Home

Results 1 - 10 of 290,734 for stable income. Search took 3.015 seconds.  
Sort by date/Sort by relevance
In the UNECE Region over 100 million people are spending more than 40% of their income on housing. This places them well over the affordability threshold. 48% of people aged 18-29 are still living with their parents. (...) With proper economic management and the right legislative framework there is no reason why you cannot live in a world where stable housing doesn’t mean 20 years of debt, where stable housing doesn’t mean moving every 6 months, where stable housing doesn’t mean forfeiting 40% of the family income. (...) This issue is a priority for the UNECE because better access to affordable and stable housing will free up more of people’s income, allowing them to improve other aspects of their standard of living.
Language:English
Score: 1204052.3 - https://unece.org/stories/choose-house
Data Source: un
. • In much the same way that the definition of bankability varies, the criteria that is used to determine bankability of a project also varies widely and is dependent on the rules, guidelines, goals, agenda and perspective of the financier. . 2 Why The Need To Develop Bankable Transport Projects Criteria Two Common Criteria: 1.The project country environment (these are “upstream” considerations and can include social, economic, political, and legal /regulatory environments as well as institutions); and 2.Project preparation and planning (this can include pre-feasibility / feasibility studies, financial structure, third party risk allocation and contract arrangement). 3 Why The Need To Develop Bankable Transport Projects Why the Need Lenders need: • Know location of the project, in terms of the economy; • Assess factors such as income because it can for example, determine user’s willingness/ability to pay a toll along a road, for example; • To assess currency stability is important when considering bankability issues; • Want tax regime applicable to projects to be sufficiently stable because the lenders need to forecast their exposure to tax liability and insert it into their financial models.; • Good political stability to avoid projects being derailed-changes in political leadership can also overturn previous commitments to infrastructure projects. On the other hand, strong political commitment can accelerate infrastructure development. 4 Why The Need To Develop Bankable Transport Projects 5 Criteria What financiers are looking for Economic environment ▪ GDP growth trend (performance of the economy). ▪ High existing or increasing income levels. ▪ A sound macro-economy creating increasing output and real income growth. ▪ Low and stable inflation rate. ▪ Stable local currency and a stable exchange rate. ▪ Financial markets / domestic capital markets capable of providing domestic (additional) financing. ▪ Public debt management. ▪ High level of infrastructure development / connectivity of the country.
Language:English
Score: 1202996.5 - https://www.un.org/ohrlls/site...ankable_transport_projects.pdf
Data Source: un
Conclusions 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 3 Mandate MOP-12007 … in the longer term, consideration should be given to establishing stable and predictable financing arrangements for the core elements of the programme of work, for example by using the UN Scale of Assessments or other appropriate scales WGWH 2009 … request the Joint Secretariat, in cooperation with the Bureau, to prepare a proposal with alternative options for financing the programme of work. This would be considered at its third meeting, with a view of submitting conclusions for possible adoption by the Meeting of the Parties to the Protocol at its second session 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 4 Broader UN framework UNGA Resolution 2997 (XXVII) Need for “stable, adequate and predictable financial resources” UNGA Resolution 62/208 Stresses that core resources, because of their untied nature, continue to be the bedrock of the operational activities […] and […] notes […] that the share of the core contributions […] has declined […] and recognizes the need […] to address, on a continuous basis, the imbalance between core and non-core resources 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 5 Financial and in-kind SWE 26% ITA 22%FRA 20% SWI 8% CRO 5% OSCE 10% EC 9% SWE ITA FRA SWI CRO OSCE EC NOR, 32% SWI, 31% ROM, 12% GER, 9% NET, 4%FIN, 4% FRA, 3% HUN, 1% NOR SWI ROM GER NET FIN FRA HUN 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 6 (Barely) Hanging in there… 2007: Core 2.5 2007: Overall 3.1 Income (cash and kind): 1,6 2010: Core: 4 2010: Overall: 4.