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It has been around for decades. Skin-lightening products are sold on Amazon, an e-commerce marketplace. (...) Most contemporary skin-bleaching creams contain ingredients that inhibit the production of melanin, a body chemical that darkens skin. (...) In some cases they may not list the names of banned ingredients on their products’ packaging. Skin-bleaching products are “more and more accessible over the counter in pharmacies and even in the streets and markets,” adds Ms.
Language:English
Score: 1403660.1 - https://www.un.org/africarenew...ying-high-price-skin-bleaching
Data Source: un
The world's hides and skins, leather and leather products industry has changed significantly over the past 15 to 20 years. (...) Hides and skins are primarily produced as by-products of the meat industry. (...) Estimates of consumption of leather and leather products used in this analysis are derived from production and trade data. 1 They are expressed in raw hides and skins equivalent. 11.
Language:English
Score: 1399488.9 - https://www.fao.org/unfao/Bodies/CCP/hs/98/w9560e.htm
Data Source: un
FAO - COMMITTEE ON COMMODITY PROBLEMS COMMITTEE ON COMMODITY PROBLEMS INTERGOVERNMENTAL GROUP ON MEAT SUB-GROUP ON HIDES AND SKINS Sixth Session Cape Town, South Africa, 9-11 November 1998 DEVELOPMENT OF THE HIDES, SKINS AND LEATHER SECTOR IN AFRICA Table of Contents INTRODUCTION HIDES AND SKINS PRODUCTION AND TRADE Cultural factors Infrastructure Grading and pricing structures FOOTWEAR AND LEATHER GOODS MARKETING OF LEATHER PRODUCTS CONCLUSIONS I. (...) II. HIDES AND SKINS PRODUCTION AND TRADE 4. The total number of domestic livestock (bovine, sheep and goat) in Africa is around 523 million or 16.7 percent of the world total (see Table 1). (...) Table 2. Hides and skins production (million pieces)   Bovine Sheep Goat Total Africa 17.8 50.3 44.9 113 World 279.4 511.6 267.9 1 059 African share (%) 6.4 9.8 16.8 10.7 6.
Language:English
Score: 1379415.4 - https://www.fao.org/unfao/Bodies/CCP/hs/98/w9700e.htm
Data Source: un
Consequently, the total value of exports of hides, skins, leather and leather products from developing countries was estimated to have been around US$16 million lower than without export restrictions. (...) This Act enables the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development to oversee the coordination and control of the hides and skins trade and development through licensing. It limits the role of the government mainly to aspects of animal production, slaughtering and preservation of hides and skins. (...) Export restrictions in hides and skins promote the creation of new trade flows in leather and leather products and the distortion of traditional trade flows to the advantage of tanners in countries implementing such measures.
Language:English
Score: 1376117.4 - https://www.fao.org/unfao/Bodies/CCP/hs/98/w9682e.htm
Data Source: un
PowerPoint Presentation 1 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 1 Biosecurity measures on holding Blagojcho Tabakovski DVM, Head of Unit for Animal Health Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 2 • Definition • Risk factors • Basic principles • Biosecurity measures Content of the presentation 2 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 3 - Not in national legislation - OIE on poultry - EU Regulation 2016/429 on transmissible animal diseases and amending and repealing certain acts in the area of animal health (‘Animal Health Law’) (57) ‘biosecurity’ means the sum of management and physical measures designed to reduce the risk of the introduction, development and spread of diseases to, from and within: (a) an animal population, or (b) an establishment, zone, compartment, means of transport or any other facilities, premises or location; Definition Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 4 - Livestock (movement, dead animals, excretions) - People (visits, contacts, personnel, hygiene) - Vehicle and equipment (supply, production) - Feed and water (raw, spoilage, contamination, drainage) - Pests and weed (wild, feral, rodents, insects) - Air (aerosol, dust) Risk factors 3 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 5 Segregate Clean Disinfect Basic Principles Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 6 • Proximity of other farms • Proximity of roads • Proximity of arable land • Drainage and underground water • Wind direction • Material easy to clean and disinfect • Fenced and closed area • Restriction of movement Location 4 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 7 • Open/free zone • Storage zone • Production zone • Clean/unclean part Segregation Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 8 • Clean footwear • Clean clothing • Enhanced measures if there is a risk Measures in free zone 5 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 9 • Access of animals – Pest control – Pets – Birds – Insects (vectors) • All storage facilities must be closed and secured • Clean footwear and clothing Measures in the storage zone Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 10 • Environment – Trees, weeds, fruits – Fomites, waste – Drainage • Training of personnel – Written document, – Procedures, SOPs – Why? • Restricted entrance, visible segregations form other parts Measures in the storage zone 6 