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The Health consequences of Smoking : The Changing Cigarette. A Report of the Surgeon General. (...) Risks associated with smoking cigarettes with low machine yields of tar and nicotine. (...) “Light” and “Mild” cigarettes: Who smokes them? Are they being misled?
Language:English
Score: 2348497.9 - https://www.who.int/fctc/treat...nstruments/ArtElevenSACSix.pdf
Data Source: un
Health interested groups should test cigarettes in a way that reflects compensatory smoking. (...) Previous reports1–5 using industry documents6–8 have discussed in broad terms the design of “elastic” cigarettes that promote “compensation” (the attainment of higher smoke exposures by human smokers of lower tar cigarettes than by standard smoking machines). (...) Increase total volume of smoke per taken per cigarette – (1) Take larger puffs – (2) Take more puffs – a. smoke to a shorter butt length – b. puff more frequently B.
Language:English
Score: 2336681.4 - https://www.who.int/fctc/treat...nts/ArtElevenKozlowskiFive.pdf
Data Source: un
The effect of cigarette construction parameters on smoke generation and yield. (...) Basel: Karger; 1990. p. 108-22. 23 Benowitz NL. Compensatory smoking of low-yield cigarettes. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No 13 Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine. (...) Compensatory smoking of low-yield cigarettes. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No 13 Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine.
Language:English
Score: 2321911.3 - https://www.who.int/fctc/cop/cop7/FCTC_COP_7_9_EN.pdf
Data Source: un
In Phase II, participants were asked to quickly but accurately give their impressions of a series of four smoking images (i.e., a close-up picture of a burning cigarette in an ashtray, a distant picture of a cigarette in an ashtray, an extreme close-up of a lit cigarette showing smoke and burning-red tobacco, and a picture of a lit cigarette in a smoker’s hand) and four smoking-related words (i.e., nicotine, tobacco, cigarette, and smoking). (...) Participants were considered possibly vulnerable if they had ever smoked a cigarette; if they had ever tried or experimented with cigarette smoking, even a few puffs; or if they answered yes to the question ‘‘Do you think that you will try a cigarette soon?’’ (...) The impact of cigarette warning labels and smoke-free bylaws on smoking cessation.
Language:English
Score: 2298276.8 - https://www.who.int/fctc/treat...s/ArtElevenPetersSeventeen.pdf
Data Source: un
In terms of both unaided an aided recall of specific warnings recalled from the front of cigarette packs the three most frequently recalled in 2000 were: • Smoking causes lung cancer; • Smoking when pregnant harms your baby; • Smoking kills. (...) Information on Ingredients Comments made throughout the group discussions on the information contained on the side and back of the cigarette pack suggested that it has more meaning for those deciding to cut down on smoking. (...) Smokers 00 96 % % You buy cigarettes 37 33 You take a cigarette from pack 45 38 You smoke a cigarette 50 42 After finishing a cigarette 44 39 Smokers Recent Ex-Smokers Smokers 00 96 00 96 % % % % Raised your concerns about smoking 54 56 60 54 Helped you smoke less 31 34 47 45 Helped you to switch to a lower tar brand 39 39 33 35 Helped you give up smoking 15 14 49 44 Had no effect on your behaviour 20 21 17 13 12 ❚ Evaluation of the Health Warnings and Explanatory Messages on Tobacco Products ❚ Executive Summary In terms of recent changes in smoking behaviour there has been: an increase in the proportion of smokers who have reduced the amount of tobacco smoked in a day: 29% in 2000 compared to 24% in 1996; and, one in five smokers have changed to a lower tar or nicotine brand (28% in 1996).
Language:English
Score: 2279171.9 - https://www.who.int/fctc/treat...ArtElevenCommonwealthEight.pdf
Data Source: un
Odds of planning to quit smoking (0: No plan, 1: Plan) are adjusted for age, sex, income, ethnicity, and cigarettes smoked per day. (...) Odds of planning to quit smoking (0 = No plan, 1 = Plan) are adjusted for age, sex, income, ethnicity, and cigarettes smoked per day. (...) Odds ratios are adjusted for age, sex, income, ethnicity, and cigarettes smoked per day. CI, confidence interval. 100 90 70 80 60 40 50 30 20 0 10 "Smoking causes..."
Language:English
Score: 2279085.5 - https://www.who.int/fctc/treat...uments/ArtElevenHammondOne.pdf
Data Source: un
On the biochemical side, one study examines how cigarettes smoke exposure affects SARS-COV-2 airway cell infection; another supports previous studies that show ACE2 as the entry point for SARS- CoV-2; and three studies, finding that cigarette smoke downregulates ACE2, add to the continuing debate about how tobacco smoke interacts with COVID-19. (...) Finally, three new studies support previous findings that cigarette smoke downregulates ACE2. Wang et al found decreased levels of ACE2 among smokers [7]; Tomchaney et al [8] also reported decreased levels when exposing mice to cigarette smoke; and Caruso et al saw downregulation after exposing bronchial epithelial cells to cigarette smoke [9]. (...) Tomchaney, M., et al., Paradoxical effects of cigarette smoke and COPD on SARS-CoV2 infection and disease.
Language:English
Score: 2278515 - https://www.who.int/fctc/cop/T...n's-COVID-19-Science-Brief.pdf
Data Source: un
Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? (...) Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults. (...) Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.
Language:English
Score: 2273260.2 - https://www.who.int/fctc/cop/cop7/FCTC_COP_7_11_EN.pdf
Data Source: un
Conclusions: Graphic cigarette warning labels serve as an effective population based smoking cessation intervention. (...) Adult smokers were defined as individuals 18 years of age or older who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and smoked at least one cigarette per day at the time of the survey. (...) What this paper adds Previous research indicates that cigarette warning labels are an effective means of communicating the health risks of smoking; however, there is a lack of research that examines the effect of cigarette warning labels on smoking behaviour.
Language:English
Score: 2272373 - https://www.who.int/fctc/treat...s/ArtElevenHammondFourteen.pdf
Data Source: un
A number of technical characteristics of cigarettes (paper, filter, packing, geometry) influence the content of different substances in the smoke and the size of smoke particles. (...) However, tobacco consumption (e.g. number of cigarettes smoked per day) is positively correlated with dependence. (...) Cigarette ventilation designs also modify free nicotine levels in the smoke.
Language:English
Score: 2268069.1 - https://www.who.int/fctc/treaty_instruments/SCENIHR.pdf
Data Source: un