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 m ill io n U S $ Series1 3.1 2.5 1.6 4.0 4.5 Overall Core Income New Core New Overall 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 7 Conclusion 1 Parent organizations needed to contribute substantially Trust Fund and direct contribution were not sufficient to meet the needs of the approved work plan Stable, adequate and predictable financial resources were not realized Yet demand is growing 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 8 UN Scale of Assessment UN MS are “taxed” in the form of a % allocation of UN Expenses based on GNI/capita Same basis for contribution to WHO Maximum: 22% of core budget Minimum: 0.001% of core budget 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 9 Tiered assessment scale World Bank Method based on GNI/c Three groups: Low income: $975 or less Lower middle income: $976 - $3,855 Upper middle income: $3,856 - $11,905 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 10 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 11 ODA vs proposed contribution $1,000 ODA UNSA % Tiered % BEL 74,000 75 0.10 69 0.09 DEU 516,000 298 0.06 69 0.01 FIN 36,000 38 0.11 69 0.19 FRA 299,000 298 0.10 69 0.02 LUX 11,000 6 0.05 69 0.62 NET 392,000 127 0.03 69 0.02 NOR 31,000 53 0.17 69 0.22 SWI 38,000 83 0.22 69 0.18 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 12 Comparison global MEA Global MEAs with specific financing provisions Basel Convention (art 14 sub 1 and 2) Convention on Biological Diversity (art 20, 21) 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 13 Comparison regional MEAs Regional MEAs with specific financing provisions: Baltic Sea OSPAR Barcelona Convention Danube River Convention Rhine River Convention 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 14 Non-monetary contributions Junior or associate experts Staff secondment to the Joint Secretariat Strengthening national institutions In-kind contributions Leadership of subsidiary bodies Operational cost coverage (meetings, publ) 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 15 Conclusion 2 UN Scale of Assessment or tiered contributions are used in many global and MEAs as mandatory contribution Resulting financial contributions under the Protocol would be modest, especially when compared to ODA Non-monetary contributions can be important to meet human and operational resource needs but require formalization 27 - 28 May 2010 WGWH 16 For the MOP-2 The need for “stable, adequate and predictable financial resources” needs to be on the Agenda Options need to be discussed – paper with UNSA applied to core budget to be tabled Countries to consider and report
Language:English
Score: 1193511.3 - https://unece.org/fileadmin/DA...l_options_for_the_Protocol.pdf
Data Source: un
.” – The Business Twenty (B20) Taskforce (2017 • In much the same way that the definition of bankability varies, the criteria that is used to determine bankability of a project also varies widely and is dependent on the rules, g u i d e l i n e s , g o a l s , a g e n d a a n d p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e f i n a n c i e r. . 2 Why The Need To Develop Bankable Transport Projects Criteria Two Common Criteria: 1.The project country environment (these are “upstream” considerations and can include social, economic, political, and legal /regulatory environments as well as institutions); and 2.Project preparation and planning (this can include pre-feasibility / feasibility studies, financial structure, third party risk allocation and contract arrangement). 3 Why The Need To Develop Bankable Transport Projects Why the Need Lenders need: • Know location of the project, in terms of the economy; • Assess factors such as income because i t can for example, determine user ’s willingness/ability to pay a toll along a road, for example; • To assess currency stability is important when considering bankability issues; • Want tax regime applicable to projects to be sufficiently stable because the lenders need to forecast their exposure to tax liability and insert it into their financial models.; • Good political stability to avoid projects being derailed-changes in political leadership can also overturn previous commitments to infrastructure projects. On the other hand, strong political commitment can accelerate infrastructure development. 4 Why The Need To Develop Bankable Transport Projects 5 Criteria What financiers are looking for Economic environment  GDP growth trend (performance of the economy).  High existing or increasing income levels.  A sound macro-economy creating increasing output and real income growth.  Low and stable inflation rate.  Stable local currency and a stable exchange rate.  Financial markets / domestic capital markets capable of providing domestic (additional) financing.  Public debt management.  High level of infrastructure development / connectivity of the country.