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 11 • Previous contacts with animals • Transport of feed and beddings – Dedicated restricted area – On the perimeter of the farm – Restricted area – Area for cleaning and disinfection of the vehicles and personnel hygiene – Way of supply and frequency • Proper cleaning and disinfection Measures in the storage zone Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 12Measures in the storage zone im p ac t Sustainability/cost Clean clothing Closed and secured facilities Feed supply and transport Transport of manure and waste Training of personnel Access to animals Restricted access Contact with other animals 7 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 13 • Separated for other zones • Separation of animals by species or categories • Restricted area • Animal movement • Hygiene – Clothing, footwear, cleaning and disinfecting – Restricted entrance, visible segregations form other parts Measures in production zone Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 14 • Direct contact with other animals (wild or feral) –Closed area –Regular check of the fence • Clean water for animals • All in - all out • Transport of dead animals, manure, products Measures in production zone 8 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 15 • Introduction of new animals (from trusted sources) • Quarantine facility • Contact with other animals • Cleaning and disinfection of equipment • Feeding and feed supply • Transport and removal of bedding • Animal health (VS, reporting, prevention) • Written document • SOP • Training Measures in production zone Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 16Measures in production zone im p ac t Sustainability/cost Clean water Removal of dead animals Waste management Feed transport Training of personnel Access to animals Controlled and restricted access Introduction of other animals Contact with animals Good management Clean equipment Separation by categories Transport of manure hygiene Contact wild and feral animals Quarantine Animal health 9 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 17 Questions Thanks for your attention
Language:English
Score: 1368787.2 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...ents/events2017/LSD_TTT/12.pdf
Data Source: un
Control and vaccination 1 Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 1 Lumpy skin disease overview Eeva Tuppurainen, DVM, MSc, PhD, MRCVS Lumpy skin disease scientific expert FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, Hungary Food safety 2 2 Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 3 • In many countries within affected regions, the majority of cattle holdings have < 10 cattle • In some cases, farmers owning 5 – 10 cattle are considered as commercial farmers • Local (or mixed) cattle breeds produce an average of 10 litres of milk /day – party for own use, for a calf and to prepare cheese/yogurt other products for extra income and when cash is needed calves are sold • Small-holders and backyard farmers (production of severely infected animal is lost • Affected cow doesn’t give milk, may/or may not abort, getting thinner and thinner and eventually the skin is full of scars - recovery not good and takes several months • Compensation may be obtained but it’s difficult to find a new animals Economic impact of LSD for small-holders Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 4 • European high-producing dairy cows in the peak of production are the most susceptible • Due to the insect transmission, there is no way to effectively protect these holdings although using insect repellents in the facilities and spot-on products • Massive financial losses in intensive milk or beef cattle production units and cattle collections stations • Partial stamping-out in a farm with 3000 animals – 1000 with severe clinical disease • A considerable environmental problem with the disposal of large numbers of infected carcasses • Vaccination well in advance is the only feasible way to protect these farms - should vaccination of these farms be a priority? LSD in an intensive cattle production unit 3 Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 5 Evaluating the age of the skin lesions 7 dpi 1 to 2 weeks 2 weeks 2 to 3 weeks 3 weeks Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 6 Evaluating the age of the skin lesions Eye lesion 4 Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 7 • Morbidity rate varies between 5 to 45% and mortality rate usually remains below 10% (low figures are likely due to total stamping-out) • Introduction of the first case is usually associated with cattle movements from affected regions • No carriers but silent infections occur • Mainly transmitted mechanically by biting insect and tick vectors • Difference between mechanical and biological transmissions • To date there is no evidence on viral replication in vectors (biological) – major difference with bluetongue Epidemiology and transmission in a nutshell Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 8 • Insects and ticks • Shared drinking troughs or feeding sites • Iatrogenic mode by veterinary treatments and vaccinations • Is direct contact as ineffective as claimed??? More research needed • From mothers to calves - trans-placental transmission and sucking calves may get infected via milk or from skin lesions