CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE QUESTIONS OF TORTURE AND DETENTION : REPORT / BY THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT, MANFRED NOWAK
From 7 to 9 June 2005, the Special Rapporteur visited the following facilities and
interviewed detainees and staff there: Prison No. 421 (Amgalan), ordinary regime; the Centre for
Forced Detention, Ulaanbaatar; Detention Centre No. 461 (Gants Hudag), pre-trial detention
centre; Prison No. 413 (Zuunkharaa), strict regime; Prison No. 429 (Tashireen Am, also known
as Tangaar Nam or Takhir Soyot Tuberculosis Hospital); Prison No. 405 (Tashireen Am
maximum security prison, also known as Tangaar Nam or Takhir Soyot), ordinary, strict and
special regimes; and Zuunmod Detention Centre, pre-trial detention centre.
9. (...) In general,
detention centres are classified as police lock-ups (up to 72 hours) or pre-trial detention facilities
(up to 30 months); prisons are long-term facilities (i.e. for sentences over six months), consisting
of ordinary, strict and special regimes; and confinement centres are typically for serving
sentences of one to six months in relation to administrative offences (e.g. drunkenness).
(...) Of the facilities visited, the Special Rapporteur found Prison No. 421 (Amgalan), ordinary
regime, and Prison No. 413 (Zuunkharaa), strict regime, to be generally in line with international
IMPROVING ACCOUNTABILITY AND ACCESS TO REMEDY FOR VICTIMS OF BUSINESS-RELATED HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE: EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR GUIDANCE
Where this is the case, the offence may be described as one of “strict liability”
(rather than absolute liability).
(...) However, “administrative” or “regulatory” offences may adopt a less stringent
8 See box 1: key concepts 1, for “strict liability” and “absolute liability”.
(iv) Attributing legal liability to a company: secondary liability
17. (...) Some domestic law
regimes make use of concepts of “strict liability” of “absolute liability” (see box 1,
VISIT TO EGYPT :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON ADEQUATE HOUSING AS A COMPONENT OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING, AND ON THE RIGHT TO NON-DISCRIMINATION IN THIS CONTEXT
See also Human Rights Watch, “Look for
another homeland: forced evictions in Egypt’s Rafah”, 22 September 2015. (...) Available at www.hrw.org/news/2018/05/22/egypt-army-intensifies-sinai-home-demolitions.
31 As reported by Human Rights Watch in “Egypt: army intensifies Sinai home demolitions”.
32 Response of the Government of Egypt to communication EGY 3/2015 of 12 February 2015 sent by
the Special Rapporteur.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND WASTES ON HIS MISSION TO GERMANY : NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
In particular, concerns were raised regarding the delayed adoption of
criteria for endocrine (hormone) disruptors.
See German Chemical Industry Association (VCI), “Chemie report: Information for VCI member
firms – special issue – Product Stewardship: Think global – and act global”, Frankfurt, Germany
See https://chemical. watch/24513/fostering-sustainable-chemistry.
The term includes, among others: herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, acaricides, nematicides,
molluscicides, rodenticides, growth regulators, repellents, rodenticides and biocides.
(...) In 2002, Germany changed its “Arzneimittelgesetz” (Law on Pharmaceuticals) to
shift the burden of proof away from claimants towards strict liability comparable to article
6 of the Environmental Act.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY, NAJAT MAALLA M'JID : ADDENDUM
It focuses on
prevention programmes, including collaborating with the École des Parents initiative
(schools for parents), community child watch and district child protection committees (see
para. 64 below) and runs Children’s Clubs for children between 3 and 18 years of age in 22
areas across the country.
54. (...) The Community Child Protection Programme includes
community childwatch committees, as well as area, district and national child protection
committees. Community child watch committees are set up in 20 high-risk areas to act as a
surveillance mechanism to identify children vulnerable to abuse and at risk, and to report
any suspected case to the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family
Welfare so that action may be taken.
RPT IE FOREIGN DEBT - MISSION TO GREECE
While the changes to the family benefit system ensure that support is provided in a
more targeted fashion to those in need, the Independent Expert is concerned that eligibility
criteria are very strict and require (since February 2011) 10 years of permanent and
continuous residence in Greece.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES, RASHIDA MANJOO :ADDENDUM
In addition, in many prison facilities including that visited by the Special
Rapporteur, juvenile women offenders were held with adults; children and babies were
14 Confidential source.
15 Human Rights Watch, Unjust and Unhealthy. HIV, TB, and Abuse in Zambian Prisons (April 2010),
(...) Thus for the
majority of victims, fear of abandonment, divorce and the consequent loss of property may
compel women to hide their HIV status and their antiretroviral treatment.36 Conversely,
32 National AIDS Strategic Framework, 2011-2015: Towards Improving the Quality of Life of the
Zambian People, 25 November 2010.
33 Note 20.
34 Human Rights Watch, Hidden in the Mealie Meal. Gender-Based Abuses and Women’s HIV
Treatment in Zambia, December 2007.
35 Note 36.
36 Note 38.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES ON HER MISSION TO SOUTH AFRICA :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
The Special Rapporteur reiterates the call she directed to all States Members of the
United Nations in November 2015, to establish a femicide or gender-related killings
“watch”. States should collect and release every year data on the number of such killings,
disaggregated by the age and sex of the perpetrators, and provide information on the
relationship between perpetrator/s and victim/s and the prosecution and punishment of the
former. (...) However, under both the principle of vicarious liability under the law of
delict (which establishes the strict liability of one person for the delict of another) and the
health and safety standards under labour law, successful litigation could trigger the
development of legislative provisions binding on multinational corporations to prevent
sexual violence underground.
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES ON HER MISSION TO THE OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORY/STATE OF PALESTINE :NOTE / BY THE SECRETARIAT
In Gaza, widows are now able to maintain
custody of their children for an open-ended period of time or until they remarry, which is an
important change in interpretation of the strict religious law.
Sexual violence, including rape and incest
VISIT TO CANADA :REPORT OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, ITS CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
The federal structure and division of competencies
concerning the protection of women’s rights among the federal, provincial and territorial
governments, combined with the absence of a strict obligations to apply the Convention’s
provisions at all levels, results in varying degrees of incorporation of the Convention into
laws on violence against women and girls, which presents specific challenges in assessing
initiative for the establishment of a “Femicide watch” worldwide (A/71/398). She also
welcomes the establishment, in 2017, by the Centre for the Study of Social and Legal
Responses to Violence at the University of Guelph, of the Canadian Femicide Observatory
for Justice and Accountability in Ontario, which tracks femicides and documents social and
State responses, somewhat in line with the recommendations of the Special Rapporteur.14