Language:English
Score: 1186664.6 - https://www.un.org/ohrlls/site...ankable_transport_projects.pdf
Data Source: un
The text downloadable from Science Direct © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting (c) Cable (b) mobile (d) satellite Consumer End Uses •video • games • medical •home shopping via • internet • call centres IXC2 IXC2 IXC POT(a) PSDN IXC (e) local bypass Business End Uses • data transfer • video conferencing • group work • CAD/CAM Local carrier © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting •A Hierarchy of Forecasts lOverall demand for an application lCompetition within technologies to service application lCompetition between suppliers l Once investment in place ä operating costs are minimal Forecasting Implications ä e.g. for entrants, price collusion, price leadership Usage Access Equipment © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting • n Stable Markets - aggregate ä Public Switched n Stable Markets - disaggregate ä Calling patterns nGrowth Markets ä Special Services ä New services l ADSL n Operations Types of Telecommunications Forecasting Problems Ø Corporate/ regulator data available Ø Surveys, customer behaviour Ø Intentions Surveys Ø Feature evaluations Ø Trial markets Ø Analogies – other products – other countries Ø Delphi/ Expert judgement Ø Statistical time series methods Different problems - different organisational responsibilitiesDifferent problems - different organisational responsibilities © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Stable Markets • Point-to-point PSTN – Local, long-distance, international • Drivers – Price, income, advertising, ‘value-for-money’ • Problem-specific drivers – Call-back on international • Price elasticity declining – Depends on price, culture Econometric models with Focus on price elasticity estimation US international message telephone service (IMTS): (Econometric comparisons, Madden et al, IJF) © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Conclusions - Stable MarketsConclusions - Stable Markets n Increasing econometric sophistication Ø model specification (externalities: market size) Ø diagnostics Ø multicollinearity - the interrelationship between the explanatory variables, e.g ownership of durables and income •But no stability or forecasting tests •Time varying coefficients? (...) © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Stable Markets – Disaggregate Stable Markets – Disaggregate Access & Usage • Based on Cross-sectional household data • Conditional models of usage, given choice of technology or carrier • Focus on price elasticity – By household demographics to support universal service analysis – Linked to marketing planning Evaluation: Despite their use for forecasting • Dynamics of change not taken into account • No forecasting evaluation Evaluation: Despite their use for forecasting • Dynamics of change not taken into account • No forecasting evaluation © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting New Products & ServicesNew Products & Services • Market Potential – mobile – ‘really new products’, e.g. 3G • Diffusion Path – E.g mobile • But now market dominated by ‘switchers’? ØIntentions Surveys ØFeature evaluations ØChoice models ØTrial markets ØAnalogies – other products – other countries © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting First generation Up to T Both generations, Competition Time line Adopters at T-1 Market Potential for first generation, M1 Adopters at T Adopters & Users at T Leavers Switchers Exit Adopters & Users at T+1 Adopters & Users at T+1 Switchers ExitExit Market Potential for second generation, M2 M1, not M2 Leavers Forecasting telecommunication service subscribers in substitutive and competitive environments, Jun et al, IJF, 2002 © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Competition between TechnologiesCompetition between Technologies 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 10 20 30 40 50 Period 1s t G en 'io n 1st Gen'ion 2nd Gen'ion TOTAL © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Segmentation Approaches to Forecasting) Small Large Commercial Large Service Business Income > 30K Income < 30K Professional Business Subscribers Attending College Not attending Below 21 years Income < 20K 21 - 50 Income > 30K Income <30K Not retired Retired > 50 Personal Subscribers All users • Forecast consumption in each segment • Project numbers in each segment }and multiply Market Potential -Decomposition Methods I (applies to new and established markets Market Potential -Decomposition Methods I (applies to new and established markets © Robert Fildes, IIF & Lancaster Centre for Forecasting Decomposition Methods IIDecomposition Methods II Step: 1.
