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On the one hand, the potential for urban agriculture to play a substantial role in urban poverty and food insecurity reduction should not be overemphasised, as its share in income and overall agricultural production is often quite limited. On the other hand, though, its role should also not be too easily dismissed, particularly in much of Africa and in all those countries in which agriculture provides a substantial share of income for the urban poor, and for those groups of households to which it constitutes an important source of livelihoods. We also find fairly consistent evidence of a positive statistical association between engagement in urban agriculture and dietary adequacy indicators.
Language:English
Score: 1164019.7 - https://www.fao.org/economic/r...ations/pubs-detail/en/c/43672/
Data Source: un
But in most cases the benefits of this growth were not fairly distributed. The gap between the incomes of the rich and the poor is becoming a gulf in the vast majority of countries around the world, exacerbating social tensions in all societies. (...) For example, a labour market recovery that generates sufficient decent work will definitely require substantially stronger economic growth than the world has recorded in recent years. (...) This means that the benefits of growth 2 must be distributed more fairly between countries and within countries to reverse widening income inequality and promote social cohesion.
Language:English
Score: 1118997.6 - https://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/i...tion/2015/pdf/concept.note.pdf
Data Source: un
Λ′ (L′,H) ω′ DL Slope = ω Labor Market Effects: A Non-Issue Why the lack of substantial effects might be explicable. Changes in endowments of other factors Skill upgrading of natives increases the endowment of skilled relative to unskilled workers; or New entrants of natives has higher share of skilled to unskilled; or Immigration of skilled foreign workers in addition to unskilled foreign workers. (...) Λ′ (L′,H) Labor Market Effects: A Non-Issue Why the lack of substantial effects might be explicable. Changes in endowments of other factors Multiple goods and adjustment on the output margin Technological change Exogenous (Hanson/Slaughter) Induced (Card, Lewis) Labor Market Effects: A Non-Issue Why we shouldn’t be surprised Most of the public discourse is not about wages, or even jobs. (...) Given the strains currently within WTO, and the lack of strong support from member nations, this is more likely to damage the WTO than help forge a coherent international migration regime. Even the fairly well-specified discussions of Mode IV seem to be beyond all but fairly modest gains.
Language:English
Score: 1084737.7 - https://www.un.org/en/developm...nts/pdf/other/turin/NELSON.pdf
Data Source: un
The agricultural negotiations must result in real and substantial increases in market access for all agricultural and agrifood products covered by the Agriculture Agreement, including those at the value-added end of the processing chain. (...) A comprehensive, practical and ambitious approach is required in order to provide tangible improvements in access and fulfil the objective of substantial progressive reductions in agricultural support and protection, resulting in correcting and preventing distortions in world agricultural markets. (...) This downpayment should comprise: a) a substantial tariff reduction consistent with the levels which would have been required if the Uruguay Round reform process had continued at the same pace. b) a substantial tariff quota volume expansion consistent with the levels which would have been required if the Uruguay Round reform process had continued at the same pace.
Language:English
Score: 1063126.6 - https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/agric_e/ngw54_e.doc
Data Source: un
International trade in cheeses had developed fairly satisfactorily and the Committee had found substantial outlets for its cheeses in the OPEC countries. (...) The representative of Finland said that the world market situation for cheeses and likewise international prices had remained fairly stable. Nevertheless, the increase rate in international prices for cheese was much slower than for other dairy products. (...) Domestic consump- tion of cheese had decreased considerably due to the substantial rise in consumer prices. Per capita consumption was expected to show a decline to around 3 kgs. in 1980, as against approximately 4 kgs. in 1979.
Language:English
Score: 1062139.6 - https://www.wto.org/gatt_docs/English/SULPDF/92220577.pdf
Data Source: un
The extension of the provisions governing freedom of movement of people, including unskilled labour, may thus result in substantial gains for developing and transition countries, as well as for richer receiving countries.  There is also growing recognition that migration policies and trade policies need to be jointly considered, since migration and trade appear to be complements rather than substitutes. (...) This session will explore these fairly controversial questions by inviting different views from academics, policy makers and civil society in an informal setting. (*) The opinions expressed and arguments employed are the sole responsibility of the organizers and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD, its Development Centre, or of the governments of their member countries PAGE
Language:English
Score: 1045902.8 - https://www.wto.org/english/fo...um_e/oecd_summary_pu_for06.doc
Data Source: un
At its 221st Session (November 1982), the Governing Body increased the flat-rate fee to 750 Swiss francs, on the understanding that the Tribunal itself would share the flat-rate fee per case, which was normally 2,250 Swiss francs, between the judge reporter – whose workload is substantially heavier – and the other two judges. 2 That amount has not been revised since. 4. (...) In this respect, the Office recalls that this cannot in any event be regarded as a full reward for the judges’ outstanding services to the Organization and that this proposal is merely intended to compensate the judges more fairly for the time they devote to the settlement of cases before the Tribunal. 5. (...) In equivalent bodies such as the administrative tribunals of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), judges’ fees, which are calculated on a different basis, are substantially higher. 6. The financial implications of this proposal for the organizations that have accepted the Tribunal’s jurisdiction, including the ILO, will depend entirely on the number of complaints against each organization.
Language:English
Score: 1035530.7 - www.ilo.org/public/engl...gb/docs/gb294/pdf/pfa-18-2.pdf
Data Source: un
Such an outcome must involve substantial cuts to existing levels of domestic support, substantial improvements in market access and elimination of export subsidies. (...) To protect the weak from the strong so we can all trade fairly. To move this Organization closer to these objectives, we must remain true to the mandate we have already set.
Language:English
Score: 1035530.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/th.../min03_e/statements_e/st14.pdf
Data Source: un
The Declaration must seek to end all forms of export subsidies, substantially reduce trade- distorting domestic support and make substantial improvements in market access. (...) To maintain a stable framework of rules - to protect the weak from the strong - so we can all trade, fairly and at will. Doha should mark the beginning of negotiations that will reinforce these goals, and thereby strengthen the WTO and the trading system we have built since the conclusion of the Second World War.
Language:English
Score: 1035530.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/th.../min01_e/statements_e/st19.pdf
Data Source: un
Such an outcome must involve substantial cuts to existing levels of domestic support, substantial improvements in market access and elimination of export subsidies. (...) To protect the weak from the strong so we can all trade fairly. To move this Organization closer to these objectives, we must remain true to the mandate we have already set.
Language:English
Score: 1035530.7 - https://www.wto.org/english/th.../min03_e/statements_e/st14.doc
Data Source: un