in the teats • From males to females - Seminal transmission via natural mating or artificial insemination Modes of transmission 5 Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 9 • LSD is not zoonotic • No reports on the transmission of LSDV via meat products, hides and skins – the link between an infected product and susceptible animal is unlikely (different from ASF) • Presence of the virus is in milk – Bulgarian milk studies waiting to be published • Human consumption is not a problem - Milk from severely affected animals is not likely to end up for consumption and milk is pasteurized • More importantly: What to do with the milk from the rest of the animals in the herd • Heat treatment of milk and meat products – 2 hours at 56° Celsius degrees or 30 minutes at 64° inactivates the virus • Pasteurization process differs • Calves - colostrum/milk from infected cows is a risk - feasibility must be considered case by case basis if the cow and the calf are at the same holding with abundance of vectors Safety of commodities Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 10 • For the basic detection: Several gel-based and real-time PCR methods for the detection of capripoxvirus group • If clinical signs are detected in cattle vaccinated with homologue LSDV vaccine • Molecular assays to differentiate between attenuated vaccine and virulent field strains • Israeli and Greek reference laboratories • Sequencing of the GPCR and RPO30 -genes • If clinical signs are detected in cattle vaccinated with attenuated SPP or GTP vaccine or in wild ruminants in regions where LSD SPP and GTP overlap • Species-specific molecular methods to differentiate between LSD, SPP and GTP viruses • International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna Diagnostic tools are available for… 6 Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 11 • Vector transmission • Unauthorized transboundary trade of cattle occurs • Nomadic and seasonal movements of cattle is difficult/impossible to halt • Villages with high density of cattle holdings and use of communal pastures create large epidemiological units – direct effect on the feasibility/affordability of stamping-out policies • Substantial logistic problems when disease control and surveillance measures are carried out in isolated small-holdings in remote locations (particularly in the mountainous regions) • In some cases VS are lacking vehicles or other means of transport or petrol • Disposal of culled animals - availability of suitable land, presence of ground water and availability of excavators, small capacity of mobile incinerators Challenges for effective control and surveillance of LSD Lumpy skin disease prevention, control, and awareness workshop Budapest, Hungary, 7-9 March 2017 12 • Database should be on the top of the priority list for government funding and for international projects carried out in the region • Affected countries have databases in place, varying from excellent to very basic • Often databases for ID and movement, vaccination records and LIMS are separate – Ideally combined to one • User-friendly system – the district veterinarians, particularly the older generation need training • A designated administrator is required • Other common problems: • Who covers the costs of the ear tags and registration?
Language:English
Score: 1361411.6 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...2017/LSD_bp/d1/OverviewLSD.pdf
Data Source: un
Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (EMPRES-AH) Programmes Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (EMPRES-AH) Emergencies HPAI West Africa LSD Middle East and Europe EMPRES EMERGENCIES Lumpy Skin disease in Middle East and Europe Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is a viral disease affecting cattle and Asian water buffaloes. (...) The disease not only causes substantial economic losses in terms of dairy, meat and skin production, but also can lead to restrictions or banning of international trade in live animals and animal products. (...)   © Eyal Klement View photo gallery Field manual Lumpy Skin Disease - A field manual for veterinarians Related documents Report of FAO Ad Hoc Group Meeting on Lumpy Skin Disease Emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Europe EMPRES Watch Vol.33-Sept. 2015 Emergence of lumpy skin disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin countries EMPRES Watch Vol.29-Nov. 2013 Lumpy Skin Disease OIE Terrestrial Manual 2016 - Chapter 2.4.13 Scientific Opinion on lumpy skin disease EFSA Journal 2015;13(1):3986 Terrestrial Animal Health Code - Lumpy Skin Disease Chapter 11.11 Related links Standing Group of Experts on Lumpy Skin Disease in South-East Europe EMPRES Global Animal Disease Information System (EMPRES-i) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Commission for the control of Foot-and-Mouth disease (EuFMD) Standing Group of Experts on Lumpy Skin Disease in South-East Europe under the GF-TADs umbrella Current Transboundary Animal Disease challenges in the Thrace and Balkan region - expert advice on laboratory diagnosis and biosecurity Webinar - May 2016 Related news FAO meeting in Tirana as the next step against the cattle disease Regional workshop on lumpy skin disease (LSD) prevention and control strategies FAO workshop prepares countries in Europe for exotic cattle disease Workshop on “Vector studies to improve targeting of surveillance and control measures for Lumpy Skin Disease and other Transboundary Diseases Lumpy Skin Disease – Vaccination Webinar Lumpy Skin Disease prevention and control: a new challenge for European countries Lumpy skin disease: vaccination is most effective control method ( 09 August 2016 - EFSA ) Experts discuss how to stop livestock skin disease ( 25 July 2016 ) Cattle disease puts region's veterinary experts on alert ( 27 November 2015 ) Lumpy Skin Disease prevention and control: a new challenge for European countries ( 11 November 2015 ) Lumpy Skin Disease - Vaccination Webinar ( 7 April 2015 ) Contact Eran Raizman EMPRES Head [email protected]   Comments: EMPRES-Animal Health webmaster © FAO,   