Language:English
Score: 1179966.6 - https://www.itu.int/ITU-D/fina...asting/fildes-presentation.pdf
Data Source: un
Youth in Lebanon learning to make bread through UNICEF project for more stable income opportunities | UNICEF Lebanon Skip to main content Lebanon Toggle navigation English العربية Global Links Visit UNICEF Global High contrast Lebanon EXPLORE UNICEF ABOUT US Who We Are Edouard Beigbeder Campaigns Emergencies Lebanon Neighbourhood Profiles Imagine a School Exposure Contact Us The adventures of Jad and Tala Press Centre Donate Main navigation What we do Research and reports Stories Take action Search area has closed. (...) Search Close Search UNICEF Fulltext search Max Article Youth in Lebanon learning to make bread through UNICEF project for more stable income opportunities Across Lebanon, youth, including those with disability, are learning the art of breadmaking through UNICEF in order to secure new skills to open their own business or work for a bakery, at a time in Lebanon when bread couldn’t be more important UNICEF Lebanon UNICEF2022/Fouad-Choufany/Lebanon Available in: English العربية 16 September 2022 With a natural movement, Amne takes a ball of dough in her hands, stretches it out with her fingertips then alternates slapping it into each hand, making the surface expand. (...) “Now I can support myself and I have something stable, this is the first time I have a skill in something,” Amer says.
Language:English
Score: 1159980.7 - https://www.unicef.org/lebanon...re-stable-income-opportunities
Data Source: un
In view of these persons’ limited sources of income, their ability to secure and maintain housing under standard conditions may be restricted. (...) The goal is to enable households, under stipulated conditions, to use a flat that they could not normally afford with their income level (senior citizens or the handicapped), without this impacting the motivation to appropriately adapt their housing to their income levels. 2 Strategy National housing policy in the Czech Republic is represented by the “Housing Concept of the Czech Republic up to 2020” approved by the Czech Government. (...) It is the obligation of the public sector to help them on the principle of solidarity, thus creating a stable environment within communities and society as a whole.
Language:English
Score: 1131977.1 - https://unece.org/DAM/RCM_Webs...udy_SDG11_1_Czech_Republic.pdf
Data Source: un
A phase III, randomized, double-blind, active, controlled, multinational, multicentre, non- inferiority trial using Carbetocin room temperature stable (RTS) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage during the third stage of labour in women delivering vaginally. (...) Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries and it contributes to nearly a quarter of maternal deaths globally. (...) Carbetocin appears to be a promising agent in the prevention of PPH, is a more stable molecule and induces a prolonged uterine response, when administered postpartum.
Language:English
Score: 1121633.6 - https://www.who.int/reproducti...health/projects/Carbetocin.pdf
Data Source: un
All types require a relatively flat and stable or semi-stable sandy land, protected by shelterbelts. 1. (...) In this way the slope above the fence becomes stable and may serve as back wall for the greenhouse. (...) This type of greenhouse is very stable, and the space of its back wall is available.
Language:English
Score: 1121520.8 - https://www.fao.org/forestry/5...075d3bc064b91b729b51762e7a.pdf
Data Source: un
. • Unemployment rates in Africa have remained relatively stable since the onset of the crisis (0.1 percentage point increase between 2008 and 2012). (...) Even though there has been some important progress in the reduction of income inequalities, additional efforts are needed. (...) Meanwhile, the size of the middle income group in North Africa has doubled among lower-middle economies (for which data are available), and more than doubled among upper-middle economies (for which data are available) between 1999 and 2010. • Over the past few years, income inequalities have continued to narrow in African economies (similar to other developing economies), however they remain relatively high.
Language:English
Score: 1115004.4 - https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/gro...s/briefingnote/wcms_214527.pdf
Data Source: un