 2018 ▪ TTI (2017): Roadmarkings for Machine Vision [online], available from https://cote.transportation.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/26/2017/07/Road-Markings-for-Machine-Vision-NCHRP-20-1026- Carloson.pdf, accessed November 13th, 2018 ▪ Washington Post (2015): Elon Musk vents about California's lane markings confusing Tesla's autopilot [online], available from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2015/10/14/elon- musk-vents-about-californias-lane-markings-confusing-teslas-autopilot/, accessed November 13th, 2018 ▪ Waymo (2018): We're building the world's most experienced driver [online], available from www.waymo.com, accessed November 13th, 2018 ▪ 3M (2017): How Can You Drive an Evolution? [online], available from https://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/1532108O/3m-connected-roads.pdf, accessed November 13th, 2018 https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/documents/13069a-ads2.0_090617_v9a_tag.pdf https://higherlogicdownload.s3.amazonaws.com/AUVSI/14c12c18-fde1-4c1d-8548-035ad166c766/UploadedImages/documents/Breakouts/20-2 Physical Infrastructure.pdf https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-autonomous-infrastructure-insig/wheres-the-lane-self-driving-cars-confused-by-shabby-u-s-roadways-idUSKCN0WX131 https://www.zvoe.at/img-inhalt/Downloads/Vortraege-Fachtagung-2018/RMS_autonomes_Fahren_2018.pdf https://cote.transportation.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/26/2017/07/Road-Markings-for-Machine-Vision-NCHRP-20-1026-Carloson.pdf https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2015/10/14/elon-musk-vents-about-californias-lane-markings-confusing-teslas-autopilot/ http://www.waymo.com/ https://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/1532108O/3m-connected-roads.pdf
Language:English
Score: 1342850.5 - https://unece.org/DAM/trans/do...29grva/s1p5._Eva_Ambrosius.pdf
Data Source: un
KG) Seals (pack wall) on the goaf side of the open roadway behind the face served to enhance roadway support and isolate the goaf from air ingress to minimise spontaneous combustion risk and from creating methane concentrations in the explosive range.
Language:English
Score: 1332428.3 - https://unece.org/DAM/energy/s...fs/cmm/CS/CS_BPG/CS.6_Kunz.pdf
Data Source: un
With engineers and roadway repair crews, Thai blue helmets help keep South Sudan moving | | 1UN News Skip to main content Welcome to the United Nations Language العربية 中文 English Français Русский Español Português Kiswahili Other Hindi हिंदी Global UN News Global perspective Human stories Search Search Advanced Search Main navigation Home Africa Americas Asia Pacific Middle East Europe UN Art and Gifts History Corner Topics Peace and Security Economic Development Humanitarian Aid Climate and Environment Human Rights UN Affairs Women Law and Crime Prevention Health Culture and Education SDGs Migrants and Refugees In depth Interviews Features Photo Stories News in Brief The Lid is On UN Gender Focus UN and Africa UN Podcasts Secretary-General Spokesperson All Statements Selected Speeches Press Encounters Official Travels Media UN Video UN Photo Meeting Coverage Media Accreditation Webtv Audio and Subscription Audio Hub Subscribe With engineers and roadway repair crews, Thai blue helmets help keep South Sudan moving UNMISS Thai engineers serving with UNMISS repair and rehabilitate existing infrastructure such as roads and bridges, among other duties. (...) Facebook Twitter Print Email With engineers and roadway repair crews, Thai blue helmets help keep South Sudan moving 18 August 2021 Peace and Security Blue helmets from Thailand working with the UN Mission in South Sudan ( UNMISS ) are not only doing their bit to repair and rehabilitate critical infrastructure but are also helping support the mission’s COVID-19 response and training local communities about growing their own food. (...) Kaisin Sasunee, the current Contingent Commander of Thai HMEC, said that while he was very proud of his unit’s work on roadway maintenance and repair, he was equally proud of HMEC’s agricultural demonstration plots at the Yei Checkpoint Juba, part of an effort to teach residents of the three surrounding communities how to grow food and become more self-sufficient.
Language:English
Score: 1326376.3 - https://news.un.org/story/2021/08/1098052
Data Source: un
With engineers and roadway repair crews, Thai blue helmets help keep South Sudan moving | | 1UN News Skip to main content Welcome to the United Nations Language العربية 中文 English Français Русский Español Português Kiswahili Other Hindi हिंदी Global UN News Global perspective Human stories Search Search Advanced Search Main navigation Home Africa Americas Asia Pacific Middle East Europe UN Art and Gifts History Corner Topics Peace and Security Economic Development Humanitarian Aid Climate and Environment Human Rights UN Affairs Women Law and Crime Prevention Health Culture and Education SDGs Migrants and Refugees In depth Interviews Features Photo Stories News in Brief The Lid is On UN Gender Focus UN and Africa UN Podcasts Secretary-General Spokesperson All Statements Selected Speeches Press Encounters Official Travels Media UN Video UN Photo Meeting Coverage Media Accreditation Webtv Audio and Subscription Audio Hub Subscribe With engineers and roadway repair crews, Thai blue helmets help keep South Sudan moving UNMISS Thai engineers serving with UNMISS repair and rehabilitate existing infrastructure such as roads and bridges, among other duties. (...) Facebook Twitter Print Email With engineers and roadway repair crews, Thai blue helmets help keep South Sudan moving 18 August 2021 Peace and Security Blue helmets from Thailand working with the UN Mission in South Sudan ( UNMISS ) are not only doing their bit to repair and rehabilitate critical infrastructure but are also helping support the mission’s COVID-19 response and training local communities about growing their own food. (...) Kaisin Sasunee, the current Contingent Commander of Thai HMEC, said that while he was very proud of his unit’s work on roadway maintenance and repair, he was equally proud of HMEC’s agricultural demonstration plots at the Yei Checkpoint Juba, part of an effort to teach residents of the three surrounding communities how to grow food and become more self-sufficient.
Language:English
Score: 1326376.3 - https://news.un.org/en/story/2021/08/1098052
Data Source: un