Language:English
Score: 1358544.9 - https://www.fao.org/ag/againfo...en/empres/emergencies_LSD.html
Data Source: un
PowerPoint Presentation 1 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 1 Epidemiology of LSD Blagojcho Tabakovski DVM, Head of Unit for Animal Health Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 2 • Agent • Impact • Clinical sings • Differential diagnostics • Transmission • Vectors • Diagnostics • Vaccine • Challenges Content of the presentation 2 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 3 • Lumpy skin disease virus belongs to the Capripoxvirus-genus within the Poxviridae-family) (Sheeppox virus and Goatpox virus) • Vector-borne, haematophagus arthropod vectors (flies, ticks), transmission is mechanical • Spread with very low abundances of vectors may occur, thus direct and/or indirect transmission (fomites) may occur • Stable virus, survives well in the environment protected from sunlight, in scabs, for up to six months, survival in dried hides of infected animals for up to 18 days, detectable in animal secretions (e.g. ocular, nasal discharge) up to at least 15 days post infection • Most disinfectants are effective • All infected animals can transmit the virus; ~50 % infected animals develop generalised skin lesions Agent Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 4 • Morbidity rate varies between 5 to 45% and mortality rate usually remains below 10% • Sharp drop in milk yield and secondary mastitis, infertility and abortions, sterility in breeding bulls, reduced weight gain and permanently damaged skins and hides • Long recovery period and severely affected animals may not regain the same level of production as before infection • Restrictions to the trade of live cattle and their products • Costly control and eradication measures – Total or partial culling of infected herds and compensation to farmers – Large-scale vaccination campaigns – Active clinical/virological/serological surveillance post-outbreak • Indirect costs due to the compulsory movement restrictions of cattle (vaccinated/unvaccinated) from affected regions for trade or slaughter Impact 3 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 5Element for transmission of virus of LSD Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 6 • Incubation time varies form 4-7 days up to 5 weeks • High fever (40-41°C), stop eating and giving milk – start of viraemic stage • Easily noticed in dairy cattle – not noticed in free-ranging beef cattle • Markedly enlarged lymph nodes (particularly prescapular and precrural) • Skin lesions start to develop following days - often in many animals at the same time • Salivation, eye and nasal discharge due to the ulcerative lesions inside the mouth, also in nasal and ocular mucous membranes • Later swellings in the leg and lameness may be detected • Oedema of the dewlap • Notice that not all affected animals show clinical signs although majority of them develop at least short-lasting viraemia Clinical sings 4 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 7 • Severe cases are highly characteristic and easy to recognize • Early stages and mild cases difficult to recognize even for the most experienced vets • In dairy cattle versus free-ranging beef cattle • By the time severe cases are detected in the free-ranging herds the virus has already been circulating for weeks • After a quiet winter period outbreaks may start again in spring time when skin lesions are well hidden under a long winter coat – difficult to detect without palpating the skin Early detection? (...) 9 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 17 • Pseudo lumpy skin disease; BHV-2 (Bovine herpes virus) - more superficial lesions and shorter course of the disease • Parapox lesions (bovine papular stomatitis) in the mucous membranes of the mouth • Insect bites and allergic reactions (urticaria) • Early ringworm lesions – often ringworm gets worse during LSD infection • Demodicosis • Besnoitiosis (widely distributed in Africa, recently also in central and western Europe) • Onchocerciasis • Hypoderma Differential diagnosis Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 18 • Domestic cattle and Asian water buffalo are susceptible • Do sheep and goats play any role – Although mixed herds are common there is no epidemiological evidence/reports on susceptibility of small ruminants for LSD • Wild ruminants as reservoir or susceptibility in Europe or Caucasus is not known • Some evidence from Africa – Springbok, impala and giraffe can show clinical disease – Seropositive African buffaloes, blue wildebeest, eland, giraffe, impala and greater kudu Host 10 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 19 • Dairy cows at peak of production are most severely affected • High-producing and thin-skinned cattle breeds are highly susceptible • Silent infections occur – some of the animals become vireamic but do not show any clinical signs • Affected animals will eventually clear the infection and there is no permanent carriers of LSDV • Long recovery time – infected animals may never regain the production level as before • Both sexes as susceptible • Age? (...) Other methods of transmission Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 24 • Colostrum/milk originating from infected cows should not be used for calves • No evidence or published reports on transmission of LSDV via milk and meat products, hides and skins • Contact between the product and susceptible animal is unlikely as products are intended only for human use • Milk from severely affected animals is not likely to end up for human consumption as there is a sharp drop in milk yield in affected animals • Presence of the virus in milk • Efficacy of pasteurization of milk • Heat treatment of milk and meat products – 2 hours at 56° Celsius degrees or 30 minutes at 64° inactivates the virus Other ways of transmission 13 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 25 • Animal movements, particularly movement of unvaccinated cattle • Nomadic and seasonal farming practises • Slaughterhouses, cattle market places, • Asymptomatic viraemic animals – risk of presence subclinical animals on the cattle markets is high • Communal grazing makes large epidemiological units • Cattle transport vehicles • Vectors - responsible for local dissemination of the virus • Presence of suitable breeding sites for insects – standing water and dung piles • Veterinary equipment and dirty needles Identified risk factors Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 26 • Feasible disease control/eradication varies in different countries and geographic regions • Essential to have a contingency plan in place well in advance which is updated and practised • Early detection of clinical cases – major issue - varies between countries and farming practises • Awareness campaigns targeted to farmers, animal care staff, artificial inseminators, animal traders, vehicle drivers, field and meat inspection veterinarians • Diagnostic capacity in place allowing swift laboratory confirmation of a tentative field diagnosis Control and eradication 14 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 27 • Large-scale vaccination campaign around infected farms, slaughter houses, animal market and resting places • Regional vaccination preferred to ring vaccinations • Protection and surveillance zones with radius (50 km of diameter) appropriate for a vector-borne disease (3 km and 10 km) • Strict movement restrictions or total standstill within the affected zone/country • Disinfection of premises, equipment, vehicles • Active and passive clinical surveillance Control and eradication Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 28EFSA STATEMENT ON LSD 31 JULY 2016 (vaccination effectiveness 75%) No stamping out Partial stamping out Total stamping out No vaccination Vaccination after virus entry Vaccination before virus entry 15 Lumpy skin disease and bluetongue training of trainers in FYR of Macedonia Skopje, 13-14 September 2017 29 • PCR, ELISA, • DIVA?
Language:English
Score: 1357682.6 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...ments/events2017/LSD_TTT/8.pdf
Data Source: un
EST: Hides & Skins english français Español FAO Home Economic and Social Development stream Markets and Trade Home Commodity markets Commodity policy developments Trade Emerging issues Global engagement Publications Meetings and events Projects Statistical data Markets and trade  >  Economic and Social Development stream  >  Commodity markets   Hides, skins and leather products World Statistical Compendium for Raw Hides and Skins, Leather and Leather Footwear 1999-2015 This document is the seventeenth edition of the World Statistical Compendium, the first issue of which was published in 1980. The present edition, prepared in response to the ever growing demand for coherent statistical data in the hides, skins and derived products sector, contains up-dated figures up to 2015.  Global hides and skins markets: a review and short-term outlook - November 2009 During much of 2008 and 2009 the global hides and skins market was deeply affected by the widespread economic downturn following the international financial crisis.
Language:English
Score: 1355025.4 - https://www.fao.org/economic/e...st-commodities/hides-skins/en/
Data Source: un
The main feed stock of the leather supply chain, hides and skins are a by product of the meat and dairy market chains. (...) The production of hides and skins is not a function of demand and price of hides and skins, because they are not produced primarily as raw materials of the leather industry, but they are a by-product of the meat and dairy supply chains. (...) Table 11 shows the trends in the production of light leather from sheep and goat skins, in million square feet.
Language:English
Score: 1351278.1 - https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/...iew_hides_and_skins_-_2008.pdf
Data